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Latah County Oral History Collection

Remembering Latah County and Idaho Life at the turn of the 20th century

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Date: July 24, 1974 Interviewer: Laura Schrager

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ADA HILL CROW: A man and he had two sons: Uesley and Elmer. Wesley, he was the oldest, and he was justice of the peace for a long time. And also he raised the first apples in that country, first appiles. And then this man named John Miller homesteaded there. He homesteaded in back of Viola, y'know, but he lived in Viola. And so did Elmer Palmer live in Viola but the homesteads ron back y'se% and ' yet, they still are. And tb* -bcio had a store in the post office. And I forgot the man's name that had the blacksmith's shop. And we went to church every 9hday in the schoolhouse. And my father, Frank Hill, taught the first term school there. And Mr. Nicholson, an old man he was ,carried the mail in a covered wagon from Viola to Palouse and back.

LAURA SCHRAGER: Do you remember that, him doin that?

AC: Oh, yes. Oh, yes, to Palouse and back.

LS: Was it a big wagon that he had?

AC: Just a little covered light wagon he had, uh huh. He carried the mail, for years and years. And then a man name of McKay^had a saloon there of course at that saloon, y'know. Later Mr. Manoon had a box factory after he got to raisin' apples, then he had a box factory there. And Mr. and Mrs. Com, they had the hotel there. And they later built a church-one room. Mr. Smiley was the school superintendent and Mr. Veatch was the minister. Now that's as far as I know of that. But this church, it got burnt cfim the boy didn't want to go to school. And burnt both schoolhoUes and then they fixed it up and an old hall to have some school. And he burnt the hall. Then they said, t'hey-d fix up the church and he burnt the church. So he didn't want to go to school and that's what happened. And just a boy, about twelve years old. But we always thought there was somebody else helping him. Now that's all I know of that, that's the beginning of that big town.(Chuckles)..

LS: Did the church?

AC: No, had the hotel.

LS: Right.

AC: No, the members built the church, the church members-the Christian Church, urn hum. Of course it was small; there small.

LS: Where did they have church before that? Did people go to church at all?

AC: They had it in the schoollouse, inthe shoolhouse, um hum.

LS: Would someone come out and preach?

AC: Yes, um hum. Yes, before we got the church they'd come out from Palouse and preach. But aW we( got the church we had aminister there. Just someone that would^t'ay there and preach. Oh, he worked out on the farm and like that too, but he preached.

LS: How did they raise the money for that church? Do you know how they got that biil to run a, church ,

AC: Oh farmers, they farmed, y'know. It don't take as much then as it now. Goodness, they didn't the as nice a, they do now. (Chuckles). The minister, he drn't get nothin much, justwhat the congregation would take up, and that's all he'd get. Maybe five, six dollars on Sunday, that's all. Now look what they give em. And a calico dress, you could get a calico dress for twenty-five cent—a good dress certainly. You could get five yards1- five cents a yard. Now you couldn't get the end of a bolt for that. Thirty-six inches wide, yep. I guess those people are all gone now that there/C that's about all I know about Viola.

LS: Was there agrist mill there when you were in Viola? On. in City, but not in Viola, no.The b - was

AC: Ho, never was. One in in the timber, no grist mill, „ did have one there, did they? Not that I know of.

LS: Well there's astory about-do you know how John Brothwell lost his legs?

AC: Yes.

LS: Oh, how did that happen?

AC: It seems to me like, you know they had these old horse plowers with the horses would go and there was atumbing rod that'd run from the machine up to this horsepower and some way he got caught in that tumbling rod. He went to step over it or something and he caught his leg in that, tht's all.

LS: What was he using the horsepower for?

AC: Oh, I don't know. What was they using the Beasley girl got hurt there too. Oh,, what was they doin? It was grinding grain something. I just can't remember that, grinding gftn or something though. She had to keeP the hors goin and step over that rod and she didn't get over once. It was bound to have acddents sometimes, y'know. There were so many people around, they have to have accidents.

LS: What was that box factory about?

AC: In Viola?

LS: Yeah.

AC: In the south end, yeah, it was on the south end. ' along time. I don't know what Viola looks like now, I haven't seen it for a long time. My father lived in Washington, but his fence yet is the line between Idaho and Washington, it still b. Because we used to play beck and forth: one would get in Idaho and one would get in. So ghat's about all. Now they lots of strawberries around Viola there in the mountains. They had lots of strawberries there and cattle. He had quite a few cattle.

LS: Would you go out there and pick strawberries a lot?

AC; Oh, yes. We went out and picked strawberries, um hum.

LS: You know I wanted you back to-you started to mention last time, right before I left some stuff about your parents, things that they'd told you. I think it was your parents coming by covered wagon.

AC: Oh yeah, they come from Oregon, Junction City, Oregon. It took em six weeks to come because they stopped and worked a while on the way. And when they got to the homestead all they had to eat was. . .Mother said they had a cup of tea and some bread and butter and an onion. That's all they had when they got to their homestead, you know.They had the money but they didn't buy groceries. And the., there's Mr.^ Scott lived there close. He had abig garden and aMr. Piatt, they the folks out then. And the folks got there in July.Well they helped the folks out with the garden stuff all that summer. So they got along good then. But Father loaned the only twenty-five dollars he had to Mr. Scott. probably cause he loaned it out. He was like that, he'd give you the last cent he had and do without himself. And he'd help somebody else. Well, anyway, Mother, she didn't like it but he'd get it back, that's all right.

LS: What'd they do those first years?

AC: Well, Father taught schooKhat. But alog house and the neighbor helped them* And then father taught school that fall in la there. And they got along pretty good that way. Oh they didn't have it like we do nowadays, goodness they raised a garden the next summer and they got along all right afer that. My father taught school for several years after he was married. I don't know, people were all the same. There wasn't one tryin to bug another and tryin to get their money away. There wasn't anybody that had much money. But they were good you know, and all honest and all had a good time.

LS: What do you remember the homestead being like when you were a kid?

AC: Oh, just bunch grass about two feet high all over. I remember Father used to take the three horses, put it on the plow, and my brother and I, we'd go along behind him. And we'd plow up what they called camas. Be a Uttie onion-like, something like an onion, only it wasn't as strong. And we'd eat that; the Indians eat it. told us about the Indians eatin camas so we ate it too. And then once in a while we'd catch a rabbit, little baby rabbit,y'know and take it home. (Chuckles).. Oh, we had such a up there, near as I remember it was a rough lookin country to start in to farming. All bunch grass all over and only three little horses. And about a twelve inch plow to go around and walk, round and round and round.

LS: Now were you born at Viola?

AC: Yeah, well I was born on the homestead, um hum. It was about two miles south west of Viola. I told you to look back when you get up there on the mountain you can see that house. You can't see the house through the trees. But you can see an old red barn and a lot of trees. But the old house is there but it's pretty well done now. They built it when I was twelve years old. That's a long time ago, you see.

LS: Did tey have help on that when they put that up, the new house?

AC: Yeah, they had a carpenter, oh yes.And then they finally got telephones put in Viola there. We lived in Viola after we was married and then they put telephones in there too. I don't think never had electricity though. Nobody did around there. Well, I guess they have now. they have. So, long time ago, nearly ahundred years ago I guess 4nce Viola was started. They w«e there four years Sfore my brother and I was born- were twins. And they were there four years before we were born so you see they was there right from tta beginning of Viola. I think there was a man there, an old man named Smiley was there about the fi|t, I guess. He was a kind of retired, kind of a mhister. Then we had a good big church later on. there. and her sister. You can remember it, can't you Velma, that church?

VELMA : Not much. I remember the church and what it looked like. church and US shop now. Oh I know what got into em, the Nazarenes, they had a church there, you know. And the was Eddie Gray's father. He bought a and they fixed it all up and they-I don't know whether it was that or the Christian people, they said they owned the land and they wouldn't have no into his shop, some kind of a shop, I don't but that makes it bad. though the Christiane church, what's the difference? They didn't need that. Would you think they should?

LS: Oh no. That's the way things go like that sometimes though.

AC: Yeah, they did. Well, that's about all I can tell you.

LS: Well, can you tell me more about when you were a kid, you know, things that you did for fun when you had some free time.

AC: Oh yeah, we played up anda (Chuckles). And neighbor girls would come up, you iknow, firlfvcigiAn.hWliAor^ k*iidass and we'd all go to the crick, you know how kids are in the water And find

AC: We' snakes.

V: We did too, you taught it to us.

AC: start they couldn't go and then they'd send the boys and they'd go up to the swimmin hole. My twin brother would always get his shirt on wrong side out and tit^^tnow th^hadn't been to church, (Chuckles),they'd stay and swim, around until they seen Mr. home from church. Then they'd get out would always get his shirt on wrong side out. didn't da tell on ' un, if I did. But we didn't go to school ve„ much. We went down down west of Viola. When we first went there, why the School was too far away for us to go so we went to Viola for Miranda Homei. was the name of the teacher that feught there when we went. Father had quit teaching then, he'd been Well I had t, work, nothing to work with much either, didn't have then like they do now. Milk cows, butter and eggs, and sell garden stuff. Us kids used to carry onions up-we-d go to school and we'd take onions up and sell 'em in Viola there in bunches, green onto, y'know. Things like that.

LS: What kinds of chores did you kids have to do?

AC: Oh, we milked cows, feed the pigs, the boys did. I had to help Mother in the house in those days. The boys had to do the chores when they got big enough^ to help take care of the kids and there was aUays the baby to look after. And then the dishes to wash. And there was an awful lot of work to do. And we had to help in the garden, work in th, garden. Father couldn't do it and farm toiso us kids had to work in the garden, We didn't play srond like they do now. We had to help. IThey made us get out and do things. Father had so .any rows for us to do and we'd have to do 'em or else take a lickini I don't think that he'd hurt us much but we were scared of him, just the same .(Chuckle.), And we had to because he just couldn't do all that work.yknow. Mother helped in the garden a lot too.

LS: That garden was probably pretty big for all you kids.

AC: That's right, um hum. Big garden. And we had to make butter old dasher churn, up and down, y'know, like that. she knows that. Mother-d set down evening and churn and churn and churn her old butter. She put it down on a cool evening and she said she was going to rest and churn. (Chuckles),.And oh, we had ponies to ride. Oh yes, we'd go horseback riding. And on Sunday we'd go riding. Boys used to take the horses and run races on Sunday. Cause if Father the horse.

LS: Did you have your hands full taking care of the kids, the smaller kids?

AC: Yes, I always had to take care of the baby. Mother had so much to do. I Was the oldest girl. Mother had so much to do that I had to help. No, I don't know, I didn't mind.

V : I'm the oldest girl, 1 did too. Oldest in the family always had to take car- a little more than the others.

AC: But we had to work, had to live. And ijwas twelve years old before I eve: had a pair of overboots, you know, over your shoes to school. No we didn'twe had, just . But our shoes was good and heavy too. to school. And^ schoolhouse, it was just one room. And a big old heater, long, and It had a hearth out on it. It took this three foot wood and put it in that. And then no, that wood don't throw that heat out like coal or anything but didn't cold and, . . have any coal.And we'd drive down there in a team and we'd be^Sh sometimes we'd push each other out in the snow ac get wet and cold so we'd go out there. And that old heater wouldn't heat the house if it was very cold. I don't know how we lived through it but we never got sick. It didn't hurt us. No, get stuck in a snowdrift and you always had to get out and wade in that snow up to our waist. But now, could they do that nowadays? (Chuckles). I guess we could if we had to. Well, Father told us, we thought we had to. He told us no, he says,"If you get stuck in a snowdrift just set still and leave ,be horses alone. There'll be aplow and get through and you the sleigh and leave 'em alone. Thy'll get through,"and they did.But we Uad to get out and help, that it was too heavy for 'em. Yessir, Father took his grain to Palouse to get it ground for flour. And then he raised beans on his™ fall to buy his sugar and coffee. Oh yes, he'd or three acres of beans in. And we'd have to hire help from Viola come down from Viola and help hoe thebeans out and help pull 'em and thrash out. and if you couldn't thrash 'em out then they'd put 'em in the barn and then they'd thrash V, in the wintertime when they had more time, y'know, the barn floor. They took abig canvas down and then they'd beat'em out with flails, y'know. You took a stick, if you know what a flail is, well they took and stick and then they took a shorter one ,y see. Andrten they'd put a leather here on this one and up over this one. Well you this it'd fly b«k,aSa(jSTyou hit it that way, why this srick on top would go down under the beans, and that's what they called a flail. It w,sSorter than this one. And you hit that, you hit it hard. L Did you do that?

AC: 1 didn't, the men folks did. Yeah, that's the way. They wouldn't do that nowadays, would they?

LS: Well, that's a pretty hard way to get your beans.

AC: Well, they had to work hard, oh yes. And they used to have headers in that country. They'd had the wheat up with h,ade,s and stack it and

LS: Was that pretty early that they had headers? on one side, low on the other cause the shoe from the header would have to come up into this bed. And you see the grain had it rolling around like this. Well, this grain would get on these and then they'd go and fall oyr in the header bed, see. then this was low, and then it was go up in here and there'd be somebody there to keep it back and they'd have to load it. Then Father got abinder abound the grain. And then they could get it taken care of quicker. In 1903 they had the wet olace.

LS: No, that was '93. It was 1893 that it rained. . .

AC: It rained and spoiled their c-ops. But Father got his safe bacause he had binder and he had it all^nd his thrashing all don, So he saved his crop that year, But most of the people just loat their grain, it rained so much on thm. That was 1893, yes.

LS: Were most other peopteusing headers then?

AC: Yes, um hum. Nearly ail c; em did. I don't know how Father happened to get bis binder but he did. He got it someway. He saved his grain'cause he could cut it on the green side and then they'd shock it up in shocks, you know, it'd mature, y'see. Then they ccdd go by and pick it up and put it through the machine, thr.,h it. With aheader you had to let it set quite a little while before you could thrash it after you got it cut. It had to be just as ripe as could be before they could cut it it would shatter out, and it did shatter, a lot cf it did.

LS: You were lmcky then.

AC: Oh, yes. We were lucky. Father sold a lot of his grain for seed wheat that next spring, yeah. ^ got groceries and stuff from the over around Seattle and around. They sent groceries and stuff. Aid I don't know, they traded that old wet wheat for something. I don't know, maybe pig feed or Sicken feed or something. But over on the coast they took it and let r.ne people have groceries, y'know.

LS: Did many people have to leave or sell their land because of that harvest?

AC: No, I can't remember anybody leaving. No, they made it throgh. That's the only time it was so wet. Yeah, we raised real there, it rained ouite often- Raised goodSard*didn't have to irrigate anything.

LS. Can you tell used to can in the oldest way that you can remember?

AC: Yeah, I remember the first peaches had a half agallon can.

LS: Tin can?

AC: Um hum,they're tin. They weren't high can, they weren't flat , but you know, half gallon. If I can make you understand, they'd come up and then this lid would come over little crease around here, air holes,and then this lie from the inside would come out over the top. An Mother would put red sealing wax all in this crease, clear around that can, all over that and make it airtight. That's what they had then.

LS: Would they boil it then after they'd do that?

AC: Oh, no, Mother always cooker! her peaches first.

LS: You'd cook them and u'd put em in the tin and then yai'd just seal it.

AC: Real hot, take em right out and seal em real hot, with sealing wax. ThenfloO bit, would go all over that and then you'd cool it, and it'd seal, yep. In tin cans, I don't know, n0w they don't use tin. Anther thing, I don't think she ever canned any garden stuff, we put it in the cellar. They'd put cabbage--my father used to make kind of a frame out in the garden, He'd put up a piece tike this and then here it'd be long, it be, according to how long you wanted it. And then he'd tie two heads together, see he'd dig a trench about a half a foot deep, six inches deep, put some straw in there and then he'd tie these cabbage roots together and the heads lay down in the straw.And then he'd put more straw over the heads until he got that whole thhg foill . And then he'd put dirt over that, cover em over so they wouldn't freeze. And then we'd have cabbage all winter, that way.

LS: Did he put a lot of dirt on top?

AC: Yi, he had to or it would freeze if you didn't. It got awful cold then. Well he covered it with the straw so the dirt woldn't get next to the cabbage, they used tobury their potatoes. They'd be down , maybe a cople feet down in. And then they'd put the potatoes in pits, you know. And then he'd put straw-- he'd pile'em up and they'd come up like this,y'see. And then he'd put straw all over them, maybe a foot and a half, two feet deep and then : dirt on tup of that, quite a lot of dirt. And they'd keep all winter. Oh that was a job gettin them out of there. Oh, I hated that worse than anything in the world, gettin them potatoes out. I hated to see Father say, I want you kids to put those potatoes all in bags. And we had to.

LS: What was so bad about doing the

Oh just didn't want to do it; it wasn't bad, we just didn't want to do it. I'll tell you, you know, you'dthe bottom up even, you know, and it wouldn't be so bad. I'd have mine all clean so I could pick 'em up from here, y'know. And they'd shove that old st raw here and I'd have to get back and pickvem up. You know what boys are like.I thought they was the meanest two boys there ever was in the world. (Chuckles). And they'd rastle and scuffle, play. And I was getting mine dd5?fc, and I had so many to pick up. And I'd get mine done and they'd say,"Well, if you help me, I'll pay ya. I'll give you ten cents." I knew they wouldn't. They never taad ten cents. And I knew they wouldn't, but yet I'd help em. That was the way I was. It wouldn't hurtneto help 'em pick up a few potatoes. Ttey wouldn't help me though. Oooh, they were ornery, regular little beasts. (£huckles).Yep. Awful cold in the wintertime there though. Father used to wrap up. And we didn't have anything much to wrap up in so he'd take gunny sacks, cut lem in pieces and then start in--he had kind of a heavy boots on. And he'd start in just around his feet and he'd wrap clear up to his hip because he was in that snow, cuttin wood,y'see and bringin' that long wood out of the timber for wood. And he'd come back just saakin wet when they were done. wet from that snow. And then I remember, he had a place up in the house, he'd hang them old sacks up to^dry in the night and then put em on the next morning. Go get another load of wood. But they didn't think too much about it. They had to do it and they didn't know any better, and it was all right. W wouldn't do it now, would we? Now that we know better. Nobody even burns wood now.

LS: Where would he cut the wood? Would he have to go far to cut it?

AC: No, not then. Not those days, they'd just go in back of Viola there about maybe a mile and There was lots of timber there then in those days. There wouldn't be now because so many people, farms and houses, people livin back there, you know, there's no timber. Not like it used to be then. I know they used to have to go over the summit to get to the wood they'dhave to take their team and go back over before Flannigan Crick and up in there to get their wood.Because people have settled up so far back in, back of Viola there, y'know, and they have homes in there. And they wouldn't let 'em have the wood. em might let 'em cut a load now and then. But at there was lots of wood there. They still. . .

LS: Did you father cut any wood for groceries or anything like that?

AC: No, no he just cut if for our own use. No, he didn't. He raised beans and garden stuff, you know, like that. It didn't take many groceries, y'see, had eggs and^gtfd garden. And then Mother canned the fruit but they didn't can beans or peas nor nothin1 like that in those days, They just use 'em. And we had all kinds of car rots^cabbage and potatoes. And they raised lots of dry beans, y'know, garn had lot of dry beans.

LS: Did they have a lot cf different kinds of dry beans too?

AC: yeah. They'd have the white,aavy and then they'd have the little red caM-i beans and the white navy beans. And they'd raise 'en and they were good. They had all kinds of beans. Oh Father had em buy the hundreds of sacks of 'em settin°there. You know, so many in the field there. He'd get four, five and six cents a pound for 'em. Well, that amounted to quite a bit, you know. But no, we didn't have canned vegetables. We had canned fruit-peaches and pears. We had lots of apples after he got to raisin1 apples But they didn't think that thy could raise apples till this farmer raised some. The reason we that so well, I had a calf that I claimed. Father said he wanted to buy it. So I told him, all right, he could have it for a dollar. That was big money. Then Mother took my dollar and boufct apples for the harvest hands so I didn't have no dollar.(Ctakle.) ._ That's the reason I remember one farmer raisin'apples. But she took my dollar and bought apples. People thought they couldn't raise'em, you know. we could do it. No, it'd be too cold. And we raised the nteat apples. Then everybody raised too many, apples every place. Oh, you could raise all kinds of fruit then. Better than you can now with no bugs or things like there is now.Oh, Father, he used to have nice pears and cherries, apricots, peaches, raspberries, gooseberries, currants-ttrc, different kinds of currants, the black and the red and the white. And raspberries and oh, I don't know, anything you wated like that. But they did can them. And made jam and

LS: The peaches didn't get frosted out?

AC: Oh no ,oh no. The peaches'd be all right. They'd be ail right now if it wasnit fror thue curl leaf and like that, you know, And so many bugs and stuff, just don't pay to try to raise peaches. It's just, hard. But apples, it's ajob to raise even You have to spray the tree soon as it's dormant, and then you have to spray'era before they bloo, and after they bloom. It just don't pay to bother with 'em.

LS: You never used to have to spray?

AC: No, we never had anything to bother,

LS: Did you ever have insects attack you gardens at all?

AC: No, not in the early days, no. I know if they do yet or not, down there, do they?

LS: Oh, they have some troubles, yep.

AC: Do they?

LS: Oh yeah.

AC: Well, we didn't have no trouble this summer with them things botherin'our garden. No potato bugs, none. When Father was raisin'a gardetithere all he had to do was just hoe keep the dirt lose around the plants, y'know, And he had good gardens-everything. We'd have turnips, rutabagas. Had that old cellar just full of stuff when the winter come. And they'd kill thaiown hos and four, five and six hogs got through the year. But they. . . themselves?

LS : Would they smoke that

AC: Yes, oh yes. Yes, they'd smoke it. I don't know how we used to use so much grease. I've seen Mother have four or five gallon cans of lard and you know, by that next fall th.-'d all be gone, quite a lot of lard. I don't know, they used so much grease. Now we don't use thrt. I don't know how we did use so much. Of course when you had men to cook for you had to lots of pies and doughnuts iti stuff like that.

LS: , had a lot of kids too. yes, nine of us. That helps the grease go. Yes, nine of us. We we£n't all there at home at once though, when tte youngest one, when Merle was a baby, you know Merle, don't ya?

LS: Um hum.

AC: When he was a baby, why Willie and I were gone, we were married and gone, y'see. We weren't all home at once. But Ace, he got I was married three or four years befoehe was. He just didn't care to get married.

L3: What is that story again about Viola being called "Dogwalk?"

AC: Well, yeah, they us Pdon't know, we didn't haVe any walks or anything, they laid planks down. And the dogs of course would always walk on the planks instead of the mud. So they called it "Dogwalk." (Chuckles^ 'cause the dogs walked on the planks ,ike the people aid, they called it "Dogwalk." And then it got changed to Viola. Now there wasn't much to it, I'll tell you,in them days.

LS: Was that ifore much?

AC: We didn't buy much there, no. No the people in the timber would cut wood and bring out there, trade wood for groceries to See they got their mail there and they'd bring out a load of wood and get their groceries and bring their groceries back with them. I don't krfw if they'd get very much for their wood or not, but thats the way they lived. They didn't live very good. And they couldn't rafee a very good garden in the timber, you know, too much turpentinejstuff in the soil in the timber, under the trees. They couldn't raise too much garde^I'don't know how th~ people p in the timber did live. My father used to sell hay, he'd never get no thin for it. They'd come out here, them poor old horses, just skin and bones, y'know. He said,"Oh they need it, they gotta live someway. They got to get along some way. They'd come down and Father'd load em up with a load of hay, He said, "I'll never see nothin for that hay. I know I won't. But maybe it'll help 'em out some."

LS: Your place didn't have that much timber on it then?

AC; Ho timber.

LS: None.

AC: I don't think there's any timber we* of Viola, no, not that uh huh.

LS: Well, there isn't now hardly.

AC: No, there wasn't any then. No, just about like it is .

V : Great big hills.

LS: Would you go into Moscow or Palouse very much? maybe

AC: Oh, yes,I think we'd average pretty near once, a week. We got out mail from Palouse and we'd get it twice a week. They'd put the mailboxes over on the- so we'd come iron school. And we'd get the paper twice a week. I don't remember, I don't think we got the mail but twice a week either then. Then it got so you could get your mail every day, put the mailboxes up. When we'd go to schol, you know, they'd put the mailboxes, ftnd have the mail carrier come out from Palouse and we'd get our mail everyiay ... then. And we'd get the paper, Spokesman-Review, I think it was ,twice a week. Then it got so later though, Father got the daily paper. And Saturdays they'd get on a pony and go over to the mailbox, it wa; a mile from home. I'd get the mail, I'd get the pape . My father had to have his paper at night.

LS: Would he read it out loud to the kids at all?

AC: If there was somethin1 he wanted us to hear he would. But you d read it to yourself.(Chuckles). laughing, then he'd get up to the. table with that old lamp in front of him and he'd put his paper out there and read. And you can see him yet, can't you Velma? With his paper up there, readin'his paper or His Bible. He'd have his Bible out in front of him lots of times there. I never heard my father swear, never. He used to say That was his bad word.(Chuckles)., That was the baddest word he could say. And then Mr. George Hill,he's our neighbor, all he could say was daggone' he'd say. That's all he said. Yes, we used to have some good old times down there. But when we got olde , we had church in the school. And we'd go up to church at eleven o'clock, Sunday school at ten, church at eleven, and then maybe Christran Endeavor at five for the young people. That'd be the young people's meeting. Then we'd have church again at Same way in Viola they did too. They had church at and vlola both"

LS: What was the Christian Endeavor?

AC: Well, it was just a young people's meeting. Youlnow, they'd get up, the young people instead of te minister, the young people took over. And they'd get up and talk about different topics.

LS: Would just young people be the e or would there be. . .?

AC: Well, one or two, but mostly young people, just the young people. And thy'd read the Scripture and then they'd talk about it, y'know. We'd have somebody there, nearly always, to explain it to us. They'd be an older person, y'know. And they'd explain this to us. That's what Endeavors were. We'd have that for an hour and then we'd have a church. Yes, we had one man, Emmett, he was a ministe , and boy was he a good one. That old church would just be packed. And go through the mud to get there . There was twenty five of us baptised in that ice, a thich ice off and put it out of the way so they could baptise us. And that minister stood in the water and baptised twenty-five of us. My mother had a quilt and when I was baptised she had a quilt she put around me,we had to drive quite a little ways in the hack to get to a neighbor's place where they could let us come in and change ou clothes before we could go home. It never hurt us. We neve cold. Oh, we got cold, yeah, but I mean we neve got no colds or aching. That water was icy cold But that poor old preacher he stood there and^faptised all of us. He wasn't avery big man either. Some of them boys he baptised was bigger than he was, taller. But he put'em under, which was cold. And then later on he baptised a lot more, and the water was better then. Charlie Hill was baptised"nine of my brothers. I guess both of my brothers was baptised then. Awhole lot of people; they'd come from all around. We had a good church there then.

LS: Was this still at the Viola schoolhouse or was this at the

AC: That was Four Mile School.

LS: mean the Four Mile;

AC: Um hum, Fou' Mile School, uh huh.

LS: Was he a really strongly religious man that he. . .?

AC: Oh yes, he was. He didn't have anything, just him and his wife. Well, the farmers kept him in vegetables. And they'd give him a little money on Sunday , you know, take up collection. And then a Lot of em'd give him meat, you know, everybody had their own meat. And they'd give this minister, with just him and^wife it wouldn't take much. And they'd him alittle collection on Sunday and he got along pretty good. I remember Mother he lived in Palouse City-I know Mother and Mrs. Poe, that's a neighbor, they took a hack, we had a light wagon, we called it a hack, and they took him a whole hack full of vegetables and so on. And they put »em in their cellar for the winter. So they got along pretty good.

LS: Did he do other things besides preach on Sunday? Would he go around and help people out during the week?

AC: Yes, if they need it. Yeah, he'd do odd jobs, oh yes. He wasn't a very well man. He was kind of sickly like. And he wasn't too young a man either. Oh, he must have been up in his fifties. He was a good man. Oh yes, he'd go and anything he could so in the spring of the year or anytime, he'd go and help if he could. But liv,ng in town that way, it was^about ten miles from Palouse to our place, just with a team, y'know. We didn't have any way to get out4here. And when he was preachinhe stayed around with the members, just stayed out there with the people in the wintertime, you know, when everybody could come. Oh, they was comin from Kamiak and all around up there. That old schoolhouse'd just be full of em, but he got by doin this.

LS: Did you go to parties and did you have. . .?

AC: Oh yes, oh yes, we had parties, us young folks. We'd all have parties. Have something to eat, y'know. We didn't dance much. But we'd have, oh I don't know we played games and different things like that. And then later on they got so they'd go to dances, but Father would never allow us to dance, no. I'll tell you, it got so rough and drinkin so much around there that Father said,'Ho, you can't go to dances. It's not fit."So we didn't. I never learned to dance. He wouldn't let the boys go either. And he wouldn't have the boys play cards either. They never did care I don't know, I guess they got so old and didn't know how or what. I don't know, but Father wouldn't stand for it so we had to do the best we could. We neve thought anything about it though. birthday parties.

LS: How did they celebrate birthday parties? Would they make a cake for someone?

AC: Oh yes, oh yes. They'd have cake and then we'd make our own homemade ice cream. We'd all have to turn that old freezer, y'know. I don't know if you've ever sen one of them.

LS: Yep.

AC: Home freezers, where you have to freeze it. Well, we'd all have to turn that till it got so hard you couldn't turn it anymore and then it was done. That was good ice cream though,We used to put the resl cream in it and eggs and fix it up real good and rich.

LS: Did you have ice boxes, ice houses?

AC: No. we'had ice in an underground cellar. And then we put straw over top and that way it was covered, oh it'd be covered that deep with dirt, y'see, we'd have a frame, logs like to hold that up. And that'd all be covered an: we'd keep that there nearly all summer. But 1 don't know why they didn't put ice up down there, but they didn't. They'd have to go to t„on and get their ice to make their ice cream. Well, up there in Canada, when we was up there^as up in July, wed have a pulley, they pulled the water out of the well with a pulley, you know, the on the end and then the wheel?

LS: Yeah-

AC: Go over this little wheel and pull it up this way. Well, on r well was real deep, but you could go there in July, let your bucket down and you'd take somethin' and knock the ice off the side of the well,your bucket and then you Aid make your ice tea. That was in June and July is when their water plpes freeze up. Y'see it'd be nice and warm on top but the frost went down,y'see. It'd go down end freeze their pipes and it'd be »« on top and you wouldn't hardly believe it. But you see it'd gone down. And they put their apes down ten feet deep. Oh, yes that ground freezesup there. You couldnt get a bit of that ground up in the wintertime. Not even with you'd have to pick it like a rock, just solid. But you what anybody disd, they'd have to put'em in the cemetery in a little house there till spring to bury 'em. They couldn't dig a gra^e. One time Velma had ^^O there and that little house was just full of people, just stacked up. They never got to bury'em until the next spring. Of course it had deep, wide walls to keep it cocl in there, y'know, for the bodieo . And they wouldn't dig it till the ground thawed out next spring. No, that's terrible. When a body dies and you have to stick'em in an old house froze up till spring..I couldn't hardly stand thv-:hou|it of that. But didn't any of us die.

LS: That's good.

AC: That was awful.

LS: Did they have literaries in the time that you were pretty young?

AC: Oh yes. We had a literary every Friday night. We'd have a program and then after we'd have something to eat and then they'd have a debate on something--men folks would debate.

LS: Was it men mainly that did that?

AC: Well, the kids. '. too, the older ones, the high school kids.They'd debate on different things. Now one they had-"Which is the most useful? The dish rag or the kitchen door?"(Chuckles). I don't remember which side won.

LS: What kind of use would the kitchen door be?

AC: Oh, you'd have to go out and in, y'know.

LS: Oh.

AC: I guess you could get along without a dishrag but you couldn't get along without the kitchen door. Anything for fun, you know. Just some little fool topic like that, argue it. But it got so that one old man there, he would get mad. Oh he'd get mad. And he kinda spoiled the literaries when he'd get up there and talk. He'd get mad because they couldn't see everything like he did. He wanted to get some topic^like, oh like in politics or something like that. Well, that's no good. Nobody see politics alike and that'd kinda spoil it.

LS: People tried to sty away issues that might get. . .

AC: Yes, they'd get so they didn't. . .

LS: Controversial issues.

AC: He'd get mad and pound the desk, he'd just come down on that old desk No, I don't think it was any good to. . .It was for fun, y'know, have a good time.

LS: Um hum.

AC: I remember Charlie, my brother, the one that's down there in the home now, sang "Casey Jones" in Viola one night and boy, they like to've tore the house down that night. You've heard Casey Jones?

LS: Oh yeah.

AC: The first time they ever heard that. And .he had to sing it twice. Yes, they u%d to have good times.

LS: Did they have a newspaper too that they read out of? I've heard some of those literary things they'd put together a little sheet of paper about what wa" goin on.

AC: No, they'd make up their own paper about things that happened around, but they didn't mention no names.

LS: Oh, oh. Ad I know my siste , she was so mad, there one man there and he had a load of logs. And it wa- the breaking up .spring and on the bridge as bare and you know them horses couldn't hardly pull that across that bridge. And school was out and Maureen saw him. And he was a-whippin them horses, just a-beatin them because they couldn't pull that. You know that wood and the sleigh runners would stick. So she put it in. . .And she did mention his name too, she was mad. She says,- "He wants a team that don't neither eat nor drink and can pull a load on the bare ground or on a bridge without any snow."And he was mad, he said he didn't think about Reen puttin it in there. And he said,"I can whip whoever put that in there, and I can whip em good!" That's what he said. She said,"Jim Keeney wants a team but they don't eat nor drink and they can pull a load on the bare ground or on a bare bridge." She was so mad because he was beatiri them horses. Yes, they'd make up a lot of funny things about somebody, putting in there just fo- fun. They didn't mention no names'though. But Reen did that time. §he was mad at him, she didn't care. My father said, "You shouldn't have mentioned his name. She says, "I don't care, It will too because I want everybody to know what kind of a man he is, beat in the horses to dee£h."And I was just like her, we had a man come up from Colfax up to speak at a picnic. We used to have lots of picnics too. And this fellah, Father went and got him and he stayed at ourjplace that night. And he, laughin* about it, he said, "We rented a little pony, my wife and I, and we run that pony till it fell over dead." And I said,"I don't think that was very smart." My Father says,"Hey hey." I says,"I don't either." You know, I never did like that man after that. He sgre,"We just run that pony till it fell over dead." Now wasn't that mean? And I told him I didn't think it was very smart. And Father, "Hey, hey," he says. (Chuckles). I didn't car'-, I didn't like him. And then in the morning Mother, she'd gotjchicken ready to 30 and walkin around there and I said, "Don't ever let over and take a piece of chicken If I'd a known that I'd a hit him over the fingers as he was cuttin'em up. I'd a hit him over the fingers with a butcher knife because he ju^t, I don't know. He was all right I guess I just took a dislike to him because he run that pony to death. Anybody that'd do that wasn't no gocd. He thought it was smart.

LS: What you say makes me remember some obout what you said last time about Wes Palmer and his horses.

AC: Oh yes, he used to have what they call a stone boatst they'd take some pieces and put 'em together and nail some heavy timbers, and then they'd nail and then they'd put the tongue in em, y'know, they'd call em stone boats, they're all stone on, y'know, you put stone. Well, he'd get two wild horses, never been hitche' up and he'd put the harness on them and then he'd get on that thing and turn em loose. No fences, no nothing. And he'd let em. . .

AC: Yeah, when he got back home they were broke.And then he'd put em in the harness and use em on the farm. When he got em back from that trip they was broken, ready to go to work. And if they died he said he didn't care, harness more. He was really a good man but he didn't care what they thought or what they said, it was all right with him.(chuckles). Yeah, he was a good man; he was just odd.

LS: Yeah, he sounds a little different than most men.

AC: I could tell you more but I don't think I better.

LS: Well, he was justice of the peace right? For a while there?

AC: Oh yes, he was justice of the peace for a long time. He married my uncle and my aunt; they run off from home. My uncle was eighteen and the girl he married wasn't quite sixteen and they run off and got married. He married em.

LS: He wasn't supposed to, was he?

AC: Yes, oh yes.

LS: Agirl didn't need permission from her parents?

AC: No, she didn't need no permission. (Chuckles).. They were supposed to go to the dance and instead of going to the dance, well, they did go to the dance, but they went and got married first. That was Charlie's mother's sister. But they got along all right. They had kids and they all grew up together. The parents and the kids all grew up together.(Chuckles).Yeah, at the time I remember, Uncle Johnny got into trouble some way, and he come up to Father's Sunday morning. And Mother had a woman workin for her, and this fellah was comin to see this girl, and he had a team from the live y stable. And they was just a steppin and John seen him a-comin, he thought that was the sheriff. He jumped on a horse and he rode for the line over toward the other side of the fence. And Father said,"Now, if it's all right I'll wave my hat." And Father waved his hat and the more Father waved the hat the harde he'd run from-(Chuckles) Harder he'd go. Father said he couldn't make Uncle John understand at all, he'd just leave that on there ready to go, that old fellah. He was in Idaho, you see, couldn't get ahold of him in Idaho.This was the sheriff from Washington.

LS: What was he afraid of them getting him for?

AC: Well, he did something he shouldn't have. I don't know what it was now. Some little thing. I don't think it amounted to nothin, ne was scared. I don't know if he took some thing or somethin happened, I don't know.

LS: Was Wes Palmer supposed to enforce the law in Viola or did try cases, did they have acourt?

AC: I think foe did, justice of the peace, I think he did, um hum. Oh, he was law abiding, a good citizen. But he was just a rough character in the. . . He was a good man though, everybody liked. But they'd all go to Wes Palmer, he'd help you out. Go and see old Wes. (Chuckles).

LS: Did he have a whole lot of ho-ses and cattle there?

AC: No, he had some, not too many, no. farms and he had his orchard and he had lots of pigs, had some cattle.

LS: Did he have many children?

AC: Yes, I think he had five. One was Sidney Palmer. I think he wao about eighteen and wo king n the logs and a log rolled over him and killed him. only boy, Sifley Palmer. I'd forgot' about that one, but it was in my mind then. It killed the only boy he had. He was about eighteen, nineteen or so.

LS: Did he take that hard?

AC: Yes,he did, yes. He had that Mrs. when Jim was born.

V : He was her father wasn't he?

AC: Yes. And then he had Sarah and Maybe it was only four children he had. Four or five, um hum. And , his brother, he had three. His brother didn't do much, he win kinda quiet. Lived back on the farm and he didn't have to do. But Wes he was out and a the time.

LS: Did you ever know Asher Palmer? Wes Palmer's father?

AC: Yes, I've seen him, um hum. Mother used to say,"I don't know, that old lady Palmer, that poor old man, ue's up in his nineties. And she'd say,"Asher, you must go out now and hoe in that garden. Them weeds is just about to take the garden, you'll hafe to go out and hoe." Mother thought that was terrible. That's the reason I remember his name was Asher. (Chuckles). Mother "He'd have to go out and hoe in the garden" andihow mean that was. Make that old man get out there.

LS: Did his wife tell him to do that?

AC: Yes, she wouldn't do it. She wouldn't go but she'd makehim go. Make an old man like him go out and hoe in the garden. Gosh, he might fall dwn. . .

V : garden wouldn't they?

AC: He'd do like he did last summer. Go out there and fall down in the corn. (Chuckles).He got out here the other day and he fell down. He couldn't get up a: Jtep in the back. And he hollered and he hollered, Velma and I didn't hear him, neither one of us. The door was open too. He finally made it in the hou^e. He said,"Didn't you folks hear me callin?" And I said,"No, I couldn't hear you at all." He says,"Well, I liked to've never gotten in the house." I said,"Well, that's too bad, you should have stayed out there." V : I don't think he said a word because we didn't have the television on, we were just sitting here like we are now and the door was open. I don't think he did.

AC: And there isn't hny thing wrong with him. And old lady here, up here in the home she's a hundred and five and she got her first permanent.(Chuckles). And she can hear, she don't wear glasses, she can see good. Only when she reads she wears glasses. She don't get around very good. She can and her mind is as clear as a bell. No, she's a hundred and five.

LS: Sounds good. Where did you meet your husband?

AC: Oh, we grew up together. We went to school together. Oh I don't know, he was arouir ever since I can remember. Yeah, we went to school together.

LS: Did you court for a long time or is he the main boy that you went out with anywhere?

AC: No Sot mad at h^m cause he wouldn't do it and I went with somebody else.(Chuck1es).

LS: What did you get mad with him about? Was it just some little thing?

AC: No, he went and took another girl to a party and I wanted to go and he left me at home. Took out another girl and that made me mad. I told him to kefp on going with her. That's all he did too, all winter. And I wouldn't go with him.(Chuckles). Would you, when they leave you at home when they know you wanted to go and go get somebody else? Wouldn't that make you mad?

LS: Yeah.

AC: (Chuckles). Ch well, I guess everybody has their trouble some way or another, don't they?

LS: How old were you when you got married?

AC: I was twenty.Twenty-two when was born.

LS: When you married, where did you love to?

AC: Oh, well, this is back of west farmers too, there was a man had some grain there and his boy died. And he couldn't handle all this grain after his boy died. This was back of west farmers. So we had to go back, we bought this out. And we weren't going r.o pt married until ,. And then when we got this wheat, my brother and we bought the wheat together, then we got married and moved up there in that house, and stayed the e that summer. Then we rented a pice over toward Moscow and we stayed over tnere for a year. And then what did we do? Oh, we'd come back to Viola and started work haulin' that timber for the railroad that went through from Spokane, that electric. . .

LS: Oh inland, yeah.. And him and my brother hauled out the timbers for that trestle. It was there, it isn't the-e any more. That trestle was there. And oh Charlie worked on the railroad quite a lot. He had a big Camp there, at Viola there in back of Grey's. I think that they lived there. It seemed like.they lived there, the head men lived in Miller's house. That's where John Miller lived, knd one of the boys'wives died while he was there, with And he was workin on the railroad, puttin*that railroad through there then.

LS: They started workin on that railioad then a long time before they got it finished.

AC: Oh yes, um hum. That used to be nice. I wonder why they ever quit usin1 it. I don't know why they took the trestle out. Maybe it got so it wasn't safe or something I don't know. It was handy. In the wintertime, you know, we'd just walk up there to this little depot they had there and go to Moscow and back, and come back home. There was no place to put a horse or anything. We could walk from my father's house up there though a little bit. But it was handy and nice to have the railroad through there. And then they'd ship wheat and stuff, you know. They used to have the big elevators there. That was handy; I don't know why they quit using it. Maybe it wore out.

LS: When you got married did people give you things toes£t you up?

AC: No, they never give us nothin. We neveY had anything, only what we. ., We didn't hae anything hardly.

V : No showers or anything like that.

AC: But I'll tell you, we had twenty-five dollars. And I'll tell you what we did, we bought a cookstove, wood stove, y'know, to burn wood in, a good little stove, a good sized stove. It didn't have any warmer on it, but it was just a stove. It had a little tank on the back to put water in and then it had a hearth. And then we bought kind of a davenport and four chairs for twenty-five dollars. Of course the davenport had been used.

LS: The stove was new?

AC: Yeah, it was new and the chairs were new. One rocking chair, and for twenty-five dollars. I sold the stove for ten dollars when I sold it. It wa-s a good stove yet. I don't know why I sold it, but I did. Oh, I know, Mother had a Home Comfort and she decided it wasn't big enough so she told me I could have it, the Home Comfort. So I took her stove and I had mine to sell. And she a bigger one. Yes, that seems like a long time ago though.

LS: It was (Chokies).

AC: Pretty near a century. (Qh, uckles).

LS: Did the Comber's hotel burn down?

AC: Yes, the hotel burned.

LS: How did that happen, do you know?

AC: I can't remember how. Someone lightin a cigarette in a bed or something.

LS: Oh yeah. We used to stay the e. Did many people stay there over night?

AC: Yes, there were people stayed there. They were nice people and they had a little store in there, notions, you know, in the^hotel. A lot of candy hearts and oh, little notions like that: candy and and like young people want. But Bowles had the groceries and everything across the street. Well, that hotel burned. It was a nice little hotel too, wasn't very big, but it was big enough for there.

LS: Oh, it was three stories or something.

AC: Yeah, it was three stories, two or three stories, yeah.

LS: Were there tent meetings in Viola then?

AC: Oh yes, I'll there was. The Methodists used to hold csrnp meetings there, the big tents. And boy would they shout. And then some of them old ladies,y'know, would get religion and would they shout. They were nice old people. And they'd hold that thing maybe two, three weeks at a time. And they'd camp there and have good meetings. Have meetings at night and then have meetings in the afternoon for those people that were camped there, y'know. But the farmers, I we used to go at night quite a lot. Not every night, we couldn't but we would go. And they had lots of nice meetings, nice singin.

LS: Is that different from the Faith people? Do you remember when they came in?

AC: No, I don't know about them. No, these we e Methodists. They were true old Christian anyway. Yes,they used to have good meetings there. And I used to meetings, like to go and hear em. I thought it was funny to sit under a tent in camp

LS: How come they didn't meet in church?

AC: There wasn't one. It wasn't big enough. It wasn't no church, it was a schoolhouse. The schoolhouse wasn't very big.

LS: This was really early then.

AC: I went up to the schoolhouse one time- they used to have church dinners in theschoolhouse. I remember us kids were outside and the women after dinner they'd put the things away and they was sitting there talkin in the schoolhouse. And I'd come in and I'd seen a worn*n sittin' there and I looked at her. And I said,"Mather, who's that old squaw sittin'over there?" "Shh," my mother said, "Come here,. You set down there and be still." And I said, "Who's that old squaw, I want to know." She said,"Set down and be still. That's M?". sister, sit down and behave yourself! Shut up." (Chuckles). No, I had to find out who she was. She looked like an Indian and I hated an Indian. See, they used to have Indians, when the folks come up there they had an Indian scare. They even had a fort built. They were afraid of the Indians and they had this fort where they could go get in there if the Indians ever did come but they was afraid they might. And they could all go to this fort.I was taught to be afraid of Indians. I wanted to know what she was doing there. I wasn't going to stay there if she

LS: Did you see Indians very much?

AC: Yeah, they was peaceful though up theffc,,They didn't bother anybody. They used to go. . . I think up here over in there by Gangeville and around, wan't there and Indian reservation or used to be somethin?

LS: Um hum.

AC: Well, they'd go from over to tnat reservation and back, You con Id see em goin along the road, y'know how they string outs^and dogs have a wagon and all the women was sittin' flat down in it. I used to be afraid to walk to Viola. Afraid I'd see an Ind1an (Chucftes). If I'd a seen one I think I'd a hid in the corner of the fence. They had a fence that and this way, went this way And I said,"Mother,if I see an Indian comin I'm goin to hide." "Yes," she said,"if you do they'll get ya." So then I stayed behind because I figured they get (Chuckles She said,"You just go right on by and don't you look at em. You just walk right by and they won't bother you." And they didn't. Well, I don't suppose I even seen any, if I had of, I guess I'd of died right then. (Chuckles) found some mail one time, somebody1d lost it off of their wagon. And we went and hid it in the corner of the fence nobody could find it. So we come home and we said,"We found it some mail, we hid it. Mother said,"What did you do with it?" "We hid it." She says,"You get that and you take it back to the post office right away, the morning when you go to school. That's somebody's mail and they want it. Were they letters?" "Oh. they was letters. We hid em."(Chuckles). We was lookin after that mail. We hid em in the corner, fence. She said,"You take them back to the post office." So we had to get em and get em back to the post office. Isn't it funny box-; a kid would want to do that?

LS: Yeah, be real helpful. (Chuckles).

V: They protected em

AC: We couldn't read, we didn't know whose they wasi We couldn't read, but we'd hide em in the fence.

LS: What made you and your husband decide to go to Caifda?

AC: Well, there wasn't no ..laces down here. Everything'd been taken down here. And my brother rent up to Canada and he found this land and you could take it to homestead. And thought it'd be nice for us to go up there. And then you could buy Hudson Bay land for I think it was a dollar and eighty cents an acre. You had to pay for that. So we took the homestead--a hundred and sixty acres. And then we bought a hundred and sixty acres of Hudson Bay land, belonged to the Hudson Bay, I guess. Well, I think that was a royalty from for the royalties for that a dollar and eighty cents an acre, that belonged to England, some way or other. I don't krfw but they said it belonged to the royalties, the roycl family in England.

LS: Down here all you could do was rent land, is that it?

AC: You could buy it, only it was too high, oh it was high. It was cheap then but look at itnow. Six and eight hundred dollars an acre. Who wants it at that price, isn't worth it. Then you have to pay such a big price gettin the mate-rial to work it. V If you could buy a farm now you could retire.

AC: No, my nephew bought a tractor; it was thirty thousand dollars. Well, I think I'd rather have the thirty thousand dollars, wouldn't you? But he had to, he had ths land, y'see. He's rentin about, I guess, fifteen or sixteen hundred acres of land and he had to have it. It's quite a tractor, it's got an air conditioner, it's got a radio (chuckres).

LS: Well, going back to. . .When did you go up to Cata? Were you behind the move, did you want to do it too?

AC: Nom I didn't, I didi't want to go. And Charlie and my brother went on ahead of us with. . .They chartered a car, y'see, a railroad car and took our stuff up. And we rtayed here mntil they vent up and built the house first. They built our house first. Then my sister-in-law and I went up and took the children. Then they built house later. Well, we all stayed at our place and they built the house late, their house, a mile and a half from us. But they didn't stay long, they come back. We went up in '12 and come back in '37, come back to Pullman in '37. And we stayed there ten years and then moved up here and been here since.

V: Her and my aunt went up on that train after the men got the house built— two kids with the whooping cough on the train. They had their nerve.

LS: Two of their kids had whooping cough?

AC: Mine.

LS: Yours?

V: Yeah.

AC: All of mine had it rnd we hadn't left yet. They'd been exposed, they didn't have it yet, but they took it on the way. And we got to probably stay over night. And the kids are coughin and coughin. He said, "Have your kids got the whooping cough?" Well, they took cold on the train or something, they were sure coughin." We couldn't go downstairs to eat or nothing. We had to have everything sent up to us. They were just talcing it then. We didn't allow em to go out amongst anybody, made 'em stay in their rooms. And we should have went on. That night that we thought we'd just stay over night in wouldn't be such a hard trip. And we had to stay till the next night at about ten o^clock the next night. And we could have went on,, but we didn't. But after the kids got to coughin so we wished we had a went on. But we told'em, "They must have caught cold on the train." I guess we did. come out of it. Did you have it too?

V: I think so.

LS: Was it hard up there, especially at first in Canada?

AC: Well, you couldn't buy anything hardly. You couldn't buy any fresh fruit or any fresh vegetables.. You couldn't Buy any clothing hardly.

V: People send from mail order catalogues,y'know dollar, their yardage and their clothes and things they'd send. There was no use going to town much because there was only one little store there.

AC: There was Eaton's.

V: Mother'd just send to the mail order house.

AC: And Simpson's. We And we made money thee and we spent it there too. I was there five years without a Every year you'd think now you was going to get it. Well the last year come up nice, oh it must have gotten a foot high, it looked real nice. Well, Don and Velma lived down in Alberta, it was about the foot of the mountain of the Rockies. And we went down there. They was going to have a jubilee of pome kind down there. And we went down to that. Huh?

V: That's south

AC: Yeah, by

V: By Waterton.

AC: And we went and we stayed three of four days. We went back and the hot winds had hit that wheat and it was just layin'over, well, just like. . .Well, just and here come the Russian histles right over.top of it. You couldn't tell there'd ever been any wheat sowed there.

LS: What came over the top of it?

AC: Russian thistles . The Russian thistles there. We'd never seen em before, they wasn't that bad.

V: They don't have em here, do they?

AC: But I told him, "I'm done, Charlie, I'm not goin to stay here another time'. year, I'm going. come. Melvin was a young man and I know he and Gladys was goin'to get mar ied up there. And there just wasn't anything there for him. And we didn't have any feed for the stock, nothin. And we just had to shut off the stock, and we was gonna take down to British Columbia, down to where Velma was and we went and got a pasture and everything to take 'em down and . they passed a law that Saskatchewan couldn't bring their stock over into Alberta. So we couldn't over there. find we got rid of all of 'em then.Give 'em away and sold 'em the best we could.We thought well we're footloose now, we'll just come on down here.I'm glad we did. Cause up there you're not sure of a crop yet.

LS: You went five years in a row without a crop?

AC: Yes.Five years without a crop. I'll tell you. And there wasn't that much for stock to eat either. " - bunch grass, it wasn t bunch grass,it was kind of.short grass and it'd get hot and dry,it would dry up.And it was nothing hardly.They had sluices there.Little water it'd be green around that.Down in around there. We just got out of there. So we just left everything. Left two beds upstairs, curtains up in the windows,and linoleum on the floors. Of course, I give it all away.And then just walked out.Kind of hard to do, load the back of a truck and take out just out of the house what you , your truck, a pickup it was.And take just what it will hold Leave the rest there. I told the neighbors they could go in and get They did I guess.

LS: You sold the place when you left it?

AC: Un huh. We mortgaged it for all we could get and let 'em keep it.They could have it.Then after we done that, they was satisfied. Then we come down here, we was gonna garnishee Charlie's wages down here because they didn't get crops on that land.Well we got ahold of a lawyer and he wrote 'em a letter. He said,"They'11 not...

AC: From the Dakota line in Saskatchewan. And it's awful dry there. Now you take and up in there. They don't even have water. They just don't have water. We went back up, went up to our daughter's and we had to go through the southern part of Alberta. Well, we was going to get a motel and there was no motels and nothing and its getting dark.

LS: How many ended up being in that cabin?

AC: I guess there was about 18 of us.And three burner stove to cook on. And cold outside. Oh brother,it was cold! I don't know how we ever got our clothes dry. But we lived through some way. I don't know. And we had some pigs that weighed about 175 pounds.Had to take one of them about every two weeks.Take a pig every two weeks.For meat for that bunch.And everything else. I don't know why they come to our place. We didn't know 'em. They come right there and sit down on us. And no money, no place to go.. .do but keep 'em,

LS: Kow did you sleep that many people?

AC: I let Oliver and his wife and baby have the bedroom. One bedroom. And then Skinner and his wife and kids slept on a davenport x^e had in the living room. Then the boys, the two Skinner boys^and my brother and his boy, our bed set in the middle of the room, just like this, there's no partition upstairs, just floor. And our bed set in the middle and then we put curtains around it and the girls slept on the other side of the bed.(chuckles) I don't know how we ever got...

LS: In the dead of winter there wasn't much place to go except stay in the house and get mad at each other.

AC: Oh yeah we did go. We went up there when it was 30 below zero even. We wouldn't stay home. We'd get up, we'd be there home, and somebody come by,"Come on, let's go to the neighbors." and the men would play cards and we'd say maybe one-two o'clock in the morning we'd get home. Everything froze up at home. The fire went out.Had water,the dipper in the bucket.If you filled your water bucket, you couldn't get it up til...I'd say a' everytime I'd go out,I'm not going out again I'm going to stay home, I'm going to keep this house warm.Take a long time to get warm once it got cold. You'd like to never get it warmed up. And beds, they'd be so cold they'd -A just like water, damp.But next time somebody come up,"Here we go." (laughs) And us women never,all through the summer we had Ladies' Aid. Once a month we'd all get together. Oh yeah, they're nice people up there.They're really nice. Oh yeah, we had a good time.As far as that's concerned.We none of us had anything.(joining in with another conversation going on in the room)And then sometimes it was so hazy you couldn't hardly tell where you was going. People freeze to death up there, you know. But it'd even freeze the horses ears off.Ker husband had a pony, I don't know how, but it froze it's ears off up there.No.lt was a little colt that froze the ears off.

LS: Did they just fall off?

AC: Yes, come clear off. (Unidentified voice) Wasn't ours.We never had no little colt.

AC: Well didn't Toots have a colt? That froze it's ears?Yes he did.You remember that?She did, she had it outside and it froze its ears off. Oh there was an old man,oh it was cold and thirty below zero and his wife was looking for a baby. They lived down south and they had about twelve miles to go or fourteen with a team. In the wintertime we went across this big lake, it froze over and it was near. She got right in the middle of this big lake and she had her baby in the sleigh. It was cold.That old sleigh and old dirty comforts and everything. And he run his team the rest of the way into town. And they got 'em in there and they came out and got her. I don't know how they got her and the baby.But they did some way, in the hospital.

LS: She got left out on the lake?

AC: No she was in the sleigh.They was going into the hospital, see, and she had her baby before she got in there right in the sleigh.(laughs) Babies, they think they got to be so clean. Well they was dirty people anyway and an old dirty bedthings in that old sleigh. Said she was doing fine.Everything's alright."Well why didn't they go in before? Why did they wait so long?"Ernie says,"Next time she's going into town. She's not going to fool me like that anymore."(Laughs)But they said the baby done fine.They was funny people. I know some of our women, like I told you, we out and quilt. One of 'em would come down there and quilt. She'd made two tops, pieced 'em and she took his old coats, now mind you, the collars and the cuffs, and put in that quilt, for them to quilt it over. They said they didn't care. I bet some of the stitches was that long. They just go over. Well they said they quilted and quilted and Come|time. to eat. She made some tea. She couldn't cook.She just didn't really know. And it was green tea and this Earl Finch, he was a regular devil. He'd get these women around the table andAwatch and they couldn't hardly drink this tea, they couldn't hardly stand it.It wasn't even hot. He'd say,"Well I think she wants some more tea."Well Mrs. Green, one of the women, she said,"If you don't shut up!" And he'd laugh. He'd say,"I think Mrs. Green's out of tea." "Shutup!" And then she said they went back to quilting and someway or other they got her to sing. She couldn't carry a tune to save her life.And Ernie got her to sing some songs for 'em and she said, they got so tickled, said, they'd never gotten A in their lives.(laughs)They'd go to quilt there'd be a great big collar, you know a And they said fhey couldn't quilt around that.She's trying to sing and they got tickled.Oh,she said,"That Earl Finch,I'd kill him."(laughs)

LS: Did they quilt more up there than they did down here?

AC: Oh yes. All winter long we'd quilt up there.That's how we spent our wintertime. We had a good time.We'd go maybe twice a week.quilt quilts. And we'd go into eat.We said,"You men don't need to eat. The women are doing the work, they're going to eat first."We'd go back and find our scissors all sewed down to the quilts.The minute we'd forget and leave our scissors, the men would all take our needles and sew our scissors down to the quilt.Oh yeah, one old man come to our place one time, he livedAsouth of us and he come by and it was suppertime. We had wallpaper then. We had just wallpapered the living room and just got finished.And Lita was home so they could do the chores. And this neighbor come by, he was Ukrainian. He said,"You go to Clark's for supper?" Yeah."No we stay home for supper.""No we go to Clark's for supper."We got over there and they was just washing up the supper dishes.They'd canned chickens and she had had a party there to help can these chickens, the women come in. And I knew. So the'were just washing up the dishes. Well Mrs. Clark said,"Have you been to supper?" I said, oh yes, yes. And he thought he was going to get some chicken, see.So come midnight and out a lunch and I said this tastes pretty good, don't it Mr.Gidluc, and he said,"Yeah we had no supper."And she said,"Didn't you have your supper?"He said no. I said next time get your supper before you leave home.It ain't right to go right from home to somebody else's place and eat supper. That's no good."Well I was hungry."I said well let 'em get your supper before you leave next time.(laughs)He said,"You're no good." I said I know. I used to go out to supper with him. Go into town on Saturday night. He wouldn't go to supper. His wife wouldn't go with him.And he say,"You go to supper with me?"Sure I'll go to supper with you."Okay'.' One night in and he said,"You go to the show with me?" Sure, I'll go to the show with you.And was as drunk as the devil and I didn't know it. I never know a drunk man. As long as he can walk. And we got in there and the seats, they sat this way. And here was the alley way. I had a neighbor sitting over here and we walked over here and sit down and this Donahue, he gets up and he looks and I said sit down! He keep looking. Well the show started and you know how they kind of have a dream and a kind of a mist.Ke says,"They kick 'em up dust, don't they?" About that time Velma and Charlie and them walked in.They sit down in front of us.(laughs) I'd go to supper with him and I'd go to the show with him.After we got, not from home, but after we got into town. See, we had a truck.And the neighbors would come up, they'd all get in our truck. Charlie charged 'em ten cents a piece to pay for the gas. And there wouldn't be standing room in that truck.He had seats, some of 'em could sit down.Some of ' em had egg box and they could set down on them.Crates of eggs, you know. Police says,"I'11 tell you Charlie, it's alright for you to come in but you better"' be quiet or we'll not let you bring 'em in any more."So we had to be quiet. Some of 'em get pretty noisy. In the back.Some of them young folks. EverySaturday night, we wouldn't get home til twelve o'clock. 'Cause they'd want to go to the show and it wouldn't get out til eleven and Cnarlie says, I'll tell you nox^, when you leave. This truck leaves at eleven thirty. You get out of the shox at eleven. Eleven thirty we go for home.At a certain time.If you're here alright, if you're not alright."We left some of 'em in town one night. One old man, he never come back at all. He left and he walked out the next day, ten miles. You couldn't wait for 'em. They'd put you out til maybe two, three o'clock in the morning.YOu never know what they're doing. Where they are, young folks. Most of 'em was there right on time.

LS: Did they have shows down here before you left for Canada?

AC: Shows?

LS: There wouldn't have been any here yet.

AC: I ' remember. See, that was in 1912. 1912 we went up there. (unidentified voice) think they had picture shows here, did they?

AC: Yes they did too, but they didn't have any speakers. You had to read it. YOu had to read everything.I remember they did. But they wasn't good show cause they didn't have any speaker.

LS: Was that a pretty big thing?

AC: Yeah. Was that ever a big thing when television,radio first. Up there was radio, radio, radio all over town, put up bills all around.radio. Then when the television come in, boy, that/was something. That is something! Stop and think about it. Come right out of the air right into your room.Yes. I wonder what they'll have in the next fifty years

(Unidentified voice)At first they got the radio they had those ear.first.That was rough cause only two...

LS: Could listen at once.

V: And finally they put a speaker on it.

LS: Did they have those old phonographs?

AC: Oh yes. Victrolas. Them great big horns was they'd be long like this with a big bell on the end. And they fastened up here on a thing. And you'd have to get right up close to listen to em. Remember, you carried the bell up there.

UV: Yes I bang-ed everybody's feet as long as I went. Riding on the aslie on the train. bell.

AC: They give us a little phonograph. She had to carry that old bell.

UV: Everybody had skinned shins. Shilrtii skinned .

AC: On Christmas we'd come ddn here and Father said,"Bow, I'll tell you folks,let's just all have a dinner together and let's not have any presents or anything." "All right," we agreed. Well, the boys sneaked off and they went and got Father- and Mother a nice phonograph, y'know. One of these,well, it was in a cabiift, y'know set up and the phonograph was kinda squa-e like that. And Mother had an old fashioned, when the house was built and it had a window, that went out like that this way,. We set the tree here and they put the phonograph in behind the tree but Father never seen it. He didn't know it. They didn't fool Mother. She had her eyes open and she said, "They never did that Christmas tree off before with a team, and they're goin up toward Up to that station, y'see, that iniand train. They diddn't fool her. Of course she was watchin. But anyway it was settin in there aH somebody sneaked in there behind that Christmas tree and put one of these disc records, y'know, about so big around and long. And they're blue. Now Father said,"Listen, we wasjsupposed to buy any presents." "Nobody said we wouldn't. said we would and we didn't say anything ." at you know he got so much of that. Oh, he wouldn't hardly let the kids look at it, afraid they'd get a scratch on it or something It was nice; it was really nice in its day. (Chuckles). It was, but they didn't fool Mother un uh She had her eyes open, watchin. She never did drag " off before with a team to^o clear up to the station." Well he thought that was mighty nice, but he It cost too much, can't afford it." But we all went in together and bought it, y'know. Didn't cost any of us much. I forget what it cost--around seventy-five or eighty dollars, somethin' like that. And he thought that was too much for us to put out. I guess that burned up when the house burnt

LS: Hey there was somthin else I wanted to ask you about. Last time you mentioned about, was it Alice Gritman who stayed at your house once and got smallpox?

AC: Alice

LS: Alice was it?

AC: Um hum. She was from Gritman's hospital.

LS: Ohh.

AC: She waited on Gritman when he had the smal pox. And then she went home and and her folks wouldn't let her stay there so =he come down to Of folks, just before Merle was born. And we didn't know it, she took sick there. Well, they got wanted to the doctor out and he said it was smallpox. Well, Mother, put her in a--what did they call them homes they vsed to have? Oh you know, when they have their diseases they put em in there, in them houses. Father said,"No, better not move her." What'd they do? We had the old house and Father went down and they fixed that all up and cleaned it all out and moved Mother and my l:'.ttle aster down there and Mother cooked for the boys. They had to sleep out in the smokehouse. And we were goin to have a play ther in Viola, and this girl trfr. was stayin at our place, she was goin to stay overnight with me. And Charlie he was always up there snoopin around. We weren't married. Well, it caught them and they were all quarantined, there at the house. And you know to have Mother had to in that old house and Alice, and we haa a nurse come out and take care of Alice. And heriname was Edith was the one that stryed, and the doctor kind of come out to see Al|£e . But it wasn't Alice he come to see, it was Edith.(Chuckles). Settin'on the woodbox one Mother had a cookstove and a the Doc was settin on the woodbox and she was sittin in the chair and I was sittin over lookin out the window. So it got dark and I said,"I think I better light the lamp." "Oh, no, I'll light it. I'll light it," he said. And he jumped up and lit the lamp,. (Chuckles). But we all vaccinated, all of us. But then Alice got so she could get up and we put her in the smokehouse and we had to fumigate that house. Oh, we used formald and we even had to take the books and open *em up, put em over the line. We had great big, oh I don't know, jars or somethin they put this stuff in it in the rooms. Oh, strong! Uh! You stay in that room; you couln't have stayed in the house. was just like--oh it'd just make your eyes burn, y'know. And we'd burn that early in the morning in there for about two hours and then we'd up all the door and windows and get out until the. . .And then we went in after it was all fumigated and washed all the - in the bedroom and lleaned everything all up.Of course, she was sick, y'know. Well, Men-le didn't come though, until after everything was all settled. He was due but he didn't come.(Chuckles). So Alice said, "Want me to come out of the smokehouse ad talk to him?" And that was a dangerous time. The doctor says,"When they're scalin off, that's a dangerous time. Not fever, you wasn't even exposed. It's when they scale off." She took great big scabs off of her arms. They say them things they lay out on the ground for years and years and then if they get wet they're just as bad as ever, they're dafigerous* And she burned eve-ything up. She was careful; she wasn't bad. But they all laughed at me for so much tater soup and takin it out to Alice. She'd holler out,"I need some more tater soup!" (Chuck1es). I'd have to take her out some rotato soup and set it dwun and tfren run to get away from there. I felt sorry for her o it there alone but couldn't help it. And then when she came back--Merle was a baby then--and about two or three weeks old. She come back. Mother wouldn't let her come in the house. I felt like kickin Mother, it was cold outside and she'd come, they was goin to get a load of hay and she v/as goin to stay at our place while the boys went and got the h-y. And Mother says,"No, you don't, you just get out of here." And she walked back up to the cemetery ...

V: She' d done enough for her.

AC: And stayed in the cemetery--cold. Till they come along with a load of hay. Well, Mother said,"I don't carp, ghe put me out and it's just my turn to put he- out. I wasn't goin to have her in here. She knew she was going to have that. Why did the doctor let her come out there?"

LS: I don't see why she couldn't stay at home?

AC: They wouldn't let her. Her .dad wouldn't let her, no.

LS: That's what's funny to me.

AC: She said Mrs. Gritman put on a heavy veil and went to Portland, down there to the hospital. I guess maybe they had someplace like that around. She said she put on a heavy veil and she really had the smallpox when she left. But she put this veil on and you couldn't see her face and she went. I don't know why they didn't keep Alice there in the hospital. But they didn't, thatfs what made Mother mad. She told Doc Gritman about it. He says,"I didn't know she went." He was still sick, y'see. He s^s,"I didn't know she ent out there." He wasn't a bad old doctor.

LS: What doctor would you have. . .Would he come out, the doctor out the^e?

AC: Oh, yes. They don't hardly come out any more though. No, you can't hardly get a doctor to come out. I called old Doc j , he's our doctor down here at. And Charlie, was just throwin up and throwin up and throwin up and I couldn't get him to stop. And then he'd the other way too, all day. So I called Doc, it «as gettin flark. (Break) Yes, I had it.

LS: You had T. B.? Oh, typhoid?

AC: No, typhoid fever. I wa^ in bed thirty-six days with typhoid fever when the second child was born, wa" a baby. She was about a year old. And I had typhoid they didn't know to handle it therwfhey do now. And then you hardly ever hea of it anymore, do you? No. And T. B., they hactule that pretty good now.

LS: What happened when you got typhoid? How does that affect you?.

AC: Well, itjmade me sick and just about took me away. I was just skin and bones when I got up and I wasn't too heavy when I took it. But I couldn't eat; they wouldn't give me no thin'to eat. Trey'd even take buttermilk and strain it and give me the whey. That's all I could have. No--nothing to eat then. They didn't feed you anything then.

LS: All you'd eat was the whey?

AC: Just the whey. That's all I cor.ld off of the buttermilk. It was no thin strain it through a cloth. I don't know, I pulled through somehow. You couldn't have milk, you couldn't have anything. It was just box^el trouble, y'know, in you bowels. And I remember I was sittin up and she said, I think her sister was the e. And she said," We' going up to see Mrs. Poe. She lived up over there. She said, "You won't do nothin1 to hurt yourself while I'm gome? "No, no. I woldn't do that." She wasn't gone outside of the gate when I started bakin a cake. And I thought to myself,"You better bake you one in that pie pan because she'll see it if you cut it." So I baked myself--eat the whole thing. It neve- hurt me a bit. I was up then, y'know. It could have made me sick but it. didn't. "No, I didn't do nothin." She said, "Did ,?ou eat any of that had for supper?" I knew bettern tmn to cut it because she knew I. . . "No, I didn't." "Okay." (Chuckles). If she'd knovm that she'd a had a fit. But she didn't know later. After I seen it didn't hurt me name I told her. She said," I had an idea you'd do somethin. I knex^ you would." .1 was just kyin there for thirty-six days.

LS: Is that how it was? You had to lay there for thirty-six days?

AC: Yeah,afor thty-six days. And then when I got up my fever was a hundred and two, when I got up. My aunt come up and she says," If you don't get out of that bed yourr going to lay there and die. Get out of therel" So I got Father to get me up, one morning he got me up, took me out in the kithen. And he says,"Hey, you kids upstairs, come down. We've got company this morning" And they all come down to see who was there and here was me out in the rocking-chair with a quilt over my chair like that. (Chuckles) ,But my fever was a hundred and two. I was gonna get up and go. out , only I got up and fell down on the floor and crawled back to bed. I was so weak I couldn't walk. I had to learn to push a chair and walk. In bed, y'know, you think you can do somethin but you can't. When I put my weight on my feet down I went right on the floor. wa three, cause she'd eat dinner as quick as she could and the dining room was here and here a; the living room and then the bedroom was back there. And here was the dining room with just a partition between the dining room and the bedroom there, in that corner. Well, thed give me a stick to pound on the wall. I couldn't make 'em hear, I couldn't. But I could pound on the wall. She looks up and shdcomes in the bedroom, she pushed a chair up to tie dresser and then they ised to give yxu a powder in little papers. And she wanted a paper for something. And she'd been doin'that and they didn't know it. I know Father'd give me a dose of that medicine and Itfjust feel like I was gonna go - clear under. He said, "I can't understand it; that medicine makin you so sick. "So part of that, she wanted a paper and she'd put it all in one dose, see, which be two doses, and then she'd take the paper. 3n = Ipau-mred on the wall and Father come in there and boy she got a spankin. .b^-mtr^e said,"That could have killed you."l said,"Yes, that's the reason I've been so sick afte takin them powders She got a good lickin. She d get a lickin and she'd Father.(Chuckles).He told her she'd get a lickin and she would. She'd yey Grandpa keep up with me and she'd be rry behind him. (Chuckles).

V: Evevytime I'd cuss him he'd lick me and I'd cuss him every day.

AC: She got lickin a day, And then when I was in bed with a fever she .

V: I'd do it and I knew I'd get a lickin.

AC: When I was in bed with a fever she took note. Right around the house xvas some weeds, Father's house. She took she was gonna burn them and she had about five or six matches struck but the weeds was green and they wouldn't burn or else she'd have burned the house up.

1:00 - Early Viola residents; mail in a covered wagon; four buildings set on fire; accidents with equipment

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Segment Synopsis: Early Viola residents. Boles' store and Post Office. Nichols carried mail in a covered wagon. McCray saloon, Sanson box factory and Comer Hotel. Burning of church two schoolhouses and old hall by a boy with, perhaps, the help of someone else. Minister for Viola church worked out. Dohn Rothwell got leg caught in tumbling rod, also Beasley girl — grinding flour.

8:00 - Why parents came and what they arrived with; Father taught school; eating camas; Nazarenne Church

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Segment Synopsis: Parents came from Junction City to homestead and arrived with tea, bread and an onion to eat. Father taught school that year. Two foot high bunch grass. Following the plow and eating the camas. Smylie. Nazarenne Church.

15:00 - What they did for free time; planting the garden; thrashing beans; snowdrift problems

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Segment Synopsis: Played on creek in free time. Brothers cutting church and running races. Father marked off the rows in the garden to be done each day. Helped raise kids. Getting stuck in snowdrift. Raised beans on summer fallow. Sometimes thrashed beans with frails on barn floor in the winter.

23:00 - How her father saved his crop in 1893; why bound wheat held up but wet wheat did not; where they said wet wheat too

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Segment Synopsis: Father saved his crop in 1893 because he had a binder and had his grain all bound. Most other people used headers in 1893, but with a binder you could cut it somewhat green. With header the grain had to be almost ready to shatter out. Father sold much of his grain for seed grain. People sold wet grain to coast.

27:00 - How they canned produce and where they stored it

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Segment Synopsis: Canning with half gallon tin cans which were sealed with red sealing wax. Put garden stuff in cellar, put cabbage in a straw and dirt pile and buried potatoes in pits.

30:00 - Harvesting potatoes; getting woood in the snow; raising dry beans; fruit orchards; and using lard

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Segment Synopsis: (continued) Brothers a nuisance when digging up potatoes. Father wrapped himself in gunnysacks to his hips to work in the snow getting wood. Raised lots of dry beans. Didn't believe you could grow apples until Wes Palmer put in his orchard. No bugs then in the garden, fruit or berry bushes. Used 25 gallons of lard a year.

39:00 - How Viola got its nickname; trading timber for groceries; selling hay; mail delivery; father didn't swear

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Segment Synopsis: Viola named "Dogwalk" because the dogs walked on the planks. Boles store mainly traded with the people who lived in the timber who traded wood for groceries. Father would sell them hay cheap or give it to them. Got mail twice a week. Father had to get his paper and read it by the lamp. Father never swore — could only say "Gosh mariah".

44:00 - Fourmile church; how people were baptized in the winter; not a lot of dancing; couldn't bury people in the winter in Canada due to cold ground

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Segment Synopsis: Fourmile Church. Emmett Godow a good minister. Cutting a hole in the ice and baptizing people. Didn't dance much. The frozen ground in Canada. Couldn't bury people in the winter because the ground was frozen solid.

54:00 - Literaries and debates on Fridays; Charlie Crow and her brother singing; making their own newspaper

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Segment Synopsis: Literaries and debates every Friday night. "Which is most useful: the dish rag or the kitchen door?" One old man would get mad if people didn't see it his way. Charlie Crow and her brother sang "Casey Dones" and tore the house down. Made their own newspaper.

59:00 - One fellow rented a pony and ran it until it fell down dead. Wes Palmer would hitch up wild horses.

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Segment Synopsis: One fellow rented a pony and ran it until it fell down dead. Wes Palmer would hitch up wild horses.

60:00 - Training wild horses; Aunt and Uncle running off to get married; Wes Palmer; Palmer son killed by a log; Asher Palmer working till 90

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Segment Synopsis: continued) After one run the horses could be put in a harness. Her uncle and aunt ran off and got married by the Dustice of the Peace, Wes Palmer. Wes' only son was killed by a log. Asher Palmer worked in the garden when he was 90.

68:00 - Broke off courting husband; hauling timbers for the railroad; bought household goods when married

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Segment Synopsis: Broke off courting with her husband because he took another girl to a dance. Charlie hauled timbers for the railroad trestle near Viola. Not given any presents when married. Spent $25 on a new cookstove, used daven port and four chairs.

76:00 - Methodist camp meetings; taught to be afraid of Native Americans

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Segment Synopsis: Methodist camp meetings went on for several weeks. Taught to be afraid of Indians.

81:00 - Homesteading in Canada; Five years without a crop; one pickup load when leaving

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Segment Synopsis: Heard about homestead land in Canada. Lived there from 1912 - 1937. Went for five years without a crop. Took one pickup load with them when they left.

91:00 - Eighteen people in one house over the winter; what they would do when they couldn't go outside

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Segment Synopsis: Eighteen people spent one winter together at her place. Would visit when it was -30 and the women would quilt and the men played cards. Young people stayed all night at dances.

95:00 - Having a baby in the dead of winter; quilting; making money by taking neighbors to town

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Segment Synopsis: One woman had a baby in the dead of winter in a sleigh on the way to the hospital. Quilted twice a week. Husband would take neighbors to town on Saturday night for ten cents.

106:00 - Brothers buying photograph for parents for Christmas

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Segment Synopsis: Brothers in later years surprise their parents by buying a phonograph for Christmas and hiding it behind the tree.

109:00 - Dr. Gritman having smallpox and people waiting for him; Alice Skeene isolated; Mrs. Gritman going to Portland

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Segment Synopsis: Alice Skeene waited on Dr. Gritman when he had smallpox and then her folks wouldn't let her stay at home. She ends up staying at her house and accomodations are made. The most dangerous time was when she was scaling off and she was isolated. Mother wouldn't let her in the house after that. Mrs. Gritman put on a veil and went to Portland.

115:00 - Getting typhoid fever and only eating strained food; daughter's relationship with father during the same time; threatening to burn the weeds

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Segment Synopsis: Down 36 days with typhoid fever. Could only eat strained buttermilk and eat whey. Baked a cake and ate the whole thing. Her daughter would cuss her father when he licked her. Her daughter took a notion to burn the weeds around the house.

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