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Latah County Oral History Collection

Remembering Latah County and Idaho Life at the turn of the 20th century

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Date: August 03, 1976 Interviewer: Sam Schrager

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FRANCES VAUGHAN FRY:- coming and going. They was two boy older than I. And after we lived here about a year, I imagine it was, or so, we moved up to Cedar Creek.

SAM SCHRAGER: And what year would this have been?

FVF: Well, about- that would have been- I was just three years old, and eighty years ago, so you can figure it.

SS: Oh, that would have been 1899, then, probably. Oh, it was eighty years ago that that happened?

FVF: No, no.

SS: You're eighty years old?

FVF: I'm eighty-three years old now. And I was three years old when we went to Cedar Creek. And my life has been right around this area ever since.

SS: Well, that would have been I think 1899.

FVF: Then we went up there and we was up there for- well, I lived up there til my family was practically grown and then we moved down here again. We farmed up there. And then when my children were, oh, my youngest one was about, oh, I don't know, she was about, oh, I'd say twelve, fourteen years old. Then I cooked in camps. I helped with all the farming on my dad's ranch till I was married. And then after I was married my husband had a place up there and we lived there on his mother's place, We lived there for twenty-three years. And then we moved to Kendrick. Our older children had graduated from Kendrick high school, the oldest children. And then I moved down here, I had the three youngest ones still home with me, when we moved down here and then I went out to work. Well, I did nursing. I went with the doctor; Iwas doctor's helper for many years. And then I worked for anyone that needed help. I done housework. I done anything that they needed. Just worked and went places to stay maybe two, three weeks at a time. Well, I kept that up for a good many years, and then I got this work that Iworked for Mr. Israel, Clem Israel. Imust a work for him for oh, I guess ten or twelve years, cooking in a logging camp. And she had a family and I had a family and she helped me too, and I worked in this logging camp for ten or twelve years, something like that. And Itook my three children with mejfhad 'em with me all the time. The three youngest ones. And then, I went from there- we were down here- that was after we come down here. Then I still did nursing and went around different places and I'd help this one out, and that one out, and I cooked for threshers and anything that was to be had. But I had worked for Mr. Israel in earlier day at the saw mill. And then he went to logging and I was all up around Clarkia and all up in that country for several years.

SS: It sounds like you've really had a full life of work.

Well, I have. I did have. And then after I came- after the children were all grown and gone, I worked for the Forest Service for- Well, I worked in all the stores around here at Kendrick before that, after we were down here. I worked anywhere they needed somebody. I Worked for pretty near all the store men at that time. The hardware and gro cery stores; just all the little stores around here, Iworked for most any of 'em. And I did that for many years, and then Igot a chance to go from there- I was working for Marvin Long over here, Iworked for him for- well, I worked for Blewitt's first up here. Dick Blewitt. And then I worked for Marvin Long. And finally the forest man- forestry man- they needed a cook at the forestry department, taking these boys, the school kids, you know, the sixteen, seventeen, eighteen year old boys. And I went with them as a crew - well, 1 went every place, I was up on Moscow Mountain. I was over to Ahsahka. I was up to Clarkia.

SS: Work camps?

FVF: Yes, Well, I was in logging work at Clarkia. Forestry work, I went up to the mountains tere first, then Ijust changed from place to place. I was over to Potlatch and I was over to Ahsahka. Where ever they nee ded me. And at the time I went to work there, why then, if there was a fire, big fire come, I was supposed to go with my crew and cook at these fires that was on. But I never did have to go on a big tire. They had a big outfit, that is a outfit that would take care of a lot of men because they had boilers and big kettles and all that stuff, you know to take care of the crew. And then I worked for them for twelve years. And then when they quit, they didn't have any more cooks on there, the boys would go back and forth. But I had those boys and I cooked for them and then^for the road men that was workin on the road and anybody that happened to be around was extra. I had a trailer house and all that.

SS: Let's start at the beginning a little bit and let me ask you a little about these really early days when you were just a youngster. Why was it that your family decided to move up on Cedar Ridge from here?

FVF: Well, they came from the East up here. And my folks; my dad, they wanted a place. And they did think of buying r^ht up here on the hill here and then they got a chance to go up there and they went up there when I was- I was four years old in March when they moved up there.

SS: On Cedar Ridge?

FVF: On Cedar Creek, yeah'

SS: Did they take a homestead?

FVF: No, they bought a place up there. It now is the Lyons place. It's changed hands again now. It's the Lyons place where we used to live.

SS: Did your father quit work, or did he give it up and go to farming?

FVF: No, my mother and the boys did the work. My mother and the oldest boy. And then there was a man that lived closely us by the name of John Carr, and he helped my mother. And my dad still worked on the railroad, but he'd come home every so often, you know, oh, sometimes it was soon€rand sometimes it was- because he went- well, he was at St. Maries and St. Joe, and just a lot of those places that he went around. And then 'course, he'd come home every once in a while. And she had this man help*her, but she and the boys did the work at home mostly. Of course, this man helped put in the crops and things, but my mother took care of the garden and all of that stuff. She did all that herself with the boys' help.

SS: Now, your father, what was the work that he was doing on the railroad at that time?

FVF: He was just a railroad agent.

SS: Railroad agent. That meant he had to travel around?

FVF: Yes, wherever they called. He'd get bumped maybe one place and then they'd put him off someplace else, and^he'd have to move again. That is, when they were on the railroad. Then when they come this far then, they worked agency and oh, back in Nebraska and around different places like that, and then they kept coming out this way. And then they finally come to Kendrick. But he wasn't the depot agent here at Kendrick. But he was depot agent around at the other places. St. Maries and all places like that, but he wasn't depot agent here.

SS: Do you think it was kind of rough on your mother then having to do a lot there by herself? You know, generally you get the idea that the man did the work- took care of the farm.

FVF: Well, he didn't. This other man was a very good neighbor, he was a lovely man, he was a bachelor. And him and my dad worked together you know. You see, there wasn't money in the country then, and my dad would get the money; he was paid so much, and he got money and this man would help my dad. Well, it would go from year-to-year. When the year was up why, they would go together and make out what he had done and what he had helped with and all like that, well my dad would pay him the money that he figured that he needed for the things^he had done. But my mother then just stayed on the farm and we raised- of course we had our garden and our cows and our pigs and all of that stuff like they do on any farm; but she took care of all that herself. She never had anyone but just the boys; the oldest boy was old enough to help her. And then she clear - I can remember going out with my mo ther clearing timber off the ground. Burning stumps and all of that stuff, and piling up and chunking up the fires and all that stuff. I can remember that very plainly.

SS: How many children did she have at the time?

FVF: Just the three, till later, she had two boys later. Well, one of 'em's still alive. My youngest brother. I have just one brother left is all. I had the four brothers.

SS: Did you start helping her at an early age, when you were still young?

FVF: Not particularly, no. I didn't have to do very much. Of course, I wasn't old enough to do very much, but I didn't help her very much. Oh, I worked out a little bit before I was married, but^not very much.

SS: Well, do you think that what your mother was doin was unusual for what the average woman did in those days on the place?

FVF: Well, I don't think she was doing anything (more) average. Our neighbors was all the same way. Although the man was home with the neighbors, and my mother^s husband was gone, you see, all that time. -Mem. But it was betweem she was willing to stay there and do these things cause she could do it. And we sold eggs and butter and all of that stuff along with the other things. She didn't seem to think she was worked too hard. She could do all that by herself, she really didn't need to have a man do it for her? No, there was no man to do it. She had to do it, because Dad was gone all the time.

SS: Had she grown up on a farm?

FVF: Well, I don't know as she had necessarily grown up on very much of a fan.. Her folks lived in Iowa, I believe it was. I think she worked out more than- you know went to different homes and worked instead of doing other work til she was married.

SS: Where did your parents meet? Do you know?

FVF: Well, my dad was from Missouri, and I really don't know where they met, but I imagine- my mother was from Iowa- but I don't know-

SS: Well, it doesn't matter. I was just thinking where they came from, from How far. Kendrick was the home place?

FVF: Twelve miles, from here to up where we lived.

SS: Did she go to town very much?

FVF: Oh, about once or twice a year. Drove a team. She could drive a team. My brother had worked with the horses, too, but then Mother could do it just the same as any of 'em. We rode horseback and we had two old horses. One would carry my mother and I and the other one would carry two- well, the one that Mother rode, why he was kind of aoh, he didn't one like to have the sedond on him, and he would raise quite a cavorting around when we'd get on him, but that was just fun to us kids, We didn't think anything about it. We always had a horse or something to ride. And then when we come to town, usually Mother would drive to town with just anything they happened to have a cart or once in awhilewe used to never have any snow to come to town, but once in a while we would get- in February, we'd get snow, and we'd make a trip to town usually in February, my mother would come down- course in the fall now- In February we'd come to town and Mother'd get her canning sugar, it was nearly always the cheapest in February, so she'd make her trips down here in February to get sugar and I don't remember anything else but sugar- but of course, they bought their coffee- Arbuckle's Coffee and Lyon's Coffee and all of that that they used to have.

SS: Maybe kerosene, too?

Yes, kerosene. We had a little store up on the Ridge up there- he had a store and he carried all of his things mostly. He had a pack horse, and you know then those packboxes on the sides, and he would bring up coal oil and all that. And we'd get our coal oil there. And there mostly, was where we took our eggs and things, but he'd take the eggs down there- he'd gather them eggs up and Iguess he took 'em horse back, I don't remember any other way that he ever took 'em but horse back, and he'd bring those eggs down here then when we sold 'em to him up there. We'd getfdifferent little things we had to have, but we would put in quite a supply. Sometimes we'd send to Spokane and get a bill of some of the- like coffee and macaroni and all of those extra things- we'd send to Spokane for an order, and get that. And then the other stuff we would buy in Kendrick. That is, the biggest share of it But, we did send for awhile- we sent to Spokane. What was the name? Burgan's, I believe was the name of the store. In Spokane we sent for them.

SS: And they would deliver it by mail?

FVF: Yeah.

SS: Did you use the store on Cedar Creek very much?

FVF: Oh, yes, for all little things. And then once in awhile he'd get maybe two or three bolts of calico or something like that, you know, we'd get that there and little things. Like a sack of sugar, we never thought of getting it up there. But then we did come down here and get our sugar and flour and stuff down here; those bigger things.

SS: Did you do much visiting when you came into Kendrick?

FVF: Oh, yes, we knew everybody in Kendrick. I can't say now who all the people were. But this HwV * Long, we'd known him ever since I was big enough to— well, him and Iwere about the same age, but his folks were here and they had the store, and then Mwr-W carried it on. He's been out of the store now for maybe five years. But he had carried it on from his folks. They'd had it at Leland and then had it here and he carried on til just a few years ago and then he had to give it up. He's just a year younger than I.

SS: By the way, did your folks ever say to you, or give you an idea of why they finally picked around here to buy a place instead of somewhere else? What there was about Cedar Creek and Kendrick?

Well, I don't know nothing in particular only they were over in Montana and they were in Kansas and those different places, you know, that sometimes they had a pretty hard time, that is, the people that lived there and as they come out here- we lived down here for, I guess, a year maybe before we went up there. They looked around and they thought was the best looking. And it happened to be that the people that we bought from, why, they was wanting to get out, and we got a chance to get this place. And they were looking for aplace and they finally decided that was it, and they liked everything, as far as I know, nothing in particular, only it was so much better than anyplace they'd ever been, that they figured that they liked it.

Iguess part of it is that the crops are alot surer around here. I mean could count on it never had such a thing as a failure anywhere around here. And they were always - well, even today, the crops are just very good any where around. We had one wet year, oh, that's been a good many years ago, but we saved some of it. We saved enough to keep agoin' on. Not like some of 'em you know, was just wiped out of everything, but we never was. We never went hungry, I know that.

Well, you know, you say that coming into to town just a couple times of year makes me think that it could be kind of lonely out there. Was it? Or did you have a lot of people?

FVF: Oh, no We made our own fun. As far as being lonely, we was never lonely. We visited back and forth. We'd go and stay all night with one family, all go over and stay with one, and then maybe the next time the other family'd come over to your place, and we did like that. And we had literary and dancing and popcorn- you know we'd all get together and pop popcorn and things like that. No, we made our own- Why, it was never known in those days; we used to come horseback- or I didn't because I was too young, but my brother, my oldest brother, he used to come over^Texas Ridge from Cedar Creek, he'd come over to Texas Ridge to a dance or something like that. He'd come horseback. But, we'd go with asled, if it was sledding time, we'd go with asled from Cedar Creek over to Southwick in a sled. And that was a big deal We'd take a big bobsled and everybody'd go together. And Christmas! My, we had a big time Christmas tree and usually a program and a dance and everything. We made our own entertainment. And then later years different teachers came in there teachin'and they would have plays, you know, different plays.

SS: Did you play party games?

FVF: Oh, yes! Yes, everything. All kinds of party games.

SS: Were there a lot of kids that were within a few years of your age?

FVF: Oh, yes, they was a bunch my age. Well, my mother and her friends, was the ones that had all these parties and socials, you know, they had these basket socials and hardtime parties. Everybody dress like they didn't have anything or something, and oh, just entertainment. We had entertainment, we never thought of goings I don't know when it was, I don't remember how old I was before I ever saw picture show or anything like that, like they have now. But, my, I thought the first time- I don't know how old, I must have been in my twenties some time. I had a baby or two and I went to Milton, Oregon to visit my mother, she had moved down there, and I heard my first talking - the lady that she worked for took us over to Walla Walla, and I thought that was just something out of this world.

SS: It was a talking movie?

FVF: Yeah. I can remember so well (Chuckles) what I remember more than anything else You've saw this picture, this funny picture, those two birds, you know, that they're always around, they're crows, I think they were, and they was all around everyplace, you know. And they was following somebody, going with somebody, and the little one got so he couldn't go, so he hops up on the other one! And I remember that just as well as if it was yesterday. And I just thought that was something! It was so cute, that I just thought it was just something out of this world!

SS: Did they have actually in the film?

FVF: Oh, yeah.

SS: Talkie.

FVF: Yeah. It was the first one—^it was a story that always stayed in my mind how easy it could be that people very innocently could get into an awful mess and all of getting mixed up with somebody that got kil led or something like that. And they tried to lay it onto somebody, not the one that done it, but they tried to lay it onto them. And this is what that picture was about. And it was so easy, that every thing pointed to this one that they were trying to prosecute, but they didn't get to prosectue him, it come out alright in the long run. But that was the first one that I had saw. And it came out in this picture

SS: When you were growing up, what were the kind of things that you did that gave you enjoyment? Living in Cedar.

FVF: Oh, dancing and riding horses and chasing cattle and all that stuff! (Chuckles) I liked to ride. I always had a horse, and I liked to ride and do all that stuff. My two brothers, they went away to work and I did quite a bit of the farm work, you know, plowing and taking care of the horses. Iloved^ outside. I'd lots rather work outside than I would inside when it come to work, I liked the outside work and I love horses; always did. I always had ponies, good ponies to ride.

SS: Were you still going to school when you were starting to help with the plowing and the farm work?

FVF: Yeah.

SS: Would you do that like after you'd get home from school? Or would you lay out of school?

FVF: Oh, Saturdays and Sundays i£ it was a busy time, and time, it didn't make any difference.

SS: What were you using then? Were you using a footburner?

FVF: Yes. Horses.

SS: I've heard it's not the easiest work to do, using a footburner plow and getting it to go right.

FVF: No, but, if you're used to it, why, it's alright. The only thing I couldn't do-after I was married I tried to run the binder, but I couldn't make it work!! (Chuckles) Oh, I just had trouble with that. But I could do most anything else. I could drive horses. I drove horses, I could drive two or four or anything like that. But I didn't make a go of the binder.

SS: So at that point, you must have been really useful to your mother for you to be able to do that kind of work.

FVF: Oh, yeah. Well, I just grew up with it. I just grew up with it and that was it. Oh, I liked to farm.

SS: Did you stay in school there til the eighth grade?

FVF: Yeah.

SS: Then after that, what did you do? After you weren't in school any more? Did you stay home and help?

FVF: No. I was married when I was eighteen, and I had ten children.

SS: Did you meet your husband right there in that area?

FVF: Yeah.

SS: Was he a local-?

Well, he came from California. And his folks come up- they were wan ting to get out of towns. His mother was a dressmaker, and she was working at that and his father was one of these traveling salesmen that he drove and that's when they just had buggies and like that you know to drive. And they drove all over the country and took or ders and brought in things. And like when they had a hotel here, they had a salesroom and he'd bring in his stuff there and show it in these different places where he'd go. And he was that, and sheand this boy, he was about twenty, I guess or twenty-one, and him and his brother was with the mother and^they had hired help and they had aranch, and theyjraised cattle and numerous things like that. But they come in- they had the money to just come in and buy what they wanted.

SS: That was pretty unusual.

FVF: Yes, at that time it was very unusual because anybody that- most of them that had- Well, the man died several years ago and the woman up in the home at Moscow. A friend of ours that was raised right there on the Ridge when Iwas ,K why, they lived right there all the time, and so she just had to be- that is they put her in the home up there. And she's been in there, but she was older than I was and she'd lived her life there, too, but she's still alive, but there's not very many of us that's left any more.

SS: When did you meet your husband? Do you remember?

FVF: Not especially, no. Wefhad these parties and we'd go to these parties, that's all it was. We just had the parties and^we finally decided to get married, and so, that was it. My mother was a wid^ow then for a good many years, but she moved in -my middle brother lived down at Milton-Freewater and she went down there for a good many years. And then my youngest brother lives at Spokane

SS: When you married, where did you move to?

FVF: We lived with his mother on their home place.

SS: Did you feel that when you got married, did you have very much to set up housekeeping?

FVF: No. We didn't need it and we didn't have to have just a 1 ot of things that the kids nowdays- my gosh, they have to have it all before they get married, but we didn't. We just worked into it as we could, and that's all there was to it. And sometimes it seemed like i t was pret ty hard with cnildren, so many of 'em, ten, but we got by with it and they all turned out to be just average kids. They all went to high school, and they've all done pretty well. I've got 'em all pretty close around. We lost one girl- well, we lost a baby and then we lost this girl when she was thirteen. But otherwise all the rest of my children are just around the country here close enough that we all get together every once in a while; them and their families.

SS: The girl that died when she was thirteen, what did she die of?

FVF: She had what they called lady cancer, sarcoma, or lady cancer.

SS: When you were married, did you do much work besides raising a family in those first years?

FVF: Oh, yes, I worked outside in the field. I helped my husband til my boys was twelve years old. I helped him. I shocked grain and well, done anything there was to do. Mostly I took care of the cattle. We had milk cows and I sold cream and all that suff. I took care of all that. And then I the grain and all- oh, I don't know. I don't know how I done it all, but I did! (Chuckles)

SS: I'm really interested in this because it seems like so many women would have preferred to stay inside and take care of the house and notalthough I've known some women who said they liked to get out and work, but you're about the first person I've known that really went out and did it.

FVF: Oh, yeah, I worked out. As I tell you, I worked out til my boys was twelve years old and when they were twelve years old Isaid, "Now I'm not going out any more." Course Ihad agirl by that time. The girls knew how to work. Every one of my girls can work. They can cook and do everything just better than Ican. But we all worked to gether And whet I went outside to work Iwould plan what the girls do and they would do the housework and the cooking, ever since they was maybe six, eight years old. And every one of 'em can cook, even my boys; every boy can cook, that I've got. And, oh, yes, then we used to butcher our own meat and Imade my soap and we rendered the lard. I've rendered just many gallons and gallons of lard. And I sold the lard. Imade butter. Milked cows, made butter and I sold cream, and all of that stuff went along with everything else. And my canning- people won't believe when I tell 'em what I've cannedwhat I used to can. I never thought of canning- after the children got any size at all, my fruit was all 1in half gallon jars. A quart, my, it wouldn't make ataste for 'em. So I'd have to can my fruit in- and we would get six and seven hundred pounds of tomatoes and peaches and prunes. Imade^prune butter and apple butter and stuff like that, why, people'd make little jars of it now, Imade it by the gallons. Just by the gallons. Well, we had to have it that way. The children all liked it and we liked that, and we were , .eating that. And then after I was on the farm my husband used to take our wh eatwe took it down to and we'd get our winter's supply of Of in a week's flour. And for many, many years Imade one sack of flour time in bread. We ate that one sack of flour made up into bread in aweek's time.

SS: How much was a sack? Forty-nine pounds?

FVF: Yeah, fifty pounds sacks. And Imade bread and of course we made cake and all that stuff besides. The bread was the main thing that I had to use that flour for.

SS: In a week's time?

FVF: In a week's time! Now, that's hard to belleye, but I did it for many, many, months Not only weeks, but years, you might say. Iused a fif ty pound sack of flour a week. And we would take our wheat down and change it for flour down at There was amill down there. We took it down there and we'd get our wheat and our oats and our diffe rent stuff for mush, you know.

SS: Fifty pound sack' how much of that would go to your bread?

FVF: Well, the main part of it went to bread. Well, usually on Saturdays I'd bake anywhere from- I won't say for sure, but I baked anywhere from to ten to twelve loaves of bread on Saturday. I baked three times a week, so you know what that took. It was no small amount. And then we had meat. We took care of our own meat. We butchered it. And for a long, long time we never canned beef. But finally, we got to where we'd butcher a beef- it wasn't anything-^after the family got any size at all, we butchered nine hogs at a time. And then cut it up, you know and took care of it. Made it into hams and bacon. Well, I used to can all the pigs' feet and headcheese and all that stuff, I made that up, and then I'd have that to use along through the year. And we had meats of all kinds; bacon and ham and shoulder all through the sum mer. We'd smoke it you know, and then put it in sacks; hang it out. We had a granary out in the barn, new granary, and we'd put that in sacks and hang it out there in this granary. It was cool in there all the time. It was a big barn, great big barn, and there's where we hung that meat and kept it all year.

SS: What about the beef? Did you salt it?

FVF: Well, we didn't for a long— no, I canned that. Finally we got to killing a beef- later years there was an old Dutchman that come from Germany. He used to stay at our place quite a little bit and he was a real butcher. And there was nothing x rent to waste. When he done the butchering, there was nothing went to waste. He made up everything. Cut the meat. We got barrels, big wooden barrels and he put the hams and shoulders and meat all down in the barrel and made the brine and put over it. And he'd let it go so long- he had a homestead pretty close to where we lived later years- and he'd come in and go back in the cellar where we kept the barrels, and he'd go back in there and he'd just swish his hand down in the barrel like that and come up and it was alright or he had to take it out and hang it up and let it the meat, drain and he rehet that stuff and then put it back on~ We did that for years and there wasn't anything— And he made everything. He made liverwurst andKblood sausage and all kinds of stuffed sausage and stuff like that. And tripe- when we butchered beef, then he made the tripe. I don't know whether you know anything about that or not, but we had that, too. So, we had everything in the meat line to eat.

SS: He would be able to tell from running his hand through the brine, and he could tell?

FVF: Yeah. He'd just come right in and just swish his hand down, that's the way he'd do. He'd swish his hand right down in the barrel like that and feel of it and there was a feeling or something, and then if it had to be taken out, why, he'd just took it all out and hung it up in the smokehousef |eV it drain while he got this- would reheat this, you know, and get it ready.

SS: Was he working as a hired hand for you? at this time?

FVF: No.

SS: He was staying with you though?

FVF: Just come over and stay and sometimes he'd come over- oh, he liked to come over and eat meals with us, you know, he was alone.

SS: He was a bachelor?

FVF: Yes. And he would milk the cows and different things like that when he was over.

SS: He was homesteading?

FVF: He had a little homestead up there, ye«. Later years, for a while, he didn't, but for later years, he had a little homestead, and he'd stay over there and he'd come over. Max Herzog was his name.

SS: You were saying about the canning; where did you get all the peaches and prunes from? Was much of that grown right there?

FVF: Oh, yes. There was a lot of it grown and then we bought the peaches and tomatoes. We'd go down to Juliaetta here and buy the tomatoes and then we'd get our peaches wherever we could. You used to could get 'em down at Lewiston, you know; get 'em by the fifty pound box. We never went to the orchards very often and got 'em. But we could get 'em at times, at the end of the week. But then, we did go a lot of times, too, before they took them orchards all out below Lewiston there, we used to go down there and get 'em.

SS: Give me an idea of how much you would can in a year. You haven't real ly said that; of that stuff. Like how many cans of peaches and toma toes.

FVF: Well, I would get- oh, I don't as I could tell you- why, hundreds of pounds, I'd buy.

SS: Of each one?

FVF: Yes. And you could kind of go by that. But I know it was just tables and tables- when I was canning it- it was just tables and tables. We had a fruit room out on the ranch, and they was five or six- and they was four side-by-side, four, in the shelf. And I just had rows and rows of peaches and pears and tomatoes and then plums and apple sauce. You know, the fresh apple sauce- green apple sauce.A I just canned hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of quarts, I don't know just what it's be. And then later years we had a cherry orchard up there, too, on Cedar Creek and I canned lots of cherries. I've often wondered what some of these women- We used to have the threshers. The men would come in with the teams and bundle wagons and everything, they'd move in on us with the old steam threshers and they'd be there for days. One year we had the beans— there'd come a bad year, and they'd be there maybe one day and get theshing and maybe it'd rain, and I had the bean threshers for three weeks. And they'd come and go. And then the boys'd go a lot of times when they were there; it was hunting time, they'd go get birds and things. So they'd go get birds and I'd fix the birds for their eats and

SS: You fed them off and on for three weeks?

FVF: Yes. They would come and go because the machine had come in from over on the Potlatch. And when they left our place they went over to our neighbors. We had quite a big place there, where we were, where they could wash and like that. When they went over to the neighbors, and when it rained over there they'd come over to my house, to get the eats! And, oh, we used to have trouble at times. But then they were just all kind of neighbor boys- they wasn't really neighbor boys because they woulda had to went quite a ways to went home. And these people were kinda funny folks, anyway, and^when it was getting cold- it was getting cold in the fall with the beans, and they wouldn't even let 'em in the house, hardly to wash or anything. Our house was just a house they could come to and come in. We had an extra big long room there, and then they'd come in there and set by this big fire; big stove, big pot bellied stove they called 'em, I guess.A And they'd come over there and sit during the day if they couldn't work at this other place. We had lots of good times! 'Course, the kids nowdays wouldn't think it was very good, but we used to have lots of good times.

SS: With the neighbors?

FVF: With the neighbors and like that, or whoever happened to be there. If the threshing crew was there.

SS: Well, in those days, when you say good times and it would be different than what the kids would think it would be today, was good times just visiting then?

FVF: Yeah, we'd visit or play cards or just most anything. Just set and visit and then have a big meal. Dinners, lots of times- maybe this year they'd be a bunch come to our place and it wasn't anything for us to have- 'course, there was quite a few of our own family, and neigh bors, thirty or forty was no job at all. Just had a big dinner.

SS: At your place?

FVF: Yes. And then we had for many, many years, we had an Easter dinner, it'd be according to what the weather was, and we'd go over and have a big Easter dinner over by the sawmill, where the sawmill was. And one time we was over there and had a big Easter dinner and we had our Easter dinner down in the lower part and then we had tobggans and stuff and there was a hill there that we could come down, you know, toboggan on the hill; the snow was crusted and we could ride on that. That was at Eastertime one year. Course, it wasn't every year. Just things like that. We hadAsleigh parties and stuff like that, too.

SS: These big dinners; were they unusual or were they often done?

FVF: Oh, no, we had 'em every once in a while. We'd go to one house and then to another. We'd go for a surprise on somebody maybe for an even ing of dancing and like that. And we'd go and maybe sometimes try to fool 'em, just come on 'em unexpected and things like that. And lots of times we'd go dancing and dance all night and have breakfast then go home. Things like that.

SS: Who would give the music on the dancing?

FVF: Well, we had several in the neighborhood that could play the. violins, and whatever they happened to have. Harp; mouthorgan , we danced to sometimes, when we didn have anything else! (Chuckles)

SS: What kind of music did they play?

FVF: Oh, violin-

SS: I mean, the kind of stuff- the kind of songs, was it the oldfashioned?

FVF: Old-fashioned. Just the real old-fashioned music.

SS: After you were married and had children, did it still continue, this visiting?

FVF: Oh, yes! We'd take our kids. And we had a place fix especially in our hall, at the schoolhouse, upstairs to the schoolhouse, that we had for the dancehall, and we had a place there and put our babies down when there wasn't anybody to leave 'em with. Grandma was at my house a good share of the time, and when mine was big enough that I could leave 'em, why, I'd just leave them home. When they weren't, why, I took 'em with me. Everybody else did the same.

SS: Some dances were at the school and some dances were at people's homes?

FVF: Yes. (interrupted by telephone) Bad times too, but then nothing so bad that— Each neighbor helped the other one. If somebody was sick why my mother used to go and help the neighbors a great deal. And she would be called out anytime, day or night, she would go and help the neighbors. I helped a lot of my neighbors when I was up there, too. We just kind of depended on one another. That was the way it went.

SS: What were-some of the bad times that you're thinking of?

FVF: Oh, nothing in particular; only sickness or something like that. But we never thought of a doctor. It was just do it yourself. You had to do what there was. If you thought you was doing right, that was it. It's very seldom that we ever went to a doctor. We'd "ttlmik we had, this or that or something else.

SS: What could you do in the case of sickness? If you went to somebody's house to try to help them? What could you do? You didn't have any medicine of the type that the doctors would prescribe.

FVF: No, that the doctors would give, but we'd have— each household had different things that they used. Some would use one thing and some would use something else, andAwe'd do the best we could with what we had, and just pass it out to whoever was sick. But sometimes it was just colds and sometimes it was the mother that was sick and sometimes it was someone else that she needed help, and like that, and we just helped one another.

SS: Was there tuberculosis in the area at all? That you knew of?

FVF: No.

SS: Some places had it kind of bad.

FVF: Yes, I know there was several on our ridge that had passed away with it, but at my time that I was up there, I don't I know of anybody that had it. But before I was around very much, there was one or tw that passed away on our ridge of tuberculosis. Some of the girls— she's still alive there's a lady now, she's in her eighties, she was a neighbor and her mother died with it- her mother died with the childbirth. And then she was the oldest one in the family- that is the oldest girl, and then there was a brother older than she was. And the grandfather had died with tuberculosis and this boy took it and he died with it- tub erculosis. Well, that was the time that we were younger people up there, because she was taking care of the family. And then everybody'd go and help if they'd get down and were sick and had to have someone to be with 'em at night or something like that. People would just take turns and go and stay; each neighbor would. flVtybLpd go a night and they'd go a night and somebody else'd go some other night. In those days when anybody passed away, the neighbors would all go in and help. And there was usually one or two that could take care of the bodies. And we'd set up at night, you know, somebody'd stay there all night, and then we'd bury 'em!

SS: You mean just the next day?

FVF: Yeah, or two. Never could go over more'n about two days. And now, they have to have thousands of dollars to bury you! (Chuckles) There was some people up there that made the boxes and caskets and every thing; fixed it, just as nice as anything. But there was people in the neighborhood that did that work you know, would do those things. Then there was people that would- well, we had a lady there that'd always go when there was babies come, they'd always go to anybody's house that was there and needed it, why, they'd always go and help with them. For years and years they never had a doctor, just one of the women'd go, or two.

SS: Were there one or two women who knew specially about midwiving, they were the ones that did it?

FVF: Yes.

SS: The same women would always go?

FVF: Yes, they would go, when they'd call 'em. Well, when my first baby came, why, I asked this old lady, she had always been, that's all we knew, was this lady. This lady had always helped the different ones. So when I asked her if she'd come over to my house, she said yes, she said she would, but she says, "I want you to have a doctor." She say£, "Because I'm getting older." And she said it bothered her. But she says, "I'll come and be with you." So she come. Then we had a doctor, too. But she insisted on me having a doctor. She said that she thought it was best. But never to my notion did they ever lose any babies when she took care of 'em. And she took care of a grandson of hers, and my land, he was only about that long! She took care of him and raised him! He's still alive. He worked at the university for a long time. I don't know whether he's still up there or not.

SS: Well, in those days, was it okay for a mother to work right up until she gave birth?

FVF: Yes, long as she could go, that was all there was to it. But the thing was then; why you was supposed to stay in bed nine days after wards.

SS: Long time.

FVF: Yeah. Well, they was supposed to then. Well, have a baby one day and the next day get up agoing! Walking. Things like that. Well, I don't know, just seems like it wasn't too bad.

SS: Do you remember the flu?

FVF: Oh, yes. My whole family was down wi^rh the flu. I think I had it first, and then I just got to where I could kinda be around when the rest of my family took it. And there was Grandma, mother, she was there, then my mother lived up across the hill from us a lit tle ways and she had it and my youngest brother, and she came down to help me, then the brother took it. And she would come down and help me with the children. I was alone, Mr. Fry took a notion he'd go hunting with the men; bunch of men. We didn't want him to go, but he went anyway, so he didn't any more than get gone til- and then he wasn't any good around sick people anyway- and he hadn't been gone but, oh, a day or two when we sent for him, and told him he had to come home. So, he came home; he come home alright but [^ wasn't if\ollfi^ a day or two and he was down in bed. So, it was just my mother and I then that took care of the whole bunchv But, I had taken it first. I had already got over it- that is, I was over it to a certain extent, but then I had to go ahead. There was nobody else to go ahead but my mother, and so I took my turn with her. And she'd go back an forth to her place, but she'd come back and stay nights. And then her boy^took it, you know, my brother, he took it, so he was in bed. So I had that whole bunch there.

SS: What did you do? How did you take care of them?

FVF: Well, just took care of 'em. Besides, the neighbors' come in. They didn't come in the house, they wouldn't come in the house, any of 'em, but they come over and took care of the stock. We had a bunch of stock. And they just come in and they said they'd do anything outside or anything that was to do milk the cows or feed the stock or anything like that. They did all that, the neighbors come. But then my mother and I took care of all of these that were sick. Some of 'em was quite sick. Some of 'em wasn't too bad. We took care of 'em anyway. My mother never did take it.

SS: Quite a few people died from that flu.

FVF: Oh, yes, I know there was. Some of the healthiest and most heialthy people that you ever saw, they was going to wear it out, but they didn't make it.

SS: Wear it out?

FVF: Yeah, they said they'd wear it out, and they died!

SS: What did they mean by that?

FVF: Well, they just wasn't careful or didn't try to take care of themselves and they just died. Well, I don't know of anyone that died with the flu up on our Ridge, But there was a lot of 'em that was awful sick. And it took an awful long time to get over it.

FVF: The after effects, if you didn't take care of yourself. The elements and all, you'd take it again, and then you was gone. That's what hap pened to several of 'em, because they wouldn't take care of theirselves.

SS: They'd just go out in the air and have- and think they were-

FVF: . And think they was alright and just go out and that was it. There was just quite a few we knew of, of that, but we didn't have any bad effects It took a long time, and Clarence and his mother both- that was my hus band, and his mother, they were more of a- oh, I don't know- it seemed like when they got anything it was always worse than anybody else had! (Chuckles) So they were harder to take care of than all the bunch of kids as far as that was concerned.

SS: Do you think that might have to do— sounds like they had an easier life, if they had money and fared pretty well for themselves.

FVF: Oh, I don't know, something of that sort. Well, they were more Just like after my husband got over it, why, there was just lots of times that I would be working, taking care of the children quiall, and I was weak, and I would perspire and feel so weak, well, he commenced to complaining after he was up for a while, he commenced complaining the same thing and I says, "Well, I had that just the same, but I would work it off to a certain extent." But I didn't do no extensive work, no more than what I had to, because I didn't dare to,'cause I knew I was the one that had to be the head there, because that was just what I had to do, that was all. But seems that now my family was more stable, they were stronger, in a way, you might say, I guess. STS: When things were tough?

FVF: Yes. And they were more, oh, kind of a- they done the best they could and that was all they could do, but sometimes the others didn't do what they should.

SS: I've seen in some families where it seems to me like the woman really does more than the man does. He kind of leans on her, almost as if she's mothering him.

FVF: Weill, I know that was a great deal the way it was our place. Because he would say, "I can't do it." Well, when it had to be done, somebody had to do it, that's all there was to it. So, I'm not bragging at all, because I was able to do it, and I did it. I know a lot of people, they pretty hear had a fit when I had to take care of all of 'em, because I had just got over it myself, that is, was getting over it. And they all looked for me to get down again, but I didn't. But if it hadn't a been for my mother I couldn't a made it.

SS: What did you have to do to take care of 'em when they were down? Just had to bring them their food.

FVF: 'Carry 'em their food and oh, just take care of 'em, just like you would anything. They just had to be watched after.

SS: This kind of outside work that you did; would you tell me a little about what the actual farming would be? There were certain times in the year you would have to do- get out and do quite a bit on the farm?

FVF: Oh, yeah. and all like that, that's when you was busy, oh, I've run the mower and a lot of those things. One fall we had to take and our clover was short, : I drove the team and Mr, Fry walked behind and it was so short that we had to rake that oyer, so that we could get it. And he would walk and get it and I rode that, and boy, it was- I don't know how cold it was, because I know we just pretty near froze, it was just that cold working trying to get that. Well, we had the plowing in the spring, we had the working of the alfalfa was the first thing. And I always used to feel so sorry for the horses, because that was rough work on the horses, taking care of the alfalfa. You had to take these spring tooth harrows, you know what they are. Well you had to hook your horses on to that and nearly every horse would have sore shoulders from that beating, you know.

SS: The ground was really rough.

FVF: Rough, and hard and this would be digging trying to claw it up, and that was the hardest work for the horses to do, was that.

SS: Would you do that work? Would you take the teams?

FVF: No, no, I never worked at that. But I did rake hay. When the hay was up I used to rake. , and I helped to shock it. And then he tried to get someone to help him besides me when he put it in the barn, 'cause he had a hayfork, you know. That was when they first had the hayforks. Got it up into the barn, and then someone in the barn had to smooth it around while the other fellow was aforking it up. then there was usually one of the kids had a horse on this hayfork, but they did that, at that time.

SS: How did you shock hay?

FVF: Well, we had it bundles, and you had to stand it up, you know. Make it iritfo shocks. There was a lady come from Canada, she come down and our boys, they weren't grown, they were just good sized boys, and the two of 'em was out shocking for their daddy. Their dad was running the binder and they was- and she called it stooking. And it just like to tickle them kids to death. (Chuckles) She says, "Oh, you're stooking." And, of course; they didn't know wjhat she meant. laughed about that afterwards. She was an awfully nice person. We finally told her about it, they thought it was so funny. She said they were stooking.

SS: It's just hard for me to see how you could raise a family and do all the inside work, put up all that fruit and do all the cooking and do the outside - so much of the outside work. It sounds like what today would be a job for two people.

FVF: Well, I sometimes wonder myself how I done it, but I did it! Well, my girls then, when they got big enough- but I didn't let them do much of that canning. Well, we had a good friend that was- Myers, he was the blacksmith man over here, he used to live here in town, and he had the blacksmith, and I used to have a boiler; used to boil my fruit, would set it in- you know, fix it and set it in the jars, and set it in the boiler and boil it, and I neyer would let the girls touch it because I was afraid they'd get scalded. So this man, he come to outplace a lot, so he went to work and he made a galyanized, oh, that thick galvanized stuff, and he made me a canner. And I could put, let s see, I think it was- I believe it was thirty jars in that. I'd put that on my stove; it'd cover the top of my stove, practically, and I would put that on there and then put my fruit in there and I could takethat much at a time, I could fill my jars and get 'em ready and put 'em in there, and then when it come to take 'em off, why, I had to just slide it back and then take the lid off and let it cool before I took it out, because it was so hot I didn't want to bother with it when it was too hot. And that's the way I canned just lots and lots of fruit,

SS: You say, slide it back; you left the canner right on the stove and you didn't pull it off? Just took the top off.

FVF: Took the top off and slid it back as far as I could, so there was a you know, there used to be a- on the stoves, they had a, you know, those- that had water in 'em- extra, that was that much extra on the stove on the back, and you could slide it over enough that I could go ahead then on the front and do my cooking and have this back enough to leave it til I could get to it and get the jars out then and wash 'em. Most all of 'em at that time- we used those mason jars and you'd have to put your rubbers'd be on there and your lids'd be on and then you'd put 'em in there and you'd tighten 'em down, and then when you took 'em out, why then you'd have to see that they were tight and then set 'em out to cool. And my berries, I canned them the same way. Oh, we had berries to pick and all that stuff. We had a garden and every thing besides. And I used to can beans. I never made no success of canning peas though. I said I'd scrub floors before I'd try to can peas.

SS: Why is that?

FVF: I could not keep 'em. Lots of people can can 'em, but I couldn't keep 'em. They just wouldn't keep for me.

SS: There is one thing I'm wondering about: The outside work and the far ming, did you do that because you wanted to, or because you felt you had to? Or because your husband wanted you to?

FVF: I did, more or less, because I»had to. Couldn't hire anybody else. And when my girls got big enough, why, I would plan the meals and they would fix the meals and I would go out and work my fields.

SS: This work was more than your husband could possibly do by himself?

FVF: Yeah, he couldn't do it. No. And we didn't have the money to hire it done. So, I just done it. Didn't necessarily had to, but I did do it. And I never thought of anything else, because he couldn't do it by himself.

SS: Well, what about taking care of livestock? Is that something he could have done, if you didn't want to do it? You did take care of the live stock.

FVF: Well, he took care of the horses, but I took care of the cows and pigs, along with my_ work. Did all the time.

SS: Did some families have hired— hire people, whereas you didn't have the money to do that?

FVF: Yeah, they could hire 'em. And lots of times they did. In those days lots of times a fellow d come and.stay the winter just for his board. If you furnished him his eats and his bed and like that, he'd come and work in the winter for nothing.

SS: Did you do that? Have people stay?

FVF: No. Because he could do that in the winter, he didn't have so much to do. But then a lot of people did. Once in a while we had some around but then we never had to because if anything happened I could take care of everything just as well as he could, as far as the horses and cows and everything was concerned, I did that, too.

SS: Well, comparing what your family did to the neighbor families; do you think that you put up a lot more- did a lot more canning and that sort of thing than most of the families did?

FVF: Most of the families on the Ridge at that time did the same thing. They canned lots of things, too. We'd go pick berries on the shares. We would pick 'em and give them so many for the berries and then we'd bring 'em home and can 'em when we didn't have 'em. like that. No, no, I don't think there was any- I don't think we had a neighbor up there but what if you needed something all you had to do was to say , because your neighbor would come and help you. And the same way with you. If they needed you, you'd go to them.

SS: You would go on your initiative?

FVF: Oh, yes. If they needed help or we thought they needed help or they were sick or anything like that, well, we'd go help 'em, and they'd do the same way with us.

SS: Were there any times when any family would be in just such bad shape financially that they would need help? That they would need food or clothes?

FVF: Well, we had one family that came up there on the Ridge that they just borrowed, and what was the worst of it was, they had quite a few chil dren and he wouldn't work at all, hardly. And they'd send the child ren to beg for something. And finally, they just kept it up for so long, and he rented several different places and he wouldn't even get out and get— you know, most any place you can get some wood, and he wouldn't get out and get any. He'd tear some maybe off of the woodshed or off of the barn or something, he'd tear some boards and things off that and burn it instead of fixing it for himself, so we got tired of that pretty quick. They were the only family though that I know ofwell, there was families I know that was hard up. 1 talked to a lady here not too long ago, that she raised a big family up there, too, and they didn't have too much, andNshe helped another family. When I tal ked to her, she was real old, and when I talked to her, she was telling about how good she thought everybody was up there, and then she told about this one family. And she said, "Well," she said she knew that sometimes she didn't have too much, but she said she knew sometimes that this other lady had quite a family, and she would give her things you know, things like that. And she says, "I know that she needed it." And things like that.

SS: But she helped her anyway?

FVF: Yes, she helped her. Well, if anybody was in need or anything, well, we'd maybe get up a party or we'd take up something or give something to 'em. And, I don't mind helping people that'll try to help theirselves, but when they don't help themselves, I've got no use for 'em.

SS: When you say, have a party, you mean, you might throw a party for the family?

FVF: Yes, or something like that, and people bring things in or give some thing. Well, in the fall, maybe, they'd say, "Well, now, you come over", and if they had potatoes or anything. Now we went over to our neighbors a good many times- he lost his wife- and so I used to go over and he loved to have oh, cake and things like that, and I'd go over and maybe spend a day and a half over there and I'd bake cake and fix everything for him to eat. And bake him bread, because he was used to having that. Well, he always raised lots of nice rutabagas and tur nips and potatoes and all of that stuff, well, then we'd go over and help him take that in; take his garden in. Well, after we got ready to go home he'd give us all we wanted, when we didn't have a garden.

SS: Did he have any children?

FVF: No. Just him and his wife. And his wife passed away. They were good neighbors. They were lovely neighbors. But I don't know of anybody up there that wasn't a good neighbor. I don't know of anybody.

SS: This one family that was—

FVF: Well, they bragged on, they knew how much they could get from the time they left the East to com^pout this way, at the different places they could stop and wear their welcome out there. And the of ficers had to just come and pick 'em up up there and take 'em away.

SS: Is that what finally happened?

FVF: Yeah. And I know this lady, one day she went over toAthese people and she went with the boy that day, and he went over and she wanted some potatoes, and she wanted this and she wanted that, so the man, it was just him and his wife, they were alone, they were old, and they were alone but they had a garden and stuff, so he went out- and she had wal ked over there- and he went out and he had a little buggy with a team so he took the sack of potatoes, and oh, he took practically everything that she needed, and he told her, "Now, I'll take you home." So he took her home, and they was always asaying they'd pay it back, they'd pay it back, you know, he says, "No, you don't need to pay it back. I'm giving you these things, you don't need to pay it back. But," he says, don't come back any more." That's it. He wouldn't go himself, he'd just set around, wouldn't go, and they'd send the little children up to the neighbors. They could get all the milk they wanted if they'd go up to this one place. It wasn't very far, and do you think he'd go up there? No, he'd send the kids. And they got tired of that, too. So, I told my husband, "I'm not going to give 'em anything more." I said, "If the children come up here, I'll feed 'em, but I'm not going to send nothing home. They'll have to get something theirselves."

SS: I take it they were just renting, and they didn't really own at all? Is that why they finally got kicked out because they weren't paying their rent?

FVF: No, they didn't pay rent. They didn't do anything- they was bother ing everybody. And he was one of these fellows- Well, the neighbors up there, if you happened to be walking to town or walking someplace or anything, they'd pick you up. When they had a car, that is a pickup or or something, they always'd ask the neighbors to ride with 'em. Well, one time these boys was coming down the road and this fel low was walking; no, they picked him up, he was on his way home, and they picked him up, and when he went to get out of the pickup or rig, when he went to get out, he stumbled and he didn't fall, but he stum bled, and he turned around and he says, "Well, it's a good thing I didn't fall and hurt myself," he said, "I'd a sued you." Now that's the kind of fellow he was. So, we kinda commenced to kinda steer around 'em. But that's the only one. There was people up there, quite a few people up there that lived- didn't have too much, but maybe if I went over someplace and I had an extra supply of something, I'd take 'em something. Well, if they had an extra supply of something they'd bring me something or they'd take something to somebody else. We al ways had a little extra that we could divide with our neighbors. We never was so hard up but that we could- you know, could each have a little something. And that's the way we did.

SS: When something like that- did you try to figure what your neighbor might need? Or did they have to say to you what they needed?

FVF: No. They was neighbors that .ask you, or even let you know. They didn't want you to really know. But then, you could tell, when you'd go, we'd visit one another all the time and you could tell if they was out of this or they was out of that or they were out of something else. And then maybe next time when we went, why, we took- if we had a supply- we took it. And that's the way they all did. Each one hel ped the other.

SS: It wasn't something that anybody would keep track of? What jou owed somebody or anything like that?

FVF: No.

SS: Or wasn't something that you did this year and it could be years from now that they might help you.

FVF: Well, but then, we were all kinda in the same boat. So they would all do the same thing. If we needed something, well, we'd get it.. If any of them found it out, that is, we'd get helped on it, and things like that. Just like I started to tell you about this man that used to come to my mother's there to help her when Dad was gone all the time; and he'a come over there and help her, and at the end of the year, every year, didn't make any difference whether they had a dime or didn't have a dime, they'd always- my dad and him, would always figure outthey put down everything through the years- if he worked and did some thing special, my dad was supposed to pay him for it, why then, if Dad got him something, why, Dad would pay for it, and then at the end of the year, why, they would always straighten up their books. They would always get their books straight. Sometimes they'd owe one, some times they'd owe the other. But they had these books straight every year.

SS: He actually put in the crop for your father?

FVF: Yeah.

SS: And he would harvest it, too.

FVF: Yeah.

SS: And your father would pay him for the work?

FVF: And one year they logged a little bit, and oh, just different little things like that that he done that my dad couldn't do or didn't do, but they'd always have their books and they'd put it down. They knew just what there was, and then when it come to— 'Cause my dad didn't know anything about farming when he went up there on Cedar Creek. Talk about the singletrees and doubletrees and all of that stuff, you know, and this fell, had what they call an evener- well, it's a long piece of timber- maybe you know what they are.

SS: I think I do, but-

FVF: Well, there's a short end and a long end; well, they put the one horse on the long end and put two horses on the short end. That's what they call an evener. And these fellows, they didn't know why this one old horse couldn't keep up, cause they put her on the - either end and she was working against the other two! (Chuckles) We used to laugh about that.

SS: Who did that? Was that your father?

FVF: My dad.

SS: Did he learn eventually?

FVF: Oh, yes, he did. Then he used to, in the early days, too, you know, it was hard to buy shells and all that stuff for your gun and there was lots of birds. In the fall there was lots of young birds, you know. Well, my dad always would pick up little rocks, about that big, he'd always have his pocket full of rocks, and these birds'd fly up in the tree and he could pick a bird out of a tree with a rock, just easier than you could shoot, almost! That way he saved his .22 shells and instead of using them for birds, he could use that for something else. And he'd have these rocks and he could knock 'em out of there.

SS: Were those grouse and pheasants?

FVF: Grouse and pheasants.

SS: That sounds pretty slick to me.

FVF: Well, it was slick! And at that time they was so plentiful that they weren't scared to death like they are now. You can't hardly get near one now, you know, because, well, there's so few of 'em that you can't hardly get near 'em. But in those days, they'd hop up there and be up there in the trees and we'd all be looking to see tfiere they were, you know, and then finally we'd locate them. And then, my boys got to doing that. One of my boys could throw a rock pretty good. He was a pretty good shot.

SS: Well, was there a church at Cedar Creek then? Any kind of church that you had?

FVF: No, not for a long, long time, there was no church there. They would have services maybe at somebody's house or something like that. There's a church up there now and it's been there for quite a while. They'd have a church at the schoolhouse, but they didn't have a regular church. And when they did it was nondemoninational. Anybody could go, and everybody was welcome to come whoever come in there to preach a sermon, or anything like that. I know that we had a quite a fight after we got the church up there. Why, there was quite a fight went on in the neighborhood about having dances. And some people were just so_ against that, and all like that. And some of the ministers were against it too, but there was one minister that they all pretty well liked, real good. And they would always have a harvest ball, after the har vest was all over, well, we'd have a great big dance. And we'd have Christmas, maybe a Christmas ball, or something like that. Well, one time this fellow come over and he was to preach, and they were having what they called protracted meetings- you know what they were- used to go out and stay for weeks. And that one fellow said, somebody said to him, how long was it going to last, and he said, well, he didn't know I guess, as long as the eats was left! (Chuckles) And things like that. This minister said to the boys, "Now," he said, - he knew who the boys were that were giving- a certain number would give a dance one time, ther time.someone else would do it-. He w ent to these boys, and he says, "Now, boys, I'll tell you what I'll do." He says, "If you'll all come over and listen to my preachin'," he says, "I'll start a half hour or an early and you all come over and listen to me." And then, he says, "You can go over and have your dance." And he says, "if I wasn't a minister, if I wasn't supposed to be a minister, I wouldn't mind going over too, but," he says, "that isn't the way I can do. But I'll have my meetings." And, you know, there was every body went to that church, and when it was over, why, we went over and had our dance.

SS: The harvest ball?

FVF: Well, I don't know whether it was the harvest ball, but they were ha ving those protracted meetings anyway at the time.

SS: Well it's kind of funny that some people would get opposed to dancing if it had been going on in the neighborhood for so long. From what you say, they'd always had dances in the neighborhood.

FVF: Well, we always had dances, but then they had their church, too, but then they didn't all go to church, I know that.

SS: But this not liking dancing kind of grew when they built the church.

FVF: Yes, they tried every way they could to keep them from dancing. But then they didn't. The neighborhoods- they'd be from Southwick and -Wc^ what we called Boulder Creek and all around there, why, they'd be peo ple come for miles to our dances up there. We had big dances, every body'd come.

SS: And those would be in the school, mostly?

FVF: At night. Yeah. And things like that.

SS: You had a second floor, you say, in the school for dancing?

FVF: Yeah, they had the upstairs for dancing. And it still stands up there, the schoolhouse, and they're using the lower part of it, they kind of fixed it up, and we have our pioneer picnic the last Sunday of this month. We have a pioneer picnic and we've been wanting to get that fixed so they can have it up there. But they haven't had it. They had it down at Clarkston for many years, and last year, or two years, they've had it over at here at the Fire Hall. And all the old pio neers that's around are supposed to come. So that's come up now. I don't know for sure whether they'll have it this year or not.

SS: Is Cedar Creek what they called the neighborhood? Is that what they called the neighborhood?

FVF: Yeah. The Cedar Creek neighborhood. Then there was Park and there was a Crescent and Southwick and all those little places around there. But we all congregated together. We've had lots of people c ome from those other places, too. And they went, a lot of people went to them. Lot of times these fellows'd play for our dances up there'd play for these others dances, too.

SS: What I call revivals? Is that what they were?

FVF: Well, some of these was that have their tents; have their big tent and then everybody goes and maybe stays nights, and they have it for a week or so. And they'll take their- used to- go and have these protracted meetings, or revivals, or whatever, I don't know what they call em now. But they used to always go and then people'd go and come- them that was close enough, they'd go and come, but they always took eats, you know. Everybody donated the eats. And every body 'd go and take all their kids and everything. That was a big to-do when they had them.

SS: Where would they set up their tents?

FVF: Well, right out in the woods.

SS: Right on Cedar Creek?

FVF: Well, somewhere around there. They usually had it between Cedar Creek and Southwick, is where they used to have it all the time.

SS: So people'd come from both places.

FVF: All places.

SS: Would there be usually the same denomination that would put these on?

FVF: Well, I don't think so. I don't remember, they just had the meetings and everybody that wanted to- because afterwards- I think they just go and give theirselves to Christ, and'they would have a big day of bap^ tising and stuff like that afterwards.

SS: Baptise them right in the creek?

FVF: Yeah, they was a creek not too far from where they had it there. They'd go up there and have it. There was quite a little hole there that they had that they baptised 'em in.

SS: People have said to me that that stuff was pretty emotional for a lot of people that would go.

FVF: Oh, yes, some of 'em'd just go crazy! Just go crazy! But people do that anyway! I know some of 'em'd just go wild. Then we used to have what we called chautauquas. Did you ever—?

SS: I've heard of them.

FVF: Used to go to them. They had 'em here in town.

SS: Kendrick?

FVF: Uh-huh. Used to come down.

SS: Were they good?

FVF: Yeah. They had/Nsinging- mostly singing^was all. But everybody'd aome and bring their kids. And they had a big tent down here someplace. One night we come down here, it was in the summertime, and the dust was about that deep. We come down here and it come up a shower and there wasn't any of us could get out, we had to stay in town that night! (Chuckles) Just come enough rain that it just wet that just enough that we couldn't get out. We had trucks.

SS: SS: Too slick.

FVF: Uh-huh. Tod slick, we couldn't get out.

SS: Where did people stay? At other people's houses? 9?

FVF: Well, they all* 'em had friends. And then there was the hotel there, up here. But that hotel.has saw it's last days, as far as most people are concerned. Those people that's running this farm down below here, the ones that has this Country Kitchen, well, they're the ones that got the hotel and.had quite a stir over some stuff that they had there. Well, they just don't keep things clean, that's all there is to it. I don't know what'11 happen. But I just thought last night, of all things, if people come in here, happen to got caught here in town, I don't know where they'd stay, because I wouldn't want to see anybody go stay there at the hotel.

SS: Because it isn't sanitary anymore?

FVF: I don't think it is. I don't think there's anything sanitary there. And they got this scabies or some of that stuff in there! I wouldn't want to have to stay there. And, of course, people that'd come in wouldn't know it.

SS: There's one thing about those protracted meetings that I was going to ask you about; and that is, people have said to me that they thought the effects of that wouldn't be too lasting a lot of times. That peo ple might be converted and then they would backslide again. Do you think that would be true, or do you think they really changed the, you know, the spiritual outlook?

FVF: Well, I think it did for some people. But then you know, some p eople are just that way. Now just like my brother; they weren't- they weren't much on the church deal and they went down- they were down Hood Ri ver, and he always followed the harvesting. He'd start in down there and then he'd harvest clear through up to Idaho. And so, one year they came up, and he was taking the family home and then he was going to come back and I was visiting my mother down at Milton-Freewater. So he wanted me to go back with him and then he'd- then when he come back I could go down there just for the trip and then back with him. He was coming right back; so I did. And him and her had just gone crazy over this- oh, it wasn't Billy Graham, but another fella—

SS: Billy Sunday?

FVF: Yes, I guess it was Billy Sunday.

SS: He was pretty well known in those days.

FVF: Yes, It was Billy Sunday. So they wanted me to go with 'em, they were going to church and they wanted me to go with 'em, so I went with 'em one night. And, now, they had a family and they lived just right on a street there, and they left those children home while they went to this meeting and I went with 'em. And I never was in such a place in my life! (Chuckles) So, when we got home, they was talkin' about Brother so-and-so and this and that and the other and they thought he was just- maybe he was! I don't know, but to me- I said, "Well, I'll tell you one thing, if I had any young folks, any young boys or girls, they wouldn't step in that place if I knew it." Because he got up there in front and he just went plumb crazy! Now that's all there is to it! He undone his tie and he throwed it on the floor and he just took off everything one at a time, he was worked up, you know, he was so worked up and all, and he just kept doing that. And I said, "I would never allow my children to go to anything like that." Because, as you say, I think it just worked on their- just get 'em in such a state that they didn't know what they was doing.

SS: Did they bring their kids to it?

FVF: No. They didn't take their kids. And I said, "Well, I think your first duty is at home. And if you let them kids run wild, they way you do, and go there. I don't think that's what you should do." I said, "Your first duty is there at home with them kids."

SS: How do you think it worked on Cedar Ridge as far as— there wasn't any one denomination or anything; do you think that that hurt at all, any body, or do you think it's just as well to have a community- if you're going to have a church, to have a community church like that?

FVF: Well, I just really don't know. But there was only a few people in that part of the country that went to most of these places. That ever got in such a pitch as that, just all worked up. But I don't believe in that. I don t think you have to get and make a big to-do or anything. I don't know how other people believe, or anything, but I think that - in my estimation, it shows- well, I don't know what you would call it- but anyway, just like I said to him, I said, "I don't believe in that." Now, that's all there is to it. That emotion, may for the time being, it might be alright, but when they're over that why then, that's all there is to it. And I don't believe that anyone can go to a place like that and go forward and give themselves to the Lord and all like that and then go home and be a regular old hypocrite. Now, that's the way I , but then, everybody's different. They have their own ways.

SS: If you have some kind of religious feeling at all, it ought to express itself in your life and the way you act towards other people.

FVF: That's what I say. Well, I've saw one or two people; we had one or two neighbors up there on our Ridge that I said if there ever was Christians those two women were Christians. I don't care how people would talk, you know they'll get to talking about somebody doing this and somebody doing that and they're doing, this and that and the other, and those two people could always see something good in those ones that they were talking about, thought they were so terrible. And you know, you look around and if you stop to think there's just most anyone- there's something good in 'em if you happen to hit the right chord. There's something good in everybody.

SS: So these women didn't judge other people?

FVF: No. But they would always say, if they were talking about this party, or anything, they'd always say something good about thi s person. They would do this or they would do that. For instance, there was one fel la up there that, oh, he was a kind of a harem-skarem, you know. But he was the best person that you ever saw, if you needed someone or you needed somebody to go to town get something, or if you had to have someone -to stay with the sick, or if you had to have something done, like someone passed away or something, and they had to be shaved and dressed and taken care of, he'd do that. He'd just do anything like that, and he had this other- he wasn't a very good character, as far as that was concerned. He'd do all these things.

SS: When you say haren-skarem, like would he drink a lot?

FVF: Well, yes, to a certain extent. Just anything. But he was good in-

SS: He had a wild streak.

FVF: Yeah, just a wild streak, that people thought was terrible.

SS: But all these things that he did. When they started a church there was it a community church. When they built the church.

FVF: Well, it was supposed to be a United Brethern, I think was the name of it. But then any denomination, if they could get anyone to come there to preach, why, it was any denomination that would come. But it's just worked out til the old-timers are just all gone and they don't use it any more. They did have Sunday School for many years, but J don't think they have Sunday School anymore. Don't think there's anyanybody'd come. I went up there a time or two and stayed with my neighbor and we went . on Sunday and there wasn't anybody come, but just her and I and another neighbor - he was supposed to be the main one. And now, he's away from up there and she's gone, the lady's gone. So I don't think they have any gatherings at the church anymore.

SS: Do you think they got along pretty well before they had a church as far as having the services.

FVF: Well, I'l tell you, they got along^this way, whenever anyone showed up like someone coming to preach in the schoolhouse or something like that, why everybody gathered to go. It was quite a deal. It was just something that they^thought/everybody should go and they did.

SS: Would a preacher be invited by someone to come? Or how would that work?

FVF: Yes, I think sometimes someone would invite them to come, or maybe wherever they were preaching or something, someone would ask 'em to come. And they'd just come and preach. They never had a regular mini ster there all the time. And we were very sorry about that.

SS: Did it seem to be enough for the people? It was what they needed, they didn't have to have a lot more than that.

FVF: But as I say, when they didn't have the church, I know that everybody made a real effort to go when they went to the schoolhouse and like that to have church. And then they'd have Sunday School picnics and everything. Children would go; they'd have picnics for the children. And they'd have big dinners and everybody'd go.

SS: Do you remember that Kendrick fire they had in 1904? The one that burned down the town?

FVF: Well, I don't remember very much about it, only that I know my dad; he was always and forever in the summertime, and why he did it, I don't know, but he'd always go out and he'd see something, maybe an old stump that he thought would burn out, he'd always touch this old stump with a match, he'd always set a fire. So the day of that fire down here, he had been down back of our house, we had a timothy field and this timothy field run to where we had a barn, and the timothy was all way up tall, and down there he touched off a stump, and he never told my mother, she didn't know anything about it. And it was the same over to Southwick, across the canyon, over to Southwick. And when he got there, why, this fire was down here and he came down to the fire. And this here, that he'd touched this match to at home, it flared up during the time of the fire down here. It flared up and caught this timothy and started to run through the timothy up towards this barn. My mother and the boys, I wasn't too big then, and I know the boys and mother got sacks, grain sacks, and buckets of water and they went down there and they beat that fire out. Got it beat out: it wasn't too big and they got it beat out, finally. And it was the same day as that fire down here. And as far as the fire down here, Ithat's all I know about it, because he came down here and he thought it was awful bad. I don't know whether that would be in that book or not.

SS: No, that was the year after this book came out. It was 1903 and the fire was-

FVF: 1905.

SS: Did anybody s house burn down around there? That you remember. I know that fires were a real problem to a lot of people's- a lot of these farmhouses burned down at one time or another.

FVF: Oh, yes, there was a lot of 'em burned. No, I don't remember of any body very well- there was some people that lived up there, Bowens, their house caught QL fire and burned, but that was later years. And we never had but I think this one fire on Cedar Creek here.

SS: Is that Arthur Bowen?

FVF: Yeah, it was Arthur's brother, brother of his, Edwin. It was him and his wife that lived up there. It was the Torgeson, it was Old Man Torgereon, and he fell in thethey were butchering and he slipped and he fell in there and burned him, That is, burned him and he lived for quite a while afterwards, but he finally died.

SS: From those burns?

FVF: From the burns. Yeah.

SS: Wonder how that could have happened? Is that the sort of thing that could happen in a vat?

FVF: Oh, yes. Have you ever been where they butchered? That is, a neigh borhood butcher?

SS: No.

FVF: Well, they build a big vat, sometimes it's pretty good sized because if they have a large hog it takes quite a big vat. Then they heat the water. See, they get the water hot. Or, usually, this vat is made of tin, put tin on the outside- it's either made of galvanized stuff or something like that. I think they used to have 'em wood. But anyway, they're made of this stuff, they usually have it up and then have a fire underneath it, you know. I forget what they call 'em now. But anyway, they had a fire underneath it and then they had, well, like a board- they had up like this- and when they got their pig already to go, they laid him on this board and slid him down into this hot water, you know and then they'd slosh him around in there til they'd get him just the way they wanted. You know how these hair come off. Well, they put him in there, just like scalding a chicken, when it's just right you drag 'em out then and then you scrape 'em on this board. Well, he was doing something around that board and slipped and fell.

SS: I've heard that the Torgerson family really controlled a lot of that land in Park, and a lot of people, like a lot of the girls worked for them at one time or another. -Vhe Torgerson girls.

FVF: Yeah, they all worked out, I guess. Most of 'em til their mother got to where she couldn't do her work and then I think one of 'em stayed with her most of the time. Mr. and Mrs. Torgerson was well known everywhere. Everybody knew him. He was- well, he was a great fellow. And they kept- you know there used to be quite a few people that went back and forth to Elk River and around like that, and they had their stop , these different places. And they had to have a place to stay all night, you know, and get something to eat and feed their teams and like that. And they used to stop at Torgersons.

SS: Why Torgerson's place?

FVF: Well, because he started in that way. He had a big place. He had a lot of hay and stuff like that and he would keep them, you know and charge 'em so much, just like anyone would. And he'd charge 'em so much and they knew they could go to Torgerson's. Well, I can tell you once instance: Now, we added up the list,, but Mr. Fry came to town one day, we had just finished our harvest. The fields were all gone over and they were ready that we could turn our stock out into the fields. And he brought some friends that was up visiting us, he brought 'em to town, driving down, you know, in the buggy, or hack, or whatever it was, there was several of 'em. He brought 'em to town and that evening before he got home, you know they used to have those big long packtrains, but this happened to be a packtrain outfit and then they also had thirty of those old, big fine horses, you know, that they used to use on the Potlatch for timber horses, and they came through from over towards Orofino, they came from over there, and there's a shortcut, they could come down the railroad track from Oro fino- not from Orofino, but from up there somewhere, anyway there was a shortcut and they come down that railroad track. Well, one of the horses, one of these big horses, got mixed up there someway and fell into the river. Well, they put in quite a lot of time trying to save it, but I guess they finally had to let it go. Anyway, they were late, it put 'em about a half a day's late. They intended to go to Torger son's; when they left Orofino, they intended to go to Torgerson's, get through that day.

Well, it was getting dark and so they stopped at Southwick, after they got to Southwick, they stopped there every stopped at every place that they come to to see if they would keep 'em, you know, if they could stay there the night. Well, there wasn't many people but only just had a little pasture, you know, or a little field or a little something, they didn't have too much farm ground, and they just didn't have room for these thirty horses and, I think it was twenty-five or thirty mules, they had, and you know every body couldn't feed that bunch. And the horses was used to having oats and like that. So, they came to our place. One man^he cane up, ne just rode up, and we lived back, it was about a half a mile from the highway, we lived back in there towards the hills, and he rode in there and he asked me if we could put 'em up for the night. I told him, I says, "I don't know, my husband's gone and I don't know ." "Now," he says, "there's six of us, and we've got our beds, but," he says, "If you'll just let us put the horses in here we'd like to stay all night." And then he told about getting laid up for half a day with this horse. So, I studied and studied, and Iknew that after they left our place there wasn't any place that they had enough that they could keep all that bunch. Well, the fields was just ready that they could turn the mules all into the field. And then we always just kep* hay enough for our own stock that we was going to have, you know, like bundled hay and stuff like that, we only just kept enough for our own stock, so Isaid, "Well, could you turn your mules into the fields; just turn 'em in there and let 'em eat, you know, what they would?" "Well, yeah, that'd be alright." So, I said, "Well,kyou can do that, it might be alright if you do stay, and we'll see about the big horse when he comes home." So, he didn't get home til dark. They were just ready to eat supper when he got home. He come ahoppin' up onto the porch and I was scared of my life, I thought he'd eat me up for lettin' them all stay. But, had thought about there was no place they could stay after they left our place.

SS: They never would have made Torgerson's.

FVF: No, they couldn't have, it was dark then So he come in, no, every thing was alright. And so we kept that bunch that night, and of couse, they paid good when they stayed like that. So we kept the bunch. And then from then on out, we used to- every once in a while they'd come in and stop at our place instead of going on then, they'd stop at our place when they'd come through. So for a good many years, we had the packtrains stopping at our place.

SS: Were they working for the Potlatch?

FVF: Yes, it was Forestry men and Potlatch, too. Because they had these big horses. And Mr. Fry just happened to have the grain and stuff that he could feed the horses. They were sure very appreciative of it. They were awfully nice about it. And from then on out, they said, well, now that they knew they could stop there, they said they might be times. So, they did, after that there was several times they stopped. And I got to know some of 'em real well because they would stop there. This would

SS: You never had any trouble putting on a big feed all at once because of all the food that you had there. I mean if you had a surprise bunch of people coming in—

FVF: I always raised lots of- in the springtime and summer, I always raised lots of young chickens and it was nothing for me to run out and dress four chickens or whatever I had to have, and then I built my meal around it and they thought they had the world by the tail. I didn't have any trouble at all. One time they were some boys that we knew real well, there was about a half a dozen of 'em come up from town here, they were Clarence's friends, and they'd all been out and they'd taken a sandwich, but this was along in the afternoon, and they came by our place and they stopped there. There was only one fellow that'd own up that he was'hungry; and he's passed on now- I don't think there's any of them boys left, I think every one of 'em's gone, and they stop ped at our place. And so Clarence, someway he happened to mention something and this one fellow said, "I'm starved to death." And the other boys wouldn't say nothing. So, I told Mr. Fry, "Alright." So I had young chickens. I went out and got my chickens and I fixed 'em a dinner. They never did get over talking about that. (Chuckles) Because I fixed that dinner. And I always thought that if I had nice meat, I could just build a meal for anybody. So one or two extra never made any difference. They was so much of us anyway, so many of us. I enjoyed it, cooking for the men and for those boys. I had some of the nicest kids. I never had but one or two kids that wasn't just as nice as they could be. The brushcrew kids. And, oh, they all liked me, we just got along fine.

0:00 - Her working career

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Segment Synopsis: Her working career.

8:00 - Mother did most work in house, father worked in towns as depot agent

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Segment Synopsis: Mother did most of the work on their Cedar Creek place, while father worked in various towns as a depot agent. A bachelor neighbor did their heavy farm work in partnership with father.

15:00 - Traveled to Kendrick and Spokane for variety of items

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Segment Synopsis: They went twelve miles to Kendrick a couple of times a year; they got sugar in February. They went to Spokane for some specialty items. They got small items at the store on Cedar Creek.

20:00 - This area looked much better to parents than Kansas. Dependable crops

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Segment Synopsis: This area looked much better to parents than Kansas. Dependable crops.

22:00 - Fun in Cedar Creek; parties, dances, first talking movie in Walla Walla

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Segment Synopsis: Making their own fun: visiting, dances, "hard time" parties. Her first talking movie, in Walla Walla. Enjoyment of farm work more than inside work; love of horses.

29:00 - Husband's family: they had the money to buy the land they wanted

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Segment Synopsis: Husband's family: they had the money to buy the land they wanted.

30:00 - She raised family but did outside work like canning and packing flour

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Segment Synopsis: While she raised her family often, she did outside work. Canning in enormous quantities. She used a fifty pound sack of flour a week. Meat supply - help from a German neighbor who was an expert butcher.

45:00 - Feed threshing crews, kept coming back during rainy harvest

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Segment Synopsis: Feeding threshing crews. A crew that kept coming back during a rainy harvest. Big neighborhood dinners at homes, on Easter, with dancing.

52:00 - Helping each other in sickness. Simple funeral preparations. Attending childbirth

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Segment Synopsis: Helping each other in sickness. Simple funeral preparations. Attending childbirth.

58:00 - The family was struck with flu. Many died from the after effects

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Segment Synopsis: The family was struck with flu. Many died from the after effects. (continued).

60:00 - Taking care of the family with flu, without help from husband

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Segment Synopsis: Taking care of the family with flu, without help from husband.

64:00 - Doing farm work. Her canner. They couldn't afford a hired hand

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Segment Synopsis: Doing farm work. Her canner. They couldn't afford a hired hand.

74:00 - People helped neighbors; families that lived off of neighbors were disliked

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Segment Synopsis: People helped neighbors on their own initiative. A large family that lived off the neighbors earned their dislike. Sharing with neighbors. Partnership between father and his neighbors; father's ignorance of farming. Father killed birds with rocks instead of shells.

87:00 - Community church on the creek, tried to discourage dancing

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Segment Synopsis: Community church attendance. When a church was built on the creek, some tried to discourage dancing. A minister who encouraged a harvest ball after the service.

90:00 - Churches in the area, local church was United Bretheren; her experience with her Christian neighbors and of Billy Sunday

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Segment Synopsis: "Protracted meetings" - baptisms, going crazy. Getting caught in Kendrick by rain after Chautauqua. Her dislike of a Billy Sunday revival meeting, as an emotional but shallow experience. Her two Christian neighbors who saw something good in everyone; a rough character who had a good side. The local church was United Brethern; before the church came people met when a preacher came, and for Sunday school.

106:00 - Family put out fire started by father on the same day that Kendrick burned

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Segment Synopsis: Family put out fire started by father on the same day that Kendrick burned.

109:00 - Mr. Torgerson died from fire burns; Torgerson's place was major stopping place on route from Kendrick to Elk River

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Segment Synopsis: Mr. Torgerson died from burns after he slipped into a butchering vat. Use of vat. Torgerson's place in Park a major stopping place on route from Kendrick to Elk River.

113:00 - Putting up a big pack train which arrived unexpectedly at night; It was always easy for her to put out a big dinner

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Segment Synopsis: Putting up a big pack train which arrived unexpectedly at night. It was always easy for her to put out a big dinner.

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