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The following tape was made with Florence Liney Ingle in her home on BearRidge in Idaho.She grew up on Little Bear Ridge, and knew almost all of the people in the Troy and Kendrick area in the early days. Her father was a farmer and she married a farmer, King Ingle, and many of her memories and stories are on this tape of the days of horse farming, thrashing crews, fruit growing, early schools and cattle rustlers. The interviewer is Rob Moore.
ROB MOORE: When did you come to the county?
FLORENCE LINEY INGLE: In 1884. I mean we came by train. From Wigley, California. Thatarea. Any way, was our county seat at that time and they called it an immigrant train. They were mostly immigrants on it. It wasnft very fancy, you know. Our seats weren't really They put new seats in there. They had stoves, you know, I guess in the immigrant trains they always had the stoves in they heating in those days. Anyway I was only two years old. One thing I remembered on that train was seeing these strange people. They were always interesting to me. I'd go from one seat to another, I suppose... I'd gaze up in their faces. One lady just across the aisle from where we were setting, she handed me out an orange. I didn't know it was an orange. Ir heard of lemons, but I didn't know about oranges. I was only two years old, And I took it over to my folks. Mother took it and It's an orange." she said.(laughs) That the first time I ever seen an orange, (laughs) I don't know whether it was growing in California at that time or not. That was way back in 1884. I doubt very much that they were growing, they might have been trying some orchard^ out but the oranges came later. They grew lemons That's why I thought it was a lemon. It was yellow I'd never seen an orange before.
RM: Uhy did your father leave the area down there?
FI: Father had grown up in Missouri. And they he was interestedin stock back there. And, this Feather River in California it was rich farm land. And father, I forget how many acres he had there. It was a large area the farming was quite heavy and he had to do it with all horses in those days, And he did raise good crops. But out of 7 crops he lost 3. The river came down from Orville you know, down through there. Down past Griddley, we were about 8 miles from Griddley. And that was all a nice valley through there. Well father's land was just in the right place for the wat to wherethe leva would break up there 1the miners up levees and they'd break and let the water down on our farm land. Se father lost 3 crops out of 7. And that was a little discouraging to him. Our crops were heavy though, he raised very good grain. And very heavy I mean,This was advertised...he up in the stock country, he wanted to get in the stock business.
So Idaho, hewas Idaho had been advertised even down there as a new stock country. So he had a brother in law, my mother's brother had moved into that section on Little Bear Ridge there, where we moved. And they'd been living there 3 years before we went there. So they were quite well established and that was one reason why we went there, Qecause this brother of hers, we knew him very well. And she thought a great deal of him. He'd been a Civil War veteran. But I should go on with my story. liie found it all right there on Little Bear Ridge. We settled, we came to Moscow and stayed overnight there. We perhaps stayed several days there. And then we moved out to our homestead on Little Bear Ridge.
RM: What was the name of this brother in law?
FI: My brother...
RM: He'd be your...
FI: He was my uncle. His name was Porter. Lidow Porter. His name... he'd comefrom Tennessee where my mother had lived in Tennessee. And they lived in Tennessee, but they had come west and they were living down here at Dayton. But they bad moved up here before wis came from California. So he was one of the earliest of the settlers on Little Bear Ridge. I have a list of names. I have the data on when they moved here. Would you be interested in that?
RM: We can do it later.
FI: Can you? Gkay. I'll tell you then. Okay, I have them in there. I'll-haveto look them up. But they're in my little drawer in there. Wei...
RM: Did your father take out a homestead when he came here?
FI: Yes, he took a homestead but the farm land that he bought, father had soldhis property down there and he had some money you know. We didn't come here paupers, you know, without anything. And he bought live stock that he could get along with on the farm.He had bought a couple of cows, and two horses at first, was all he could get. And he finally picked up more. So he began finding the land there. It was good farm land. He set out, and one of the first things he did and he did that before even we came. He came up here before the family. The summer before. And he set out an orchard. He found the land where he was going to settle it. Where he was going to homestead. And he set out an orchard, a big orchard. He set up all kinds of trees. He set up pear trees, apple trees, peach trees, and then prune trees, he had quite, he had about 10 acres of prunes on it. These Italian prunes. They were just plenty then. people that had come before that had the prunes before, already. They wbre putting up dryers and drying them, prunes. There was quite a sale for dried prunes. In those days there were lots of demand for things like that over in the mines. They'd come to our local stores and fill up. At our local stores where the supplies the So you could sell prunes and ; father thought he could dry prunes. He built a^little dryer on the place. And we had a lot of fun drying. We came in for supper one evening and I looked out and our dryer was all a blaze so we lost all-our dried prunes except for some that they'd brought into the house. Oh, that was kinda a blow to us. He didn't go to worry the dryer he had put on. He'd been back to Missouri, he'd gotten money from their estate back there. I think his father had died I believe and they'd allowed him his part in, hts share in the estate. He'd put most of that money he got into that prune dryer. So he felt pretty badly about that.
RM: How did it catch?
FI: We never knew. We thought.it was set afire. My brother had just come upfroH there, he'd always looked at it. Well he'd been taking care of it, the stove, the fucnace down there. And we looked out the door and it was all ablze. We had some pretty treacherous neighbors in that time. There was one man especially was treacherous. His wife told us about him because he was flean to her, very mean to her. She was a good woman. She had relatives out here at Troy, but he was mean to her and sort of cruel and course she had hard feeling toward him. He off with another woman. And so she came up to our house and she told us all the troubles. She told us all about what he was like. That's the way we got to find out about him. She said he belonged to the Black Hand, you've haard of that? It's, well, just a dirty bunch, you know. It was among some of the Swedes and different people that moved in here. I didn't know of anyone else Lloyd, but his wife told us that he belonged to that Black Hand bunch.
RM: What did they do?
FI: Oh they just get it in for people and they just do mean things just onparpose.Not that they had a grudge, but just because they " not be the same nationality you know, for that matter. No, they're just naturally mean. And I think I don't know much about it, but I know it's very bad. It's a very bad group, one of the very worse.
RM: Was part of that Saede and Norwegian conflict?
FI: It's the Swede, he was a Swede. He wa s Swede and he was an unculturedSwede. He could speak a broken English, his wife is much more intelligent than he was or better informed. She was a good woman, she was a very good woman, but I think he made life quite miserable for her. Or she wouldn't have told us. And she was so broken down about his running off with this other woman. Leaving her there. I think he was gone a month or so.
RM: He came back?
FI: He had a pickup, and yes he finally came back.(laughs)The woman came backto her husband, they lived on a little joining place.(laughs)So there was this Hammond. Her name was Hammond. They left our neighborhood then of course, they couldn't live there after an episode like that.
RM: This was the Suede?
FI: No, they weren't. I think the Hammonds were Norwegians on one side. I don'tthink they were on both sides. I just don't know them well. I didn't knots them well. But they had two children, very nice children that attended school with us. But she ... I don't know. She lived in Troy and Troy wasn't a wild town then.
RM: Who was this?
FI: Yes, in the early days it was an awfully wild town.
RM: Why is that?
FI: Well so often these little western towns, a lot of people would move intothem. It just seemed like all of them had some very tough characters.
RM: Were there any...
FI: You don't have in those days, nowadays if the towns are so clean comparedto what they used to be. We don't have that sort of thing.
RM: Were there any characters in particular that you remember.
FI: Well I wouldn't like to mention them.
RM: You wouldn't have to mention them by name. Oust things people did.
FI: Well I just never dwelled on anything like that.I usually hear it all.I was one never to repeat things much and that was one of the rules of my, our home life. That they could discuss things with us at home but we weren't to discuss with neighbors or... you know, it makes trouble in the neighborhood. You can just, people pack things and just keep the neighborhood all in an uproar, you know. But no, - believed in talking about your neighbors" at all, saying thay, you know. My mother and father were except ional people. My mother had had very good bringing up. She lived in Tennessee. She her, she was, they were Scottish, Schotch, they called them Scotch-Irish. But they were Scotch people and they're very strict in bringing up the children and teaching them the Bible and that sort of thing. They were, and they believed in education, the families as far as they could could be educated in those days were educated.And mother's sister married a doctor that was in the neighborhood there. And...
RM: Which doctor was this?
FI: Doctor was my mother's uncle. Her sister had married, marriedthis there in Tennessee, and he lived at Greenville, Tennessee. And his practice was in the surrounding country. And in those days they rode horseback in the country. And mother said she thought so much of Dr. because when he had to come out to the coontry, he always came to their house across, 'cause they were youngsters, you know, and he'd eat dinner with'em because he like her mother's cooking.(laughs)And her mother was a wonderful cook I guess. I heard them say that she was. I've heard her nention things that her mother had cooked and we always thought my mother was a wonderful cook. Most people that came they always pleased with the food she cooked. She said she couldn't cook like her own mother. She could cook as good as her own mother did. So maybe that's what she thought, but we all everybody thought mother was a good cook.
RM: Do you rmember the town of Troy being started?
FI: Yes, yes, we used to go, we had, there was a sawmill out in the flat onthe other side of Troy. That meadow out there, what do they call it, a meadow out on the other side of Troy.
RM: West of Troy or north of Troy?
FI: Yes, it was west, northwest of Troy. There's a meadow out there and wehad some, you see...
RM: About where the ballfield is new? Somewhere in there?
FI: Out in the woods up in the valley there. Yes up in there. And there'sa creek came down there, I forget the name of that creek that's a large creek that comes down. It comes down the north of Troy and comes down there. I think that there's a creek that still comes down through there. Anyway there was a sawmill out there. And these people there, people that worked at the sawmill were good friends of my father and mother. They, there was usually in those days, the church usually held them together. There was a little Baptist Church on Burnt Ridge and we all attended church, go.to Little Bear Ridge to Burnt Ridge to attend church out there and Sunday School. And they didn't have preachers to go around everywhere. Finally youngster, just about from 3 to 4 years old, I don't know if I was any older than that or not. I know I wasn't any older than that. We drove there to the Sunday School. Fat her was superintendant of the Sunday School. Other people from Little Bear Ridge drove out there to Sunday School on Burnt Ridge, it was just a little log house, log cabin there by the side of the road. I think the highway goes up to just about where the cabin used to be. I could find it Some people by the name of Morgans lived just across the road up on a hill above there. And there's one I think, there's still in Moscow by the name of Morgan that belongs to that same family. I'm sure he does. Lives out in the north part of Moscow. I guess they could tell you more than I could because they'd lived on Burnt Ridge and raised their families. His family grew up there, he was just when I knew him.
RM: How did the town of Troy get itself going*? What was it like before therewas a town there?
FI: You see, there was a man named Vollmer. He was the big banker in Lewiston.
RM: Did you know Vollmer?
FI: No, my folks did, yes' they knew him very well. He was, I think he wasJewish. I don't know. But he came from New York to Lewiston. And he built a big saltbon there. And a marketing house. And he got most of his money begin with. And they say he started on a barrel of whiskey. A barrel of whiskey and he divided that barrel up into several and, that's what they told us.
RM: That's the story they tell about.
FI: Yes that's the story they tell about him. But he got his start with sellinga barrel of whiskey there in Troy.
RM: Troy or Lewiston?
FI: Lewiston, Lewiston yes. Uollmer, they tried awful hard to get somethingnamed for him in Lewiston. But he was a very grasping man. He didn't come there to build a place up. He came there to make money himself and he did. He made money hand over fist. The people, he put up a store, a mercantile store there. And people would come there and run in bills and finally they couldn't pay their bills and he kicked 'em mad. He hauled 8000, hundreds of acres in Potlatch Ridge and around Genessce over here. He, that's how he took people's farms. Now that wasn't good business, you know. That was good business for him to get the money for him. But to build up a countryjthat's just not the way to do. If you're going to build a country you have to build up the farms. And the farmers, instead of getting everythmg they had. Then rent farms to people that weren't especially good farmers. And the land got all rundown all around Lewiston and over here on Genessee that country was just a weed patch. And because he didn't get the best of farmers on there. Well, he'd get the farm from them and that's about all he wanted, was the land. And he owned nearly all of that laid and so Uollmer didn't have a very good name when he came to Troy. And he started that .
RM: He started the First Bank of Troy?
FI: They didn't call it the First Bank of Troy then. I don't know what theycalled the bank then. I think they called it the Uollmer Bank. I'm sure they called it the Vollmer Bank.
RM: Was there a little town there?
FI: It was a little village, it was just, people had built all over the hillside there And they had a church I think the Lutherans had the main church there. I don't know. I think there was a Methodist church at one time. And so, but people got down on him because he was just like started at Troy, just like he did around Genessee and Lewiston. Tatting, getting people in debt to him and taking their property. That's no good banker. No good banker will do that. And I'll tell you how. You don't need to use this for a not£ But just to contrast the difference between a banker of that sort and a banker that will build up. Martin-Thomas moved ^to Kendrick here. He lived on American Ridge. He made real good on American Ridge. He took over the bank. It was one of the first banks of Kendrick, I foret what they called it.
RM: Farmers Bank?
FI: it was the one before the Farmers. It was the one down there whereFrank Martin, where the post office is. There's where the first bank of Troy, of Kendrick. But Martin Thomas began to help the farmers. He found, gave them advise and thell them what they could do and what they couldn't do. We had farmers that would just buy anything they could buy on time. Well Thomas didn't believe in this. He saw that they for what they got. And that's what built up Kendrick and the people around Kendrick. He was absolutely, and the bank in Kendrick's been like that ever since. They tried to see if the farmers aren't doing the right thing. They'd give them advise they should have and tell them what to do. Or to quit rather than take their property. No, I don't think Martin Thomas would have taken a man's property for anything. He just started a new trend. And I think Frank Brocke's followed the same around Troy. Dust the same. Because he He started under Thomas, Martin Thomas there at Kendrick. I don't think he liked Martin Thomas very well because they get a little grouchy and he wasn't very stylish.
He wore good clothes but he didn't think verymuch of clothes, about clothes, about how he looked. He was just an old farmer theflC.And he did have a mind. He had a good financial mind. Because my husband was a director of the bank there for 20, over 20 years I think. And he never did have anything to say about Martin Thomas, only the only thing I heard Isim sayibout Martin Thomas that he didn't like. He said he put too much confidence in some people. People that he wouldn't have confidence in. But as long as King was there, he always, my husband, he would advise Thomas about people And he would take his word for it. Because my husband was very good at judgingpeople, exceptional I doubt if they've ever had a better man in Kendrick, just for being able to judging people and still get along with them and not make them angry. As my husband was, because I know when King died there was a writeup in the paper that pleased me because they said that King Ingle, let's see, the favorite of this entire a good name you know. And most friends I don't know just how it was worded. I had it someplace, the article. But anyway, they gave a very good reputation for building, getting along with the people. And he was. And I know when after he passed away, several of the young men came and and said, "You know, King Ingle was a father to me." There's a lot of violence in the country at that time. Drinking and leading the boys astray.
And King was just against that, he had beenwell brought up and he'd tell them where they'd go and what had happened, If they kept on. One young man he was a Negro over here, and I can tell you this, don't put it in writing. He told King, you know they were great to get together and drink. And King, they offerd King some and King said, oh no, he didn't think he wanted any. Well this you man said "If you don't krink, you can't associate with us." This is what King wanted so he didn't. He said he have any friends in this neighborhood. Well he wanted to get King as long as he was here I guess. But he finally got tired of it and left. He owned this place over here and went to California and finally died you know. And just kept on his bullheaded ways, I guess. He was German and some of them don't ever change, I guess. Something in their head. They thought if your were going to be a man, you had to drink beer and liquor with them. So they didn't get King to do that.He was just as he could be. Oh, he might take a sup of whiskey or brandy, you know. Oust, you know, to drink. He didn't care for those things. He hadn't been brought up that way. He wasn't afraid he'd get started, you know, drinkig, because he knew he wouldn't do that. But most of them would. They'd get started then they never quit. It sort of ruins in a way, their character. Because they get to associate with that element of people. And it makes life just a little bit harder for them than if they had gone their own way. Most of them, you find out you just couldn't find a better man than King Ingle. People that lived here will tell you that. He was my husband and^never could see any that coul take his place with me.(laughs) just how fine he was, you know. How good and how interested, in people It wasn't that he just wanted to critize people. He didn't want to see them ruin themselves. By picking up things that they've make habits of and they probably would never do it again. Well that's the kind of man my husband was. So we had a happy life together. He was a good worker, a good planner and a good business emblem. That was exactly the kind of man and if he wanted to something, he'd do it.
RM: Could you tell me more about the early days of Troy?
FI: I didn't live there, but someone that did live there could tell you somcuh more.
RM: How about the early days around Little Bear Ridge?
FI: We were about, oh Little Bear Ridge I could 'cause I lived on Little BearRidge, I knew the people, all the people on Little Bear Ridge. Well some of our first settlers there were Swedish people. qood Swedish people though. I mean, there weren't enough of them that they were clannish. We built a church on Little Bear Ridge. It was a Methodist church that went up there. Those people always attended church and our church and the Methodist church, ^was the only church on Little Bear Ridge. And that's what I like about the Swedish, they clannish because the church...
FI: They couldn't go to the church they had grown up with. They didn't refuseto come to our Methodist church on Little Bear Ridge. I respected them for that. And there were churches there were Scandinavian chtffeches up north. In this north country north of Little Bear Ridge. Back up there. They used to attend church up there later, quite a bit, you know. But they weren't built, they had churches in Troy, of course, first otff Little Bear Ridge. church was built earlier.
RM: Did people in general get along pretty well out there?
FI: Yes, there was always some cantankerous ones in the neighborhood that wasselfish and wanted to run things and be bossy. But people kind of ignored it.We didn't live, there wasn't much quarreling. I suppose I. could think; back enough I fcould recall some scraps. I didn't foilou that line very much.
RM: Did people cooperate a lot when they worked?
FI: I think they were very cooperating, yes. They helped each other in earlyday. That's the only way they had to. They got along, they didn't have a hired man as a rule. They had, father used to hire some Swedish people up^the country. Let's see, we had a man by the name of Erickson that worked for us. He come to work in the summertime. He was a good hand, a very good hand. I think when he first came down on the farm there, he'd never ridden horses and my brother Charlie was always full of fun, he told him, he said how to get on him. Well he got on and he got on with his head towards the tail.(laughs) finally Charlie laughed at him and told him how to ride though. But that's the way he got on the horse when he first got on. Facing the tail.(laughs) They didn't know about guiding the horse or anything about it. You see horses is a new thing to him. I don't think Charlie would tell him to get on facing the tail. I don't think he would. (Laughs) I wouldn't say he didn't but I wasn't out there, I didn't hear it.(laughs)Charlie was full of tricks. He used to, to talk to him and learn English from him. He liked to teach some English and that's the one thing Charlie got the biggest kick out of. Was teaching English to these Scandinavians who came there that couldn't speak English. They liked it too. I know he said he could help Ole Bohman speak. He taught him, worked with him, he worked with him. He taught him some of his first English. That was my oldest brother.
RM: Did you attend school there on LIttle Bear Ridge?
FI: Little Bear Ridge I attended till I was, that was the only school I attendeduntil I went down to Kendrick to attend high school. We'd just go there year after year, we didn't have very long terms, you know. We'd seldom get clear through a book that we'd started in during this school year because they'd school years weren't three months or something like that.And we'd have to go 2 or 3 years to get a year of school. Oust short terms. So I had just gotten so I just know the elementary subjects by heart, that's what we had in our country schools. Elementary subjects like grammar physiology, arithmetic was what they name was. That was, I liked arithmatic better than anything else. I liked grammar too. I don't know how many grammars I went through,before I even went down to high school. I got tired gti ng to the country school I said, I'm not going to this country school any more. Now my father sent the older girls, you go down to the Normal and they had at the Normal.
Two years preparatory, two years professional. And they do the high school work intwo years there. But they didn't do the preparatory. So he sent my older sisters to Lewiston to go to the Normal, that's what they took. They hadn't had high school so they had to have preparatory work. Well I told them I was going to Kendrick School So I got on a horse and I started in. We always had ponies to ride. I started in, L riding to school, I was riding through the rain down there. So ofoe of the women phoned me, she says,"You know, I'd like you just to come and stay with me. I have my little boy and we'd go out in the evenings. That's part of the deal... And your board would be free if you just come and stay with us." So I did. I stayed with them, oh several months and then I finished up staying in another place. And they were sitting with their children. One little boy, he wasn't quite old enough to be in school, but he like to play checkers. But of course to beat all the time. So I'd play and I'd see that he won. Won several games. And finally I'd win one. Oh, he'd get so mad he'd just, furious. He thought he was winning, you know. I was just letting him so that he could win. His name is Clarence Hamburg, he's stil living. I was telling his sister, his folks have this meat business out of Troy, no, not at Troy, at Moscow.
FI: No, not Davis up on the hill. They live up on a hill there. What's theirnames, I know their names, well everybody knows them. They've been there for years and years. I don't know, their ads in the paper. dut anyway, he, I was telling you about him. Oh yes, I'd let him beat and he'd get so furious that 1 let, that I would win and I was telling his sister about it and she said, she was down there at Kendrick one day, we ate dinner together. And I said how was Clarence getting along? He was the oldest one of the family, you see. She was pretty younger than Clarence. I think Clarence was 9 years old when she was And so I told her than about this playing checkers with him, and how he wanted to win all the time. And how mad he'd get when he didn't win.(laughs) likes to win.
(laughs) Bless his heart. I thought Clarence would be the one that wouldn'tchange, 'cause he was just that way. And that one trait of character he lost all the way, and if he didn't wine he wasn't pleased. If, his mother had taught him to take it in good turn, and not get angry when he won, but be pleased and be glad to see someone else win part of the time. But no, he wasn't that way. He wanted to win.
RM: How long did you live on Little Bear Ridge with your folks?
FI: I lived there until when I was married in 1909, and from that time on Ilived over here. I was married at my home there in Little Bear Ridge in Dune the 23rd, 1909.
RM: Your father died there on Little Bear Ridge?
FI: Yes he did. The cause of his death, the horses ran for a ways down theroad.
RM: What horses aae these?
FI: The team that he was driving.The team that he was driving. Then for a shortdistance down the road then they started up the steep hillside to the left that would be on the same side water was, but it was farther on down the hill. And they went up that steep hillside then way up there, they turned and turned around and came back down the hill. You see, there was a big steep bank there, if you'd been up Little Bear Grade, you'd know what it's like there where that stream was. And the wagon hit the road and overturned there and threw father off on a rock pile, just on the edge of the road. And he was knocked speechless and he never did get his speech back. So he doctored for many years and he lived, did years I think it was 2 years he lived. And he never did get his speech back, but it injured the nerves of his shoulder and chest and he got what they call Bulbar paralysis. This is a disease of the nerves and a set of nerves dies each time. If you look it up in a medical book you see it's a slow, it doesn't come all at once.But they just start in dying, each set of nerves and until I haven't He lived two years with that Bulbar paealysis. That's the way it acts. That's what the doctors told us that bulbar paralysis acted. Two sets, one set dies at a time. Until the last set of nerves the one that control the heart. So he lived two yearaend all that time though, father could get a pen, pencil in his fingers like this, and he would write and tell us anything he wanted to ask usyor, so his mind, it was, it didn't effect his mind at all. It was just the nerves on his spine.
RM: Was Kendrick a pretty good little town most of the time or was it as wildas Troy?
FI: On no, I think they had their wild ones there. But they, I don't knowhow wild Troy is though. I never lived there, so...
RM: It's not wild any more.
FI: No, I didn't think it was. I think they have some pretty good churches thereand people attend church pretty well, don't they. I think Troy's a pretty fine little town now. It's improved a great deal, I think it was in those days. They did make discriminations there, I think, oh, in people. I think that people who are intelligent and trying to build up Troy, they respected I think Frank Green was respected a great deal in Troy. That is Frank Brooke's father in law, is wife's, I knew his wife. I used to go to school with her. Frank Green's wife. Her name was His, the Herberts weren't thought very much of. But a was just always a wonderful person. Franks wife. I knew her as a girl. She was a very very fine. I used to walk to school with her top always home from school as far, came down home. I always . And I was very fond of her and I'd never do anything to hurt her at all. She was a fine person. But Frank Green married her. She was very attractive little girl, she was young, pretty. And other than that I guess when she died, I can't remember if she did but it seems like she did. I can't remember. He was much older, quite a few years older than she was. They lived and farmed on Little Sear Ridge where my folks farmed.
RM: Was there, you were saying about cattle gangs, rustlers.
FI: There were rustlers, but we lost quite a bit of cattle anyway. But we nevertraced them down.
RM: You never knew who they were?
FI: No, never knew. We never found out. We had suspicion of the cattle gang.There was a ring, it was from here to Colfax and Ouiaetta was mixed up in that cattle business too, a great deal.
RM: Do you think the ring was centered in Juliaetta?
FI: I've been told it was, yes. There was somejPvery worst ones in Ouliaetta.Juliaetta used to have pretty tough name. Oust from, well they had a winery there and they made beer too. They distill, beer there too. I guess they distill beer, don't they?
RM: They brew it.
FI: They brew it. They brew beer, that's right. Oh yes, they had a beer brewereythere too. So it was well supplied with liquor. And Kendrick had three saloons though.(laughs) I knew, we went into Kendrick and they'd cross the street before they'd go in front of a saloon and dodge a saloon. They wouldn't even pass in front of a saloon. Women were that strict in those days, a lot of them were. I wasn't so afraid going past a saloon, I kinda liked to look at the pile of beer kegs that were standing out in fronts count them to see how there were piling up. Iwas younger though. We had fun counting things.
RM: One story I heard about this road out here, the road that goes down thegrade from Big Bear here. That the people in Potlatch Ridge wanted a new road and the governor came up here and the people from Bear Ridge snatched the governor away and took him on a ride on this road here?
FI: I've never heard of that. I think that's all made up.
RM: I didn't know.
FI: I'll tell you what happened. Down there in, let's see, Kendrick. No, inBoise there was a boy that had grown up in Boise and lived there. Martin Thomas was in the bank down there and this is inside information and I never told anybody. He rode up, this boy that had lived there in kendrick and he was very well thought of and he wanted to know what, you see, he was in with the road men down in Boise. He wanted to know what we thought of this road Op Bear Ridge.He said,"Now people say they're building it up there just to King Ingle." Well King wrote back and told him if they put a road on across Big Bear Ridge they couldn't go across Big Bear Ridge without crossing Ingle land,'cause of our land spreads out on the far side over there, clear way down over herf you see. Clear down here to the Morey place. The Ingle tead and that's what I told him. Some people say King Ingle wanted it just far himself. And trying to lay in on King and King was in the bank, was the director of the bank h down there. So he got the inside information. Now tis is inside information. And that's what he told the boy and this - had sothing.he could advise the person who was the chief man interested in building the high way up here. And he told him what King thought
RM: I think the story I was told wasn't about this highway, it was about theolder one.
FI: Oh the older one yet. No, I don't about that. The older one. Becausethat was just built by the county. I think in those days. I thing the people of the county built all the early roads. They took their turns on working on the roads and they built the roads and didn't get anything out of it. That was just the grade.The first grades we had made were built almost entirely by well, they would have the road supervisor, he might have been paid something. But I don't think they got any money out of it in the early days. I know my father did lots of and that's the way they did it. They built the roads themselves. Some of them would site a road out for ought to be and then they just go ahead and they had their plcus and diggers and shovels and things like this and go ahead and make the road. I know that road up Little Bear Ridge. Why the first time I went over there it was just wide enough for one of those big wagons. It just made your head swim almost.Those ban^s were steep down below there. Mother couldn't stand it, she'd get out and walk,(laughs) behind the wagon, because it was so steep. We had come from California where we had little roads and th£se hillsides seemed awfully steep to us. So we had a wonderful place there. Perhaps it was too bad we ever left it. Still it was interesting there. It was very interesting. I never regretted it somehow.
RM: Sounds like when you came here it was much more pioneering.
FI: Yes, it was, yes. We got into amix,we didn't have much/pioneering downthere, you know. California had all been settled and it was quite civilized at that time. We had some very fine neighbors down there. And our schools. Father was the director of a school and they took a great interest in their schools. At that time when we came from California, it was supposed to have the best one of the school systems in the United States. Because they had taken so much interest in their schools and building them up and having good teachers and the right kind of teachers. No, that's what we missed when we came to Idaho. No schools here at all then.lthe schools, we just had to build up when we came here. a little log cabin there on Little Bear Ridge.And they used it for a church and school too. Now that was... I just went to school there one year. Or, no I guess I didn't,I visited the school. I went with my brothers and sisters and visited the school. But I didn't start into school until I was 7. Then we had a schoolhouse. When I was 7 years old they built a schoolhouse just across the road from the Nelson place over on the south place there. The place south, lets see who lives there now...
RM: Across from Cherry Nelson place?
FI: Yes, just south, just that road runs between the places.
RM: Benjamin place?know. There's a Noraegian family that lives there. And one of them married one of the Emmett girls, 6f the boys, he owns old farm, that farm place.
RM: I'm not sure.
FI: Riersons. Yes. I think they're Norwegians. And his wife, that Riersonruns a place there. Married an Emmett girl.
RM: One of the Emmett's from Genessee?
FI: That lived there on little Bear Ridge. You see, Pearl Long down here is,her home is up there on little Bear Ridge. just north of where my folks adjoined.
RM: Your place was the place...
FI: South of, I don't know whether the Benjamins live on it there or I don't...Emmetts owned the Emmett land but they rented...
RM: Where were you from Cherry Nelson?
FI: It was farther over to the south and to the east, you see. We were on thelower end of the ridge. We were: next to the...
RM: Could you see the Cherry Nelson place from your place?
FI: Oh no, well, I guess we could if we got up on a hill. Yes we could I thinkbut it wasn't very visible to us. It was besides there,were trees up there, lots of pine trees that was surrounded. We were over on the ediie of the caayon. Our home was and that is where our home was. We had land farther in the ridge. Our home was right on the canyon rim or around the canyon. We could see Dig Bear Ridge better than we could little Bear Ridge. Or the north end of Little Bear Ridge. No,we had a highway up to the Cherry Nelson place. It Cherry Nelsons place, it was place in the early days there. Florence and Dow Porter owned that place. Then he sold to my brother in law, Oscafc Hogan, And Oscar Hogan sold to Cherry Nelson. I don't know of anything else.
RM: With all that farm land you must have hired a lot of labor.
FI: No, we didn't have a lot of farm land.So much of ours laid in the canyon.
RM: I mean after you were married.
FI: No, we always labor. We always had to have someone, some help. We wouldhave a hired man.
RM: Did you everhave the IWW's come in?
FI: No, we ue re never bothered with them. King didn't have any use for them.No we didn't have any trouble with them. They wanted to control labor, don't they. Wasn't that what the IWW's was?
RM: They called themselves one big union.
FI: Oh yes. The IWW's never bothered us much. We usually had a man. We getpeople so cften in those days. We'd get Swedish pepple from the north that come and farm. They loved to learn to farm. And they'd do what you'd tell them. And most of our hired help were Swedish people. They'd work for you year after year. Then we'd just try to go further up north that northern settlement up there that was in Hawkins. Hawkins used to come domn there and plow for father in the spring. Man by the name of Haakins. They were some of the earliest settlers up there.
RM: Around Potlatch or Genessee?
FI: No, it was, what do they call that up there?
FI: I don't have a map or show it right to you. Avon. North of Avon. Butthere's some people around still that, here at Ouliaetta that used to live up there. They'd work up there.
RM: About when do you think the towns of Ouiaetta and froy in particular startedto tame down?
FI: Well the railroad helped a great deal. Getting a railroad through so thepeople could haul the grain to the local markets and ship 'e^and anything like that helps your town. Any produce brought from the farms that sold in the town helpsKbuild it. So I thinVthe warhouse business would help. We had some awful terrible warehouse people. But we had some good ones too. So we, I think that helped to build and our school, our school helped to build and church to help to build Kendrick. We had a good Methodist church at Kendrick. We had some tfery good ministers.
RM: Do you remember the Kendrick fire?
FI: 0h yes. I wasn't, there was two or three fipes there. One of the biggestfires was about 1904. I think it was one, it was the year I graduated from high school there at Kendrick. I was at home on Little Bear Ridge and I could see down there and see the fire burning. There was a doctor at our home at that time and my sister was there and her youngest boy had collry infantum and he was doctoring him. And that fire burned the drugstore in Kendrick. And he lost nearly everything in his office too, 'cause that was right joining the firugstore. So he had to move to Ouliaetta and they moved his practice down there to the drugstore in Ouliaetta. Well this little nephew of mine that had collery infantum was doctored by Rothwell. They moved his medicine down there. They sent the prescription down to Juliaetta and had it filled. They filled it. Dr. Rothwell in the drugstore you know, but they, the druggist filled the medicine. Filled the prescription. And brought it up there and that little boy began to get worse and they called Dr. Rothwell again. And he came up and he said "Let me see what that medicine was." He took the bottle and he looked at it and he cursed. Oh mother said he just walked the floor and cursed. He wasn't a profane aan, he was a very smart man. But that was the way he had of letting off steam. And he said that child can't live, he'll die. And he did.He died in just a day or so.
RM: Was it a mistake, the wrong medicine?
FI: They didn't know you see. The druggist down there didn't fill it right.He gave the wrong medicine.
RM: Did anything happen to the druggist for doing that?
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Segment Synopsis: Vollmer's Lewiston beginnings, his bank founded on a barrel of whiskey. Vollmer forecloses on many people's farms and rents them out, land is poorly used. He starts Vollmer Bank (in what is now Troy). Contrast between Vollmer's destructive banking practices, and the more productive ones of Martin Thomas. Thomas gave advice as well as money.
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