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Latah County Oral History Collection

Remembering Latah County and Idaho Life at the turn of the 20th century

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Date: February 07, 1976 Interviewer: Karen Purtee

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ADA CYLEAR SCHOEFFLER: had some education, but sbe got college down there.

KAREN PURTEE: Well, then they all came over from Oregon?

ADA CYLEAR SCHOEFFLER: Well, they started out in Missouri. She was born in Wisconsin but she was the only one, Ithink, the rest settled in Missouri and she-they settled in she went to college there. And then they heard about land being open here and they came here to settle. And I don't know how they got up on this ridge. It was up on this ridge over here.

KP: What you call Potlatch?

AS: Yes, this is Potlatch.

KP: About what year would this be?

AS: That was in 1880 when they came, to here, anyway.

KP: And there was still land open to homestead?

AS: Yes. This was all open, they were just starting in to settle up there then. It hadn't been farmed, the Indians had hunted and so on here; but there hadn't ever been any farming done. And about that time, I guess after it opened up and they could take out 160 acres, that's what you could homestead, but you had to live on it and show that you were making improvements, trying, you know, to do something about it. Why then, my father had came here from-they started out from Iowa. He was born in Missouri but they Iowa and my grandfather heard about the gold strike in California; well, he thought that was for him. They got there and he didn't find the gold, so he had 120 acres of farm land in Iowa and he went to California and foiled around, and he didn't make anything, then they come on up here and set tled on 160 acres he homesteaded up on-over Fix Ridge, it's on what they called the Little Potlatch thirteen miles, this side of Moscow. And so then, why, my grandmother, which Inever did see, she died before Iwas born, she had heard about some school teachers that was over here-heard about the Welkers, which was my mother's maiden name-so she took ahorse to ride and one to lead, so she decided to go back with her to teach school, they were going to open up aschool. So, that's how she met my fa ther, and he went to school to her only she was older than he was-and finally he got the-

He got the schoolmarm, huh?

Yeah, he got the schoolmarm and the ranch with it, she had.

Oh, yes, you were telling me. Your grandparents homesteaded up there then?

And an uncle of mine and my mother, they were the ones that were old enough-I think you had to be twenty-one before you could homestead. They were of course, beyond twenty-one.

They all three took homesteads.

They all three adjoined, they were right close together.

Was this unusual for awoman to take ahomestead?

No, Idon't think necessarily; they were entitled to it, so I don't know. But I don't think-there was one family there that we know the name of Hepler, that the man and both homesteaded. Iknow the others kind think it was right, but that's all I know about it. Course, I know the people; I remember the people, but that was before my time.

KP: Yeah. Well, the whole thing is very interesting because of the im provements and things. Did your mother do her own work?

AS: Well, see, she done all of her own work, but she only taught for a little while and then after she married, why, the year after she was married she had her first daughter, well, then-her first child, she never taught after. And there wasn't such a thing as a doctor anywhere around there, there wasn't a doctor. And my mother had eight children; she never had a doctor for any of sent and got .... 'em. And my grandmother had A some sort of a book on child birth and she was what they called a midwife, and it was just what she read and my dad talked like that wasn't anything. Mo ther having those children, because her mother was a midwife. Well, I'd like to saw him have one or two of 'em.(Chuckles)

KP: You say your grandmother served as a midwife?

AS: And she'd ride a horse-people'they knew of her then and people would hear about her-and she had two older girls at home who could do the work at home and so they'd see 'em coming riding, they knew it was getting about that time and they'd go get her and she'd stay there and take care of the baby and do the work and cook for them. Of course, it's such a long way to go ahorse back. Up on Cedar Creek for miles around she'd stay and take care of women when they had their babies.

KP: Now, what was her name?

AS: Welker.

KP: She was-

AS: Yeah. That's the one my grandfather homesteaded. And of course, my father's name was Cylear. He lived up on Little Potlatch. There was aJess Oyiear that used to live near Moscow, he got the homeplace, but he was by the second wife. My grandfather had ten children by the first wife, and then she died and then he married awoman much, much younger than him and he was in his sixties and he raised-had four more children. He was busy! He was asoldier in the Civil War. Ihave apicture of him over here, him in his uniform. Then my father, he was never satis fied any one place and he always wanted to sell the ranch, sell the ranch though it was really hers and she put off and put off until she set aprice of $40 dollars, and that's where she made the mistake, as quick as she got forty dollars, she was awoman of her word and he sold it for that. And now, last year, I don't know, I've heard that they weren't so anxious to buy land right now as they were ayear ago, but if they'd awanted to sell that same land they'd agot $1100 an acre for it. Forty dollars! That doesn't sound like much.

Course forty dollars them times wenf quite aways. But they have acredit, you know where stores would take credit for ayear. And my folks, they thought if they had about a$100 store bill and they thought they had an enormous store bill. Iabout spent that much yesterday going down trying to buy some birthday pre sents for the little girls and for my daughter. Of course, my mother, she died back in I91A-1914 she died at the age of fifty-seven, but my father died in 1951 and he was ninety-one years old when he died. But he didn't take things serious. He done more work with his mouth than he did with his other wise. That ain't going to sound very good to some of my- (Laughter) But it's the truth, I'm the only one that's speaking the truth.

KP: Yeah, you were telling me that before, about some of your times that you spoke up to your father. I wanted to ask you while we were speaking about the homestead and the Indians and things: do you remember Mox-Mox coming to dinner.

AS: Yeah, up on Little Potlatch Ridge. We were there one time at my aunt and uncles, they lived up there-had a homestead. My one uncle on my dad's side he homesteaded up on Fix Ridge or up on Little Potlatch,,and he come there and ate dinner with 'em. They were friendly, and he'd go there, but my sister she wouldn't take any of the butter after he had taken some because when he got ready to put some butter on something he'd took the knife and lick the sides of it and put it back in the butter and then Maude didn't want any more butter!(Chuckles)

KP: He served himself-

AS: Yeah, he wanted a clean knife.

KP: He cleaned all the butter off. Did you have dinner there when he was eating there?

AS: I suppose I did, but my sister's a year and a half older than I am,and I don't even remember it, but she remembered it, but I never did remember that part. I remember their house how it was and all of that. And they had taken a boy to—raise, they hadn't adopted him and we had to help him get in their wood. He was an ornery kid. And later, they couldn't keep him and they let him go back,and then he had to go to-back to the reform school. I think he is dead though now. They kept him there, but there was a big, high sidewalk where they had it built down where they had to go down steps to get down to where the wood was,, and he'd push us off of that big, high sidewalk. Well, I was only-well, I started school that fall, I was about six years oldjbut my sister was a year and a half older. We had to help but then we had to get shed off the sidewalk to get the wood.

KP: Did you have a lot of chores like that at home? Hauling wood or something like that? more

AS: No, I worked outside after I was married than I did- at home, well, I was married when I was seventeen, but I had worked out, I made a living after I was fourteen; I worked at housework. I went to Lewiston and worked. And that's all I knew, just to do housework, work for somebody.

KP: Did you live in the place where you worked?

AS: Yes, I had to live in. Of course, up here, they treat their hired help-I know we always did, anyway, keep 'em on the ranch and treat 'em the same as they did their family. But when you work in town some of those people serve their meals, and boy, you don't eat with 'em. You serve to them and then you eat in the kitchen. And they have a nice, big front room and so on, but you go on up to your own room after that. But later on my sister worked just across the street from where I worked and so we'd go to the show or something about twice a week* that's about all we could afford when we was aworkin'. Five dollars a week why, you did all of the housework, cooking and washing and ironing for five dollars, of course, five dollars went a lot further than it does now.

KP: But five dollars to do all the cooking and the housework.

AS: Do everything, and they didn't have electric washers than, when I was working. You had one- but I washed everything on the board but the flat pieces like the sheets and the tablecloths and the pillow slips, they sent to the laundry. And the other things I did.

KP: Did they treat you pretty good?

AS: He was a lot nicer than her, she was a person who was born poor herself and then she married a man who had a little bit. The lady where my sister worked she was more thoughtful. There is a lot of difference in women.

KP: Did you work just in the one place? in Lewiston.

AS: No, I worked other places and I worked up here in harvest, peo ple would have threshers and they used to thresh it all with a machine and well then, they had to have help. And I could hire out for that.

KP: What did you do for the threshers?

AS: Oh, cook and peel potatoes and so forth. Oh, I was only seven teen when I married, but mother was sick and we had to learn how to cook and do things-do housework early. She was sick for a number of years with Bright's Disease of the kidneys. She never doctored and she never complained and my dad had went out over by Moscow to harvest, he run a threshing machine there for thp threshing part of it, threshing tender of the machine that threshes the grain and when he come home why she'd changed so much he took her right away to the doctor, but it was too late, she only lived about a month after that.

KP: Was there a doctor here?

AS: There were doctors here but then she just never complained and so- She'd have spells when she'd be working in the garden and she'd get so dizzy and pass out in the garden and still she'd say, "That was just a bilious spell," was what she called it and she would never want to go to a doctor. So, I can't really hardly ever remember her ever having a doctor.

KP: She didn't have it for her babies.

AS: With none of her babies. I laughed so at my dad one time, he always was telling how much grit he had4and I knew he didn't have too much. So, one time he was atellin' me that-about a Dr. Moser that pulled teeth, how he pulled his tooth and he said how great he was nobody else but Old John Oylear, he always cal led himself Old John, could astood that. And so when I was about thirteen I had to have a tooth pulled and I went in there and Dr. Moser told me an altogether different story!(Laughter) Said he never heard so much cussin' in his life!

KP: You were also talking last time about going to school and how many schools you went to.

AS: I started in Moscow and I left there-I was in the fourth grade when we moved away, I was ten years old and I was in the fourth grade. Well, he didn't wait til the school was out, they moved back over to Leland, that's where we started out on the farm in the first place and they moved over there. And every time he moved he just made the wrong move* it cost him a little bit to move and so we got over there and finished up there. And that fall we started in Leland and then a little later why, we moved to Southwick and went there. Well, then the next year we moved to Kendrick. Moved us back down to Kendrick and we started there, and before school was out in the spring, well, we got back up on Cedar Creek. Well, my sister had taken her eighth grade exams I was in the seventh grade and she was through with that. But I went on up there to an accredited school. But that year, there was just a little bit of school left, so I didn't go any more. But I started in,and Ihad my report card and they let me go ahead as far as that goes, but I had to stay til my term was out. So, I started there, and Iwent that winter and in the spring before the school was out we was back in Leland, and that's where I finished up, I took my eighth grade examinations^and that is where I ended up. And of course, that's as far as I ever got in school.

Was there a big difference between the city school, like Moscow and-

Yes. Course, up at Moscow we not only had to write our spelling words down, we had to put the marks like it was in the diction ary or in your spelling book. And you'd get your written exam inations, you had to know how to mark those so you'd know how to pronounce them. And then, of course, after Igot back over this way in the fifth grade again, why, I never done-that} I just learned to spell 'em, that was all.

Did the teacher -or the class was smaller?

Well, they just have one grade and those up at Leland and the sane at Southwick, they had more than one grade and some of those schools, the country schools, they had all eight grades with all of the subjects to teach. Well, they couldn't do jus tice to all the kids and teach that many. But these little coun try schools they kind of dwindled down, people got so that- the old folks got through having all those children, they didn't have so many any more. When my son started to school there was a teacher there teaching all eight grades, had forty-two or fortythree children that she had to teach and had all those grades. Well, when the girls went they were eight years younger, well there were seventeen, they had dwindled down that much in the time when the twins started. He started to high school the year they started to grade school.

Yes, I guess that would be right, eight years.

Didn't happen with the next time I had children. I had one- I had one girl and in about five minutes another girl! Was that a surprise? Did you know you were going to have twins? No, I didn't know it, because I went down-in the fall when I felt sick, I went down to the doctor and he thought that's what it was but I never did go back. Later on I knew good and well it was but you didn't go and get checkups all time; at least I didn't. And on a Friday I didn't feel good, and I sent and got Fred's sister. She rode horseback up to be with me and he was way off there in the canyon somewhere cutting wood. Willard, he hadn't even started to school til that next fall- oh, yeah, he had, too, he had started to school, but he wouldn't a been in school that day, Saturday he was home. But I couldn't a sent hin back there anyway, because he wouldn't have known where to find his dad. So, he come home that night, well, he thought I had three weeks that I should go yet, and he said, he bawled me out for sending for his sister, but she said if you want me again, Ada, you phone don't pay any attention to Fred. So, I went on, I was home all day alone Saturday and Sunday I got up and I got his breakfast, and we had another barn where we had stock down there down the lane from our place there, there was a big barn down there, he had his stock. And I was getting pretty sick and when he come in the house he helped me fix the bed, and he started phoning to get some help. Now, boy, he was agettin' excited! And first thing he knew he had two babies on his hands and he didn't know what in the world to do with 'em! And Mrs. Stoneburger was the lady that came later they picked her up, and when the doctor came all he done was come in and look 'em over and everything was alright and he could go back to town. The mud was so thick and so deep and we had such terrible roads that they had to just come to this little town three miles from our place with a car and then they had to take the rig on from there and his brother brought the doctor on in, but we didn't need him and Fred's brother-in-law got Mrs. Stoneburger and she came up. Well, she had the babies all dressed an everything was over time he got there. He just as well stayed in town. So, your husband is the one that-

What?

Delivered your twins' then.

Well, he didn't have much to do about it.

KP: Well, he caught 'em! (Laughter)

AS: He just asked me where this was at and that was at, that was all. But he was really excited.

KP: Well, how about you?

AS: Didn't bother me. I never been sick-I never worry about myself. It's the other members of the family. I think I'm tough, I'll come someday. My son-funny he likes to tease me, Fred did too. But anything that makes me mad they just keep saying that So, he got to teasing me after his dad died about u$r boyfriend I was at Lewiston; so here a while back why,Amy daughter was sick and I was down there sending the kids to school and taking care of them and he says,"There's about three of those old guys that you chase around with there in Juliaetta settin' out on your porch there, om the porch when I came down." "Well," I says, "you look again when you go back and tell 'em if they're still there to stick around, I'll be back!" (Laughter) So, if he wanted to play the game I'd play it with him.

KP: Then you were saying your dad used to tease you too about mar rying a German?

AS: German, yeah. Oh, he'd get a little bit perturbed at me because I talked back to him. Maude wouldn't talk back to him, so him and her'd get along fine, but if I didn't like something I let him know it. They usually know what I think. Then he said some thing about- he liked Fred, that was my husband, he liked him alright and he thought the world of his Dad, he was a German all right. And my sister went with a fullblooded German the same as I did and she married one, later on, course I was married a quite a bit before she was and I said, "What's the difference?"

KP: Was there a lot of rivalry between the German people?

AS: 0n there was later years, I don't at first that there was. When they came here, well, even when Fred and I were married and I there at Cameron started going to the church that he went to that Lutheran church, they stuck pretty much to the German then, but you don't see that any more, they have married in. At first those older ones didn't want to marry anyone but a German and they didn't want 'em to talk anything but German around home. Some of those old folks that had been here for years never did learn to speak En glish. And that's a whole lot stubbornness, nothing else. But they are an awful stubborn breed of people as I'm concerned, I lived with one for forty*-four years !(Chuckles )

KP: Yes, you're an expert then.

AS: n Yeah, they are- you're not going to tell 'em anything. But they over in Germany they don't have the resources they have here and they have to do a lot of saving and they came here-these other people had come and homesteaded, well, they eventually got tired of it and they'd sell out to the Germans^ and the Germans they built it all up and built nice homes and stuff. They come back and look at it after they sold it and saw how it turned out and they didn't like it. But it was their own fault. They could a done the same thing but they just wasn't as industrious.

KP: The German people around here were especially industrious.

AS: Yeah, they are. And you notice up around Troy, too; most all those people are Swedes and Norwegians, they're pretty well fixed. They just don't have as much as they had here, they can't afford to waste it back there- But my husband, he used the word, hurry more than any other word in the dictionary, he never told you to do anything but what he didn't feed you that hurry That's just the way his folks lived just run, they'd just go as hard as they could. And he expected everyone else to keep up with him. Keep up with him, if they could.

Let's see, I had something else I wanted to ask you about. We picked up some stories about a doctor in Kendrick^and I don't remember his name. He was supposed to have been a real character. It wouldn't have been Dr. Kelly?

Dr. Kelly?

Dr. Rothwell any of those?

Anyway, I wondered if you remember any doctor?

I remember the ones back as far as a Dr. Stoneburner that was up at Leland. That was a little town there two miles from where our homestead was. And I don't know just what-if I knew just what he might have done.

Well, there was a doctor who was supposed to have a special cure where people would come all over to him.

Must have been a witch doctor!(Chuckles) No, I've never heard of him.

I don't know his name, right now? I can't think of it. I don't know-I may have heard of him, but I don't know what in the heck what he would have that would cure- Well, I don't know .he was genuine anyway. I never heard of that. All I know is that ^nas heard thing and if you tell her, why, she'll tell you. She does, she every! studies history and she does a lot of reading and she's got his- Marcia tory books. When is there, she always is there to take out books and she likes to read. But she tells stuff that Ihappen to know different. Of course, there isn't anything to that but I said','I've never been on that has told me she , that- ?

my place many a time when we lived there." I've never been on that place yet to this day. I've been by it since that time but I've never been on that place, never stepped foot on that place. The Hill place is the name of it. But I've never been on that If she tells you somethingplace.

AThere's two of 'em here, one's an old maid and she's a widow and they say something and they get into the darnedest arguments and I just shut up because there's no use talking be cause youre not going to convince her---

You don't want to take a side.

And sometimes this tell you something,before she gets through —boy, don't say that to her! (Laughter) She makes her self out a liar, she contradicts herself. You were talking about your dad, after your mother died how he went out - and how Ere didn't approve. No, he didn't and he'd get so mad, he'd try to go with -women, there was a widow up there had a little child and she was pro bably in her upper twenties, somewhere along in there and he had kids as old as she was and he wanted to go with her and she chose younger fellows, and he just hated those younger guys. He wanted to court her? What?

KP: He wanted to court her.

AS: Oh, yes. He did remarry, later on, after Mother died. And the first he told us, when mother was alive how no-good she was, how wild she was and everything and after he married her, he tried to tell us how good she was, but Leslie talked up to him, but I didn't; he was married to her and I just let him do his talking but he didn't change my opinion any. But then anyway he didn't have to know it. But I took care of him until months before he died, and then I just couldn't have him any more-got so nervous I just-and we took him and put him in the home and he done such terrible things, that's why I had to take him away. And they was going to send him up to Orofino-well, he was ninety-one then you have to give him a sanity hearing first. It was right around the first of the year and it was a holiday and I knew good and well there wasn't much you could do til after New Years. And so on the third of January, Fred and I, my husband I went up and saw Alma Betts up at Southwick and I told her just whatthe dirty stuff he had done and so on and I just got to the point I couldn't take it any more. And so she said she'd try and so we paid her then-he never had anything when he died. He had a little bit from the welfare and he took that and then we had to make up money to keep him there, as far as that goes? it was well worth it because I couldn't do it any more. But my brother and a sister up at Kellogg, why, we chipped in, but I got one in Lewiston and she could have chipped-just she and her left any more but she is one of those that she likes to be on the end where you take but not to put anything out. So, she's in a nursing home it'll be two years, now, down in Lewiston. And, of course, this spring I was sick and I just kept a getting worse; and I could just feel it pass off, and I fooled along until I pretty near let it go too long. I had gallstones, and I never had those awful pains, you know, like you get, but I'd get real pale and I'd pretty near pass out. And I would get dizzy, and I'd get my car started and go to start somewhere and I'd get dizzy, and I'd just put my car back in the shed. So finally, the kids got hardboiled with me and said I had to go. Well, I was getting where I couldn't take it much longer anywayJ* so I got down there and of course they had to x-ray and stayed at my daughters. Come to find out I had gallstones. I had to have surgery, but they had to get me readyJ if it'd a been two more days that thing would a bursted in me. I didn't have just a lot of 'em like some of 'em do, but I had one great, big one and then some sand in there; but this one was enormous. I have to diet all time now, that is watch-I don't have enough sugar in my blood, I guess it is, the sugar count is low, but I can' have anything with sugar in it because it builds up an in sulin, and the insulin is worse and so I use Sucaril and keep healthy and happy.

KP: Isn't it marvelous what they do these days? Where they didn't in the old days.

AS: Like when my mother died, why, I don't know, now, I think there is a cure for Bright's Disease- there wasn't at that time. But my grandfather died of that, too, and I had a cousin that was twenty of Bright's Disease. It must be

KP: Hereditary thing.

AS: Uh-huh, I think so. Another thing, we was awful doggone big ea ters. We liked to eat. That probably had something to do with it.

KP: You were telling me another thing that I hadn't heard before and that was about running underneath the sidewalks in Moscow.

AS: Oh, that was in Moscow, yes.

KP: I was trying to picture that. How would they build a sidewalk that way?

AS: A wooden sidewalk. A wooden sidewalk and it was up quite a little ways. I would run and hide under there and Dad would get mad at me when he come home and he worked down to the store. There's a

END SIDE 1

David's store there yet. Used to be David Ely's.

KP: She was telling me that she thought they told so much

AS: That's the way I was with my dadi and then later on after he was gone he knew who homesteaded this place and that and then Ivy at Cameron Newman wrote a book on the Ridge here and she'd call me for some stuff, and I wished I'd a paid more attention to him or jotted it down and when I tried to inquire of him later his mind had got bad, and he couldn't tell me by that time. And I'd start to reading the paper he'd start to talk,,so I'd get up and move in the kitdavenport, chen and when he'd go to sleep on the . I d go back in the dining room in the other room where the heater was and read the paper.(Laughter)

KP: Missed out on a lot of it?

AS: Yeah, missed out on a lot of it. But, oh, he was a tellin'- he liked to brag. Boy, when he told one of his kids that they was going to get a whipping, they got it and they was just no need of them running, they just as well come and get it-take it- be cause they was going to get it. And I let him tell these old stories and when he got through I says, "Do you remember that sidewalk in front of our place?" "Yes, yes, sure I remember that." I said, "That saved me from many a whipping." Of course, if he'd a got up and got after me, he could a got me out from under there all right. But I knew he had to be back to work at one o'clock, and I could stay there as long as I knew he went back to work. And we had a hayloft there in the barn there behind the house. At that time you were allowed horse I'd go up there and hide in the hayloft, too.

Did you get in trouble a lot?

Oh, heck-

Sounds like it.

Yeah, I was, I was an angel! I just always said what I wanted, and it wasn't always what he wanted to hear.

That was usually the reason you got in trouble, though.

Yes, 'cause I was gonna- and another thing, he was partial, very partial to my sister older than me, too; she was a year and a half older and she was-just couldn't do anything wrong. Maude- he'd brag on Maude. So Maude and Iused to fight quite abit, coursej why if I'd touch Maude, I get into it, so if I wanted to touch her I'd better do it after he went back to work, or drag her un der the sidewalk with me!(Laughter)

Was it usual though for fathers to whip their daughters? No, my mother did-I know I didn't get very many.

You ran a lot, though.

AS: Oh, when I was a kid I could run like a deer; course now, I can't even get in a good walk! But I was sure glad that I was fleet footed at that time.

KP: How many kids were there?

AS: There were eight, but they had three that died before I was born. Three boys that I never did see. One that died-they just diagnosed their own illness, there was no doctor they wouldn't have a way to know. The oldest one-the second boy-the oldest boy, he was the second child, they felt he died of typhoid fever, which there used to be lots of typhoid fever, but now you hardly ever hear of that any more. It was unsanitary conditions and the water supply and all that. And then, of course, they had the outside houses and flies and all that sort of stuff. There used to be a lot of typhoid fever. I know I had a sister that had it, the one that's in the nursing home; she had it when she was seventeen, typhoid fever and they used to have it-I had an uncle that died of it, too. He was in his thirties, close to forty.

KP: My goodness, there must have been an awful lot of that going on.

AS: And then nad that one-this one boy died of typhoid fever, that's what they called it. And the next one, why he had an in flamed face. When he was born-- have you heard of erysipelaswhere it all breaks out and swells up, the skin?

KP: Oh, yes.

AS: He was born that way. Well, my mother had had that. I saw her with that. She didn't dare get around fresh paint. She had to get out when they painted, why, she had to get out.

KP: It's like an allergic reaction.

AS: Uh-huh. And my father's one brother got killed in a hunting ac cident and of course^she got real upset over that, and when the baby was born, she blamed it to that, but no one knows that was it. He was born that way, and I think he lived three weeks and he died. And the other baby was a year and a half old, just ol der than my sister—that is just a year and a half older than I am. And he had croup and my mother was sick-grandmother was there but he choked to death in his sleep. So there-right now there's three of us alive, three girls and my folks had four boys and four girls and they only raised one boy to be grown. for those days,,

KP: This was quite common though, wasn't it?

AS: What?

KP: This was quite common, that little children-

AS: But my brother lived to be, what was it? Seventy-nine, I be lieve he was seventy-nine. And he died in his sleep. He had a heart attack, I suppose. I don't know, he wasn't well anyway. His wife died, too, several years before that; she died of a kind of a heart-she had a bad heart. She was dead before they ever could get her to the hospital. My older sister died of TB. At that time when she had it, they didn't have any cure for TB. But she taught school, and she'd get out and walk and ride a horseback maybe four or five miles to school in the morning and ride home at night in all kinds of weather^and possibly it was that that caused that. She and her husband both died of thatof TB three or four months apart. She died in October, and he died the following March. They left two little girlsp and then of course my mother took care of them as long as she lived and thn any sister and I, that was just older than me, we had to take care of those little girls after that. And I worked out a while to get some extra money to buy some clothes for myself and then I'd go home and Maude'd go and work out; so that she could getone of us stayed home.

And then you took care of the two little girls?

Uh-huh. But they're both dead now, the two girls; one died of cancer?and the other one died in her sleep with a bad heart, both those girls. One of them was five years younger than Iam, and the other one was seven years younger.

You were a mother by the time you were thirteen then?

Yeah, I was taking care of 'em. But my older sister, shewhen Ma died she took care of us all the time and bathed us and changed our pants-she had two of and she didn't have 'em broke til they was a year and a half. I don't know, I didn't have much luck with kids fully broke til they was two years old.

KP: Well-

AS: Just depends on how much time you spend on 'em.

KP: Yeah.

AS: But you gotta be there with-

Yeah, there's a great deal of Mama training that goes on. I had pretty good luck with mine,' I don't know why. " Yeah,and some of 'em say girls are easier to train than boys, but I don't if that's so or not. Both of mine are girls. I think my oldest one was born with an extra special bladder^ because she didn't wet a diaper from four" months on. She'd sleep all through the night dry. I could get get her up in the morning at four months old^and she'd be dry. The second one I wasn't that lucky. I was still wondering about that you know,living out on a farm and things where you have just outdoor plumbing; how did you? Well, we had a slop jar, slop jars and pots. Oh, that's right. Poor little kids'd fall in out there! The toilet? No, the pot.

Well, you could get those little potty chairs, too. I took care of that oldest granddaughter of mine, her dad was in the service and her mother was working somewhere, and she didn't like to be tied down with kids, and she don't yet, she's forty now,and she wouldn't want to be tied down with kids/yet. So Grandma was tied down. And sometimes I wonder, I still babysit, and I wonder if I'm ever going to get the the place-(Laughter) Well, you missed your chance. You started young and it's sticking with you.

It's sure stuck with me alright. When my one sister, she didn't have children-her husband, the one she married later-got hurt badly in World War I, and they didn't marry; they were engaged. They started going together she was sixteen and he was nineteen, he was three years older'n her. And when they got married she was thirty-nine years old, and he was three years older, that's when they got married. She calls it twenty years, but, by golly, it was twenty-three years they went together before they ever were married.—I^m-not^that patient! (Chuckles ) You were married at seventeen, weren't you? Now, that's kind of early, isn't it?

AS: It is.

KP: For the normal then?

Yes, just got tired of herding little kids and working out, I guess, so I got married.

Then you had your own work.

Yes and Iwas married thirteen months, and then Ihad a child of my own. Then, of course, went for almost eight years then I had the two. So then, I decided I'd done something wrong, and I'd better quit.

Next time you'd have three.

Fred used to laugh and say,if you wait the first, if you'd wait sixteen years, you'd have four. I told him Iwas through. I didn't realize that he had delivered the twins. You said you had your babies at home, but Ifigured there was amidwife. Ihad all of 'em at home, as far as that goes, but my sister-inlaw came, and Ihad adoctor, at least the doctor got there be fore the boy was born. But I never had much trouble, and I could a had him just as easily, too. I was built differently too; oh, it makes a lot of difference how you're built. Now, you take this oldest girl here, my great granddaughter; my grand daughter, oldest granddaughter has narrow pelvis or something and that child-it's on her arm and shoulder that she laid so up against the bone somewhere that she carried abirthmark-she couldn't have large children. One of 'em ixid-what was itfour pounds and eight ounces and the second one was-weighed four pounds and two ounces. They were just small babies. But I never had a child over six pounds; the boy was bigger and the twins, one of them weighed four and the other weighed five. I figure have 'em little and they can grow! They thought I had a third one in there, but it was blood clots. It proved to be blood clots, because it caused too much swelling and everything. What did you do, you know, like now they have to take so many vitamins, and you have to do this and have to do that while you're pregnant. Were there any special rules then?

Oh, no, I just milked the cows the night before the kids were born and turned the cream separator and pumped water* I was a doing chores right up til the time they was born only that mor ning when I got sick before he got back. I didn't milk the cows that morning or for a few mornings afterwards.But I done chores right up to the day they was born, but I don't think the average does that, but if you marry a Dutchman you might have to! That's the way it goes. Now, that's funny, because there's the old wives stories about you don't hang clothes on the line- Oh, I hung clothes on the line we didn't have electrcity then. I packed a lot of water from the well when the cistern d go dry, to do the washing and get up early in the morning and I'd hang the clothes out there before the twins was born,and I fell down and I looked just like a - (Laughter)

Just rolled around. I was younger than I am now, sprier. I was twenty-six when the twins was born. Eighteen when the boy was born.

Well, you don't remember anything like that, like^your-neighbors telling you not to do something.

I didn't pay any attention. According to the husband- And he didn't have any of those tales- Annie, his sister, came over, and of course she knew how Fred was and he'd make me do chores, she started in abawling him out, and now, by gosh, I had to stay in, not send her out doing the chores right away. And Fred got madder'n heck-(Laughter) But I think Fred's mother done that way. I don't know if she had doctors or not; I really don't know about that. But there were doctors here then. Dr. Stoneburner was here when I was born, but he was some where else at the time-and they didn't have phones-a few people did later on, when I was. I can remember a few people had phones-but we never, my mother never lived in a house that had a phone in it. When my folks came up here on this ridge, up here they didn't have any mail and they-of course, everybody, the neighbors all helped one another. And they had to go to Genes on horseback to get the mail. Somebody*d go about once a week and they'd bring everybody's mail along that was over here that they knew. And that was understood, that they had to in order to get by that they had to help one another.

Yeah, that's interesting. How long did it take to ride to Gene- Oh, it depends on how fast a horse you had! Quite a little while more than twelve miles because- youid have to-- from here. The closest way to Genesee is over this Fix Ridge up here by the schoolnear Juliaetta. house And I don't know, it's quite a little ways up there to Genesee, I wouldn't know how many miles it is. I don't go that often. My granddaughter, this oldest one, one time she and I went to Moscow and we started down to come back home-we got there just fine,and they'd changed the road up around at Gene see somewhere and the road I intended to take I missed, so any way we found another one and I says, "Well this will take us down there." And I knew the houses and all that, but they'd changed the road and put around behind where it was in front of those people and back there we were off of the main road. Well, then I got where I didn't know things and by gosh we were lost-we got lost there. So there was a guy that used to live at Juliaetta down and works up there for a farmer. So, he come along with a pickup and he said, "I'll get you out on that main road, get you back on the road then I know you can find your way home." Which we did. So when we started out then, this granddaughter started teasing me, said, "You told out.your folks fioming in a covered wagon, clear from back East. How did they make it? you can't find from Moscow back to Juliaetta." (Chuckles)

Well, there was probably only one road then. by Danvers

Well, the way we went, we went up over- up at the top of the grade, you go past the schoolhouse here and that way. We went that way-we come back that way, too, after we got on the right road up at Genessee. But that's where we got lost. Do you remember the train coming through? Oh, yes. Coming into town? Oh, when it first came in? Yesr. Oh, no, that was way back in 1890*? but I wasn't born until 1901. 1897 or somewhere along in there. I really have forgot, I read it, but I forgot. But I know my folks, there wasn't any train when they came. Did it make a difference in their lives? I imagine it must have. And Scotty Wilson, he was an old-timer he came here from Scotland and he came-that's how he happened to get here, he came, I think he landed in Canada and when they started building the railroad down here he come here and got to work and was working and he met a woman here-she was from Scotland too, but they didn't know each other back there-and her name was Burns and they met and got married and had, oh, about ten or ele ven kids. They used to have big families.

Is that the fellow you were telling homesteaded up on the- he took a homestead way up high where he couldn't raise any crops? Scotty Wilson?

Yeah.

I suppose so, we bought that place,and it was just more or less rocks, I don't know why he ever homesteaded there. And Fred, he wanted to sell out; and Fred, my husband, bought the place before he died. I sold it now, but I used to own it^and I sold it to my son,because I don't have cattle any more, I have—it's more pasture land and I don't have any use for that. But he couldn't make a living for that familyJ he had to work out and she was a big, heavy woman,and she had to get out and run those cows down, too when he was gone and take care of her kids. She never had a very good life, I know that. I guess they had hardships; they were bound to. I read a book the other day up here at the library when Marcia was in here-I only take one at a time, I don't want to get a whole lot and some of them have their arms full? I don,t read that much* I like the television some; I have programs that I like, but I got interested in that book and it was real good. Well, I read at night, after I watch a few programs then I go to bed and if I don't sleep, I read in bed. My sister didn't have anything else to read, so I read it twice from last Tuesday.

And you've got another week yet to go.

Yeah, and I haven't memorized it yet. Memorizing is getting where it isn't so easy done any more.

You had to do that a lot in school, didn't you?

Oh, yes you had to memorize a lot.

Do you remember They don't do that any more, in school. I used to tell little stories and poems and things to my kids that I learned when I was just a kid and all those little nur sery rhymes-I used to know all of them. Because I read them for myself, and I got so I could read and then when I had some neices and they were little, I'd read 'em for them. Maude, my sister, she was usually busy playing with her dolls. On rainy days on Saturdays and Sundays, we didn't go very much and Mother wasn't very well, why, we'd play school, the two little ones. And the lit tle one-one of the nieces, why, she wasn't much interested, she didn't learn so much, but the oldest one, she liked it and we'd play school, and that kid could read and write and do every thing before she started to school. And she just went through school just that way, she just liked to- tudy and she was an A student all through school. And she took high school in three year, which I don't think they allow that any more. She was in high school three years.

You started her right then.

Her mother was always a good student, too. I don't know about Glen, my brother-in-law, I don't remember him, but my brother, married - my brother-in-law's sister-married a brother and sis ter. And my sister-in-law was rea/good in school. And when she got out of school and moved to Lewiston, she'd went, I think, as far as the ninth grade up at Leland, and she got down there and she went to night school. And she always read something that would educate her, not like a lot of silliness, something that she could get better educated. And she was well read. But she was a marvelous cook; I never saw anyone that could cook any bet ter than she could. If it ruffled her, you never knew it,if it bothered her. Then I have a sister, the one that's in the nur sing home now, she was just the other way, and Maude's the same way, she gets all excited if someone would come in, just one per son come in at mealtime, it would throw her clear off. And they'd get nervous.

Well, how about you?

I would be that way now, but not before. Our there on the ranch, it was a free boardinghouse! My sister that lives in Lewiston, it'd upset her if we went in, but they'd come there,and if they got any company she didn't like to cook and they were stingier'n heck, well, they was poor, too. They figured it wasn' nothing for me because I had that garden, but she didn't know how I worked to get that garden. And they could eat cheaper if it didn't take as much in gas to get 'em up there why, that's where they come. And you could just rest assured that the day before the Fourth of July, see, that's when we'd be cultivating beans or putting up hay, one of the two^and I'd have a crew. They'd come in, I guess, right around noon on Saturday the day before the Fourth. And she wouldn't be ready; she'd have a bunch of ironing; she didn't like to iron, and end up by gosh, the kids a be a tracking in through the door a slammin* and she'd drag out the sewing machine. I done the cooking and then I have to do the dishes then I'd have-if she hadn't got around to press her husband's suit, her boy's suit wasn't pres sed and I was a doin' that and I had my kids all lined out a month before the Fourth. I knew if I didn't get ready I wouldn't make it.

Was this celebration on the Fourth?

Yes, they used to have great, big celebrations on the Fourth in every town, but now they don't do it any more. If it wasn't at Cavendish, it would be at Leland or it'd be here at Kendrick. I've been here at Juliaetta here to a good many celebrations. But they don't have 'em any more. Everybody get all dressed up.

Yeah. Now, why, everybody does his thing, goes camping or goes fishing or does something. And I've got so I'm glad of it. You must have had an awful lot of work to getting all the kids ready and everything. I don't know how I done it. I always managed to get through one way or the other.

I was thinking about when you were being a cook for the threshing crew.

Well, I didn't go out and hire out for that, that was just a—they'd go from place to place you'd do it in your own home. When you get through with the meals that they eat while they was threshing your crop, that was it. They just thresh our crop and you had to-years ago when my folks threshed, why, they had cookhouses then. I ember the cookhouses, but they never had 'em after I wasthey was just on the ranch when we lived there; there was a cook house there. And my oldest sister, the one that's in the nursing home now, she helped my aunt, my aunt used to go out and cook in the cookhouse, hire out for that. But now like when they came to thresh; how much warning did you have? Did you know they were coming, or did they just show up in time to eat?

Well, there's been a time or two they come that way, but usually I knew ahead of time and I went to town-then we didn't have re frigeration, we didn't have electricity, I didn't even have an icebox, then we'd have to have our meat sent up here with a stage that come up, and I'd call my meat order in or someone went to town and buy fresh meat. But now, that's something dif ferent, they have freezers and they have electricity - That's what I was wondering-how many men did you feed? Well, at one time I was cooking for forty-seven, I think, it threshing was a big crew. It was just a big machine and then the separator tender had died, and the guy that come, why he-the guy that come he never had tended separator before, and he had a lit tle bit of trouble, smashed things up and I had 'em eight days that time.

Oh!!

But the worst of it was, see we had the big ranges, but they weren't to cook for that many,' your stove wasn't big enough. But you could cook-I baked twenty loaves of bread aday. Ten in the morning and ten in the afternoon. And I started out one meal- I made pies and I had to have so much room in the oven that I couldn't do it. I could get the cakes out some way, be cause they didn't take so long. Ihad to have twelve pies and did't have time to get the meat in and the bread and all that stuff. I'd get up at three in the morning and I'd be still going at ten or ten-thirty at night. Iwas glad when they was gone. Iwas young then and strong but Icouldn't take it now, Ijust couldn't do it. Well, if you had abig enough stoveif the stoves were larger, but you didn't have room for that much stove in your kitchen. You take these stoves now, the ele ctric stoves don't have as large aovens as the old ranges had. No, they don't. You had to bake the bread. What did you serve them for breakfast, hotcakes?

No, I only tried that about once or twice; that's too much, we'd fry potatoes, and we'd have meat and eggs and acooked cereal That was easier than making pancakes?

Oh, yes, because pancakes-you can't hardly flop 'em over fast enough to keep 'em going. Iset fourteen at atime, so they could set and at the last Ihad twenty some-I had abig dining room there at that place.and Irun two tables. But at the last why, I just had that one big, long table that seated fourteen. They just had to take turns.

They left the table and then we'd have to get those dishes off and out of the way, then set some more on there. But I only tried that once-hotcakes for breakfast, that was too darn much work for that many men.

And then there was lunch. Did you just make sandwiches or- Sandwiches and cookies, sometimes cake. We had to take it-I had to take the men coffee, Ihad to take that to the field at nine o'clock in the morning and then in the afternoon at four o'clock for lunchtime. Then all the cups had to be washed when I come back. Two lunches? One in the morning and one in the afternoon. Then they had a big dinner or a little dinner at noon? Big dinner. And that's when you tried to get all the pies in the oven. But then- Did you do this all by yourself?

Oh, no, Ihad two helpers. Ihad aniece, my oldest niece, and I had another girl. Of course, Willard was a baby then. And you had all your own housework. We didn't do aheck of a lot.but make our beds; they didn't need making too often, we didn't sleep in 'em long!(Laughter) You didn't do much rolling around. And did they eat abig supper at night or just a little one? Yes. I had a crew of thirteen one time in the beans, and those thirteen ate as darned much food-they just happened to be a bunch where they all were hearty eaters, and then they get to running- up there, they got where the guys would see who could eat the most pie. And, by God, they carried it too far, and we allall those women around in there, we all went together, we put a stop to that. Heck any of the family didn't get these pies; they'd eat right down to the last one. We'd put it on apie plate, and give each a piece of pie.

Was this taken out of their pay?

Oh, no, huh-uh, the farmer fed the crew. They was boarded. Then you had to find a place for 'em to sleep? They had to bring their beds. They'd take hay or straw or some thing and fix it. I've had hay hands where they didn't have their beds, and I had to fix beds for them, but not the threshers they bring their own beds. Just abedroll. Idon't think they'd invented these here sleeping bags at that time. Oh, no doubt, abed roll worked just about as good. That's so much work.

I wouldn't want to try it now, but it was all in a day's work then. I wouldn't want to try it now. — and then the next year was a wet year, too. We saved some but we lost a lot, too. Then later on they had another wet year,bad year, but we didn't happen to have any beans in that year. And we had quit by that time, we had quit raising beans. But there's no letup to it, from the time you start out in the spring agittin' your ground ready to seed to plant beans, then you got to cultivate those beans and get rid of the weeds in there. And when the beans was off the hay was ready, when the hay was off, why, the harvest was ready. There wasn't any rest between, it was just one thing right after another. Now, what did your father raise? The same thing? No, when he farmed they had never started beans. I was about ten or eleven years old the first time I ever remember them every trying beans up on the Ridge there and Claude Craig raised some, just as an experiment, and he done pretty good with it and then everybody started in and they made bean cutters and so on and they raised beans. These white navy beans and red beans; they was dry beans.

And before that it was just oats and- Oats and barley. And then they straight summerfallowed some. They'd rotate it,every third year they'd summerfallow a certain amount of it; they'd lay a third off or something like that. Would this have been weed control or? Yes, they had to build the land up.

Because of the moisture?

Yeah, I suppose anyway they would summerfallow, they would always have some. They're good farmers. My son started out and he said- I put an add in the paper and people darn near run me ragged here; it was after we wanted to rent it. And some guys showed up wanting to rent it, and I said, "Do you have tractors and all this stuff?" "Well, he's got a tractor." "Well," I said,"you got to have more than a tractor to farm." They was going out trying to runa-ranch and didn't have any more idea what they was up against than anything. They'd have to have their living for a year until they got that crop off; they'd have to have money enough to buy their seed, because I wasn't about to buy their seed-take a chance on someone didn't know anything about farming! I wouldn't rent to someone didn't understand farming. Well, after that, I figured I don't think I'll run another ad-ever run another ad, I'll ask a few farmers that I think half ways know that they want to farm*, if they aren't good farmers, I don't want to be bothered. Cause I got some up there, I like 'em and I get along with 'em, but everything has to be their way and I'm sure-now we're getting along, but if I rented to them, we I'm not agoing to indulge in anything like that. But you'd be surprised at these dumbheads that go out and think they could farm and never farmed in their life. When did the horses go out around here?

Oh, they started quite a number of years back having tractors, but Fred, my husband, he was the last one, I think on that whole ridge that still farmed with horses and didn't have a tractor. And he didn't get a tractor until-well, it was in the spring- Willard was in the service, World War II, and he had worked in the mines when he left here,and he decided to go back and try that when he got home—see Judy was born in '44(1944)—about '46(1946) when he got out of the service and come home and he farmed then that next fall, he started farming in '47(1947) but that was when we had- That spring my husband had bought a tractor-and of course, the boy took the tractor and then later they got a crawler.

He used horses all the way up into the forties? All the time. When we were first married, he had thirty work horses that he used. you mean) I see he had to go feed the stock before he had his break fast-he had a lot to feed. And he'd raise all his horses. He had those mares and he raised colts,and they'd break 'em when they was three year old and break those horses to work. That long before- Oh, yes, they was just little fellows at first. Did you ever take any of your animals up to the stock shows in Genesee?

No—we didn't even have a truck for a long, long time. We didn't attend things like that; in fact he and I went to two fairs in all of the time. He had got crippled up, and he didn't like to and couldn't walk and now I don't care to go because I can't— even to shop now, I was shopping yesterday for the kids, to get 'em things-that walking-got arthritis in my knees. Long as I sit down it don't hurt, but, boy, my legs all twisted out of shape and here, this is all built up with that calcium or whatever it island it makes me look like I'm bowlegged! This Dr.-Hewitt, I think is his name, achiropractor in Clarkston said, "Have you always been bowlegged?" "No," I said, "just since I had that arthritis." Willard insisted I had to go to him, but he didn't do me one bit of good of course he x-rayed and give me a treat ment and then to come back in two days; I done that and I paid him his $60 he-wranted, and I ain't agoing back anymore! Becausehe told me that day he didn't think he could help me, so I said, "If it ain't agoin' to help, I ain't goin' to go jus to-" What did they do for arthritis back in the old days? Your dad had arthritis, what would he a done?

I don't know. He was just as spry, only he got old and got weak and he could walk-there's aman down here that's 82 years old lives down here, and by God, he don't limp! Isays, "How come you don't limp, and all these others-the rest of us have to walk with acane and all that?" He says, "Well," he says, "I'll have to remember to limp!" (Laughter)

Well, can't blame it all on hard work, because you've had your share with all your cooking and stuff.

Well, Idon't know what. Sometimes it's from being-now, with Fred when he had it that doctor said-that doctored him-said it was jumping down off'n the machinery and exposure to the cold and stuff that caused it; that's all Iknow is what he told him. And Iwouldn't adone anything about it if- Willard insistedbut Willard, my son,he's got arthritis, too, and he's all criPT pled up. He's fifty-six and he's crippled up.

My sister's got it, and she's twenty-six, so you can't win these days.

I got it all through here,but Iknow what caused that. Iwent so I , to-and we had afence that was leanin' down^ had to crawl up under like this to go over the top, and Iwas pretty darned heavy, and Iwasn't doing very good, if I'd astruggled I'd amade her qlHght, but Itried to go through the barn and through the gangway, and they had adoor where you could walk through and you had an elevator. I was supposed to go out there and help him-Willard that was after my husband died, to go out there and help him mowing some hay and go with him to feed out around the canyon. And about that time one of those bales decided didn't want to stick on-wasn't going to come down the elevator, and it fell off a there and hit me right smack dab right on top of the head! Just knocked me down and I couldn't get up, just felt like my back was broke; oh, it did hurt. So Willard happened to look out there and looked down there and heard that funny noise-my breath every time I'd came funny; breathe, just like it was killing me. So he looked down-come down on that elevator he come down there he was going to get me out. I said, "Don't move me, don't move me." I didn't want him to move me, it just felt like it'd kill me if he'd move me. And I laid there till I could get up on my own, sit there for a little while. So then I went to the house and decided then maybe I'd better go to the darn doctor anyway, so I called Muriel, my daughter-in-law, and asked her if she could come down, and she said, "Who is this?" She didn't even recog nize my voice because I was-and so I told her, and she came and left a note for Judy.

Now, I told her-I don't like to scare her to death. Well, she finished her senior year with me after my husband died; and like to scared her to death. So went down there to the doctor and he give me them treatments(electrical) from a fellow down there, a chiropractor by the name of, ohbump by the name of Warren somebody. I got aA in the middle of my back. But this here-one of those twins was in a plane crash got her T ack was broke in four different places., and it was all splintered-wasn't anything they could ever set it or anything. W and one lung had collapsed and she lay out And she was so bad ana one from three in the afternoon on aSunday til the next night time they got her down off'n this mountain where that plane crashed it was dark when they got her off the mountain to a Uttle town down there not too far from Ogden. And her husband had abroken neck out of the deal, but he walked out with abroken neck, it could, abeen where it killed him, had been in that certain place-he walked out to get help. they couldn't find it. They didn't go far enough up the moungo with ajeep; they took him that far and started him up adraw he 'em then went back and they found her. and started out, so Her feet were frozen, partially, and she lay there,and that one passenger plane. He helped get her out of the plane;then he rte doctor-Dr. Tanner was his name. As quick as we found outseven or eight o'clock and Judy got word, and then she came down and called me and we had friends here playing cards. And I said,"I want to go, but haven't got only six dollars in my purse." THe, Were the most wonderful neighbors-he says, "I've got $100 you can have." And so Iwrote him out acheck for the $100, and he had $150 when he counted it out and he says, "You can I savs "No." So Igive him this check, so he have it all. t says, the most wonderful could get his money the next day. They were she's moved away now, neighbors that I ever saw^but he died. This is an awful friendly town, I'll say that much. Maeci' might stretch the truth once in a while!(Chuckles) But, anyway, they are are an awful friend ly family. You've lived out of town most all your life then? Most of my life. I spent five years in Moscow when I was a kid'; I was ten I went there and I went to school; when we left. Well, maybe I I may have been five or just going on six, I can't remember what year it was we moved to Moscow. But I know that's where I star ted to school-I remember I was ten years old when we moved away from there. The rest of the time I-outside of one winter we spent in Kendrick and my dad worked at the warehouse and I went to school. Why, we just- That's really the only work I know, that and cleaning house or something like that. Looking at mine now, you'd think I never did clean house! It looks fine. Oh, my God, my windows; I got storm windows there, and they should come off but it takes two husky guys to get 'em offhand I ain't even one husky guy! But it does save a lot of heat, I think. I never had that in my head that that would help to make a house cooler in the summer, but, by gosh, it tells it on the TV and on the news that-on the TV more than the papers-that it keeps double your house cooler to have the windows. I never figured it that way. Well, there's the sun coming in the window, supposed to heat up your room. It don't get against the window, I just draw my drapes then. Anything with glass, it can get hot. What do you do with your children? Do you have babysitters for them?

END OF TAPE

0:00 - Mother's education and family coming to settle on Potlatch Ridge; 1880 area opened for homesteading

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Segment Synopsis: Mother's education and family coming to settle on Potlatch Ridge. 1880 the area was opened for homesteading. Father's family and travels to Fix Ridge on the Little Potlatch (13 miles from Moscow). Mother went to teach school on Fix Ridge and married her student. Mother, uncle, and grandparents took adjoining homesteads.

4:00 - No doctors for babies; grandmother became midwife; mother sells homestead for big price

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Segment Synopsis: No doctors for babies. Grandmother became a midwife by reading a book, and ministered to all of Cedar Creek area. Her mother sells the homestead for the big price of $40 an acre.

8:00 - Mox Mox licks butter knife; ornary adopted cousin

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Segment Synopsis: Mox Mox licks the butter knife before returning it to the bowl. The ornary adopted cousin.

10:00 - Working as a housekeeper in Lewiston; working as a threshing cook on other farms

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Segment Synopsis: Working from 14 on as a housekeeper in Lewiston. Sister worked in Lewiston too. $5 a week doing all the laundry; attitude of her boss. Working as threshing cook on other farms. Mother's sickness. The only time mother went to the doctor was just before she died. Father's grit at the dentist.

15:00 - Schools in Moscow, Southwick, Kendrick, Cedar Creek, and Crescent School

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Segment Synopsis: Schools, Moscow grades 1-4, Leland, Southwick, Kendrick, Cedar Creek grades 5-7, and Crescent School and Leland 8th grade and examination. Moscow had single grades and more thorough teaching techniques than the one-room schools.

18:00 - Having the twins, doctor was late so the husband was in charge and very nervous

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Segment Synopsis: Having the twins, doctor was late so the husband was in charge and very nervous.

22:00 - Father's joking about husband Fred being German; Germans stuck to their language and stayed together; very industrious

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Segment Synopsis: Father's joking about husband Fred being German before they were married. The Germans stuck to their language and stayed together. They were very industrious and built good farms. Fred used "hurry" in every sentence. All Germans worked as hard as they could. Dr. Stoneburner at Leland. (Mrs. Nye is a history buff.)

28:00 - Father's girlfriends after mother's death; father's last days

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Segment Synopsis: Father's girlfriends after mother's death. Father's last days, her own gallstones. Running under the sidewalk in Moscow when little to escape Father's anger.

30:00 - Father's brag; eight children, three boys died

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Segment Synopsis: Father's brag. She got in trouble talking back to father. Eight children; three boys died, only one boy raised to maturity.

36:00 - Older sister and husband died of tuberculosis; Mrs. Schoeffler's mother, sister, and self raised the two daughters

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Segment Synopsis: Oldest sister and husband died of tuberculosis leaving two daughters for Mrs. Schoeffler's mother, sister and self to raise. She raised the two with her sister from her mother's death when she was 13. Slop jars and chamber pots in the house when plumbing is outdoors. Caring for her grandchildren.

40:00 - Sister married at 39, she married at 17; Her children and births

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Segment Synopsis: Sister married at 39, she married at 17. Her children and births.

43:00 - She did chores up to the day before her twins were born

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Segment Synopsis: She did chores up to the day before the twins were born including washing clothes, packing water; a fall while she was pregnant. Her husband was a Dutchman that worked his wife.

45:00 - Mother never had phone in her home; no mail service at first; one neighbor a week would go to Genesee for mail

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Segment Synopsis: Mother never had a phone in her home. No mail service at first. One neighbor from the Ridge each week would go to Genesee for the mail and pick it up for everybody. The road over Fix Ridge. (A joke about relatives coming west in covered wagons but she couldn't find the road from Moscow to Juliaetta today.)

49:00 - Scotty Wilson, character who settled in Juliaetta homesteading

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Segment Synopsis: Scotty Wilson, character who settled in Juliaetta homesteading rocky pasture land. His wife had a hard life with 11 kids.

51:00 - Playing school with nieces while caring for them

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Segment Synopsis: Playing school with nieces while caring for them. Her sister-in-law's good traits of school and cooking for extra company.

53:00 - Hosting her sister's company; old celebrations on the 4th of July

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Segment Synopsis: Hosting her sister's company; old celebrations on the 4th of July at all small towns. Lots of work.

55:00 - Cooking for threshing crew

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Segment Synopsis: Cooking for a threshing crew when they came to their farm. Most often she knew ahead of time. Had to go to town for fresh groceries. Cooked for 47 for eight days. Stove wasn't big enough for that many; baked 20 loaves of bread a day. Her day from 3am-10pm. Glad when they were gone. Could only sit 14 at a time. The meals; the hungry 13 man crew; the crops.

60:00 - Bean crops; first farmers to raise beans; renting land since moving to town

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Segment Synopsis: Bean crops, wet years; first farmer to raise beans. No let up in farmer's work. Renting the land since moving to town. The city boys who wanted to rent her land.

64:00 - Horse to tractors; Fred was the last to get a tractor; raising their own horses

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Segment Synopsis: Horse to tractors; Fred was one of the last to get a tractor after WWI 1. 30 work horses in Fred's stable; raising their own horses; not breaking them for work until 3 years old.

66:00 - Her arthritis in her legs, her neighbor's good legs

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Segment Synopsis: Her arthritis in her legs, her neighbor's good legs.

69:00 - Her accident when a bale of hay landed on her head; Her daughter's accident in a plane crash

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Segment Synopsis: Her accident when a bale of hay landed on her head. Her daughter's accident in a plane crash.

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