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Latah County Oral History Collection

Remembering Latah County and Idaho Life at the turn of the 20th century

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Date: June 01, 1976 Interviewer: Sam Schrager

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OTTO SCHUPFER:— I started in 1921 a little place down here but you couldn't make it go then finally combined the two and started in Kendrick over. Well, not '21- wait a minute, I'm wrong on that Started in '21- well, we didn't start that until '21- space went between there I don't remember.

SS: What kind of equipment did you have in '21?

OS: Powers, same as all of 'em. Troy had the same thing and it was all silent then.

SS: But it wasn't a going proposition in Juliaetta?

OS: No, no, it never was a going proposition by itself anyway. Down here we took in $25 and by the time you give the musicians about five of it and about $15 for the picture, and you can see about how it go. Just run it more for the fun of it than anything else. And in Ken drick it was about the same thing. It was never a money making pro position. But I figured out for one year we made twenty-five cents an hour, the four of us working there. And Harmon he bought the pic tures. But still it helout ped me and helped people make a living. And it was work, it wasn't doing other things, just night work, you might say. And them days people wasn't afraid to put in an extra- a little extra time. But now, you have to have time and a half for that.

SS: How often did you show a movie? Every night or just on a weekend?

OS: Pretty near every Friday and Saturday unless it was a Fourth of July or some celebration, why we put in some extra ones. There for a lit tle while we run four a week, but that didn't work out either.

SS: Now about when did you think that the Kendrick theatre started?

OS: I think in 1929 or '30- It had started in 1918 by somebody else, run if there the fella that had the newspaper. It was started by Oldfield.

SS: Oldfield was the first?

OS: Yeah. Of course there was a theatre before, only this Oldfield bought the jewelry store in Kendrick and he had the theatre and he moved it down Pullman. And he run it for a little while but he tried to make a living without doing anything else and that didn't work. Then Mc Pherson, the printer, he run it. He did about the same thing just made another fifty cents that evening, why, that was fifty cents more. He was working his head off during the day times, that was his job, and the show was something extra, him and his wife.

SS: What were you charging admission?

OS: Well, we charged all from two bits and ten up to seventy-five cents, I guess, about the most. Most of the time it was about fifty cents or twenty-five cents. Fourth of July we always used to have a house full. Never charged over twenty-five cents then.

SS: What about this orchestra? You had to hire musicians?

OS: Oh, there was some musicians down here, because the barber's wife was a pianist and another fella he played the saxophone and they generally furnished the music. And the way runs; for a long while if we took in $20 we given them about half of it and we took the other half. If you didn't make nothin' they got nothin'i

SS: Well, how many people, say in Juliaetta, how many would show up to see the movie in a week?

OS: Sometimes thirty or forty, plus the kids.

SS: Would you say that that was the main entertainment for the town? At the time, or were there other things that were more popular?

OS: There wasn't nothing here, there wasn't even a beer parlor then. Because there was a show that was down here before- oh, a fella come in here with it and he tried to make a go and he made a failure of it. Richardson, down here, he bought the thing, but he couldn't run it himself and he had to hire some so that didn't work at all. And then I think I bought the piano, the whole thing and with one projector. Then we kept running it every Friday and Saturday for a while. it got'a little bit tougher all the time, my bro ther he said, "Let's get some of the higher priced shows, see if that will help." So we got four of 'em- three of 'em the highest priced we could get, had to pay $25 a piece plus transportation. Among them was Charlie Kotft , you've probably heard of it and UP in Mabel's Room, and the Volga Boatmen and on those we come out- I think we made on the four of 'em probably $10- the two of us. Those were the last ones we run, then we cut down and we finally got hold of the Kendrick.

SS: The Volga Boatmen? Was that the name of it?

OS: Yeah.

SS: Volga?

OS: Yes, Russian picture. Volga River's in Russia. It was a darn good show.

SS: So they didn't make much more money than the others did? Or did they?

OS:

SS: Well, why did you go to Kendrick? Did you think there would be a better market up there, or what?

OS: Oh, we had the telephone outfit and we owned- it finally got so I think I loaned a fellow that owned the building a fair amount of money on it, and we got it and that's how we got the blamed thing. Oh, yes, they was a little bit better

Well, it was a stock company and quit. Mc Pherson couldn't make it any more. He was paying I think $20 a month rent and he couldn't make a go of it any more, so he'quit,a fellow name of Zale bought it. Yeah, he bought it, but see on the first year's work he was going to fix up the building. Well, he tore fiown the building more than anything else and run a year for nothin'. Then we finally started in with it.

Did you let the Juliaetta one go then? Did you stop?

Yeah, we moved the- then we were going to have two machines in there after , then we could run a continuous show, before you had to stop. There used to be a fellow name of Akenbottom used to run one down here before I did. And I think he charged ten and twenty-five cents. And he and the light company couldn't get along, so he coul dn't use electricity, so he had to use carbide light and that's very poor lights, but he had a few customers.

Was it in the same building as yours?

it was, but he finally they kept amoving around.

Well, did business pick up when you went to Kendrick?

What did you say?

Did the business pick up, the movie business?

About the way it was. in "Kendrick before. See, it wasn't shut down. When had it, he put in the first talking picture and he did pret ty good there for a while, but then when he quit, why, we just kept on agoing until after he quit. We made a little money on it all the time. But if you made two bits an hour; there was four of us, that was about an hour and five or six hours a day, why, it was better than just doing nothin'.

Did the audiences get bigger once the talkies came in?

OS: We didn't have it just when they come in, but Sell it. They had a good crowd for the first two or three shows, but then after that it kind of got back to where it was again.

SS: Do you think it made any difference in the movies? Were they better when they started having talkies, or do you think they went downhill?

OS: Oh, the pictures was about the same. Of course, it was a little bit easier to understand what you was doing about then than it was before.

SS: You didn't have to pay the orchestra though when you had sound, did you?

OS: No. Didn't have to do that any more. But we run it quite a while in Kendrick without sound. Sell- he quit why, we kept sound from then on. See, sound come in about 1927. We didn't have them to pay. We used to get the pictures from Spokane that cost about five or six dollars- that much for both ways, but.it cost about thirty. And you to send them by parcel post and then they come so high and the railroad would compete with them, they'd bring 'em one way that you had to pay for and the other way half price. Well, that worked the express company they finally cancelled that. And then, by golly, it finally went to parcel post again, that went up like everything and then it finally come to- now it's Greyhound. They cost about $25 each way.

SS: You know, I've heard that local girls would want to become movie ac tresses after they'd see those films.

OS: I don't know whether they had any of that here or not. Yeah we had a few pretty good ones- fellow name of Fred Thompson and Westerly he made good. And of course, that's when we had the silent down here. Then when the talking Old Gene Autry and Roy Rogers- Shirley Temple was a blamed good one. And the best money we took in a picture was- oh, what was the name?(Josephine, what was the name of that picture we took in the most money in Kendrick?)

MRS S: What was that?

OS: What was the name of that picture down in Kendrick we took in and and the biggest crowd one time?

MRS S: Trail of the Lonesome Pine, wasn't it?

OS: Yeah, Trail of the Lonesome Pine.

SS: When was that?

OS: We run that in Kendrick.

Mrs.S: We took in over $300- that was an awful lot of money.

SS: Over $300 in admission?

Mrs.S: Yeah.

SS: One night?

Mrs. S: And we only-

OS: We run it three nights.

Mrs. S: Well, we run it until one o'clock; see the theatre was small, we wanted the people to see the picture and it was our fault if they couldn't get in, see, so we run it 'til one o'clock. We run it, some of iti three times.

SS: So, was this what you took in one night, was $300.00?

OS: That was the three nights.

SS: How many could you put in the movie theatre?

Mrs. S: There were two hundred and forty some seats.

SS: 240 seats.

OS: Somewhere's around there. We took the front ones out throwing stuff at the screen they kept and the further they'd throw it, why, the better it was. Kept taking the front ones out all the time.

SS: What's the idea of throwing stuff at the screen?

OS: They wasn't as bad here as over Nez Perce, they got in there with air rifles. When they'd have the Indians fighting over there they'd shoot at 'em with air rifles and punch holes in the screen. We've got two or three holes- oh, we had the screen quite a little while about a $250 screen and it wasn't very long 'til there was a hole or two in it. Then we got another big nuisance, they come in with these wa ter pistols, and a lot of people wouldn't come to a show anymore.

SS: Why would— they squirted people in the audience?

OS: Oh, yes, they'd keep a squirting all over. They do that everywheres as far as that goes.

SS: Well, when did you stop showing movies in Kendrick?

OS: Oh, right after I had the stroke. See, I used to run a machine 'til Jerry Brown left - run the last show, it was '72 I think. Walt Dis ney was the last picture we run.

SS: Were you showing it weekly until then? Or just once in a while?

OS: Once in a while we run them. Whenever we got a good picture come up we thought maybe we would run it. Mary Poppins, was the last show we run. And then we had this fellow Jerry Brown, - he liked to monkey with stuff.A I'd run it on Friday and he'd run it on Saturday. And, oh, he didn't think I was running it good enough and he'd run it on both nights. And we generally paid him about two dollars, maybe four or five He's the same guy- on the telephone outfit he wanted- he was, oh, a good mechanic. He wanted to the telephone outfit and he got to learn the blamed business real good. And, by golly, on the switchboard stuff, he was right there putting stuff in, get the blueprints out and study 'em. When they put the dial system in Kendrick, and far was the two main guys- well, they did all the work to put it in. Didn't have electric man- this fellow that sold the equipment, well, he said,"Well, install it." So, we got two of 'em and they did a blamed good job. And then Brown, when finally he- he never made very much, he couldn't pay two guys, but he'd go along anyway and see what he could learn. And finally when this man in Troy died, had a telephone outfit, why, he took over and he ' a blamed good job up there by him not always asking, "When do I get a raise in pay?" He never asked about that at all. But we always give him one. Now, he's got a good job up there; he's general manager at Troy. But he was quite a genius in the electric . Well, this public address system in Kendrickthat's one of his. About the first thing he did, he built a public amplifier and he took a blueprint from the theatre amplifier, made an amplifier.

SS: What do you think- do you think that for a guy like that it's just natural talent that he had? Born with it?

OS: Yeah, natural talent and then he wasn't a fellow that was always a howling, how much money to get, and when do they get their first vaca tion. Well, he was that kind of a fellow lots of times he got nothing- if we paid him. . Course, that isn't the union way of doing it. Supposed to pay him big wages all the time and when you don't need 'em lay 'em off and stuff like that. We never did that.A But he was a blamed good guy.

SS: You know, I was going to ask you about like- on the telephone and on your electric line- some of that repair work- you'd have to do line work- like in the bad weather in the winter. That must have been pretty rugged.

OS: Oh, yes, it was sometimes. There was one Easter Sunday I was up on American RidgeK Easter dinner and I got a telephone saying I had to come right down and there was twenty-three poles down between here and Kendrick.(conversation between Mrs. Schupfer and Mr. Schupfer)

SS: Why were twenty-six poles down?

OS: Oh, that was in 1919, I think. The snow got that big around it was wet, thirty-five wires in Kendrick and that got too heavy for it. I've got a picture of it here somewhere, maybe showed it to you the other day. One of 'em turned clear over. We had 'em all working by night again. We got some of these local guys around here and we had some pretty good neighbors around here.

SS: Now, was it snow?

OS: Yeah, wet snow. Whenever it rains then it starts in asnowin' and that hangs on, and the wires keep agroin'. And there was another time we had a lot of trouble about the same thing in Kendrick, about four, five poles went down and that was in 1937, I guess. And the same time was just building their line, by golly, they just couldn't keep their lights on at all for a while. The wires would build up great big and then the snow'd melt off of the bottom one and up to the top one, up to the light. But they'd never had one quite as bad as that since that.

SS: When you say all these poles went down; they didn't fall down did they?

OS: Yeah, darn right they fell down.

SS: Well, they couldn't have been in the ground too good, were they?

OS: Rotted off. (Chuckles) And then when there's a straight line if there was a good one, they take that one along with them. But it happened the anchor broke off and then that let the whole thing go. Yeah, they all fell down, you remember between Pullman and Colfax same thing happened up there. There was no telephone service long distance out of Lewiston for four or five days. It happens every place, that's when they holler about the buried cables. You don't have that trouble, but they have other troubles.

SS: What about on trouble shooting the line in figuring out where the trouble is? Let's say it's in the winter- did you use snowshoes to get around?

OS: Oh, not too much. I had to go up on Fix Ridge two or three times with 'em, but I wasn't very much good with them things. They're hard to walk- you ever have 'em on?

SS: Yeah, they're funny walking. I never learned how really.

OS: Yeah, they're funny is right. I walked about a mile up there one time and that was tough. (Conversation with Mrs. Schupfer-)

OS: It don't Spokane, it left at twelve noon, I thinknext morning They, stayed overnight here and went back- and then there was another train come down again. They always had the two trains every day; one each way.

SS: So, Juliaetta was that- did it stop here for the night?

OS: It doesn't end but they al went up to Kendrick because they had a water tank up there and a little bit better accommodations.

SS: How did they turn the train around here?

OS: Well, it backed down, but they had a turntable in Kendrick, they just turned around, the engine, just hooked onto the other end. They had a turntable at Kendrick- I don't suppose you ever seen any.

SS: No.

OS: They put the engine on a rig and then it-a handle on each end and tur ned it around and balanced it on there. But they had another way. Down at Arrow was the first one, it was a Y. They'd go out on one track, back up, go the other direction and that way turn the whole thing around.

SS: So, it backed down into Juliaetta?

OS: Yeah, they backed down into Juliaetta. They're doing the same thing now with the freight.

SS: I'm surprised they just didn't put the turntable down in Juliaetta so it could come—

OS: Oh, there was kind of a, I don't know, politics went on in Juliaetta. Juliaetta didn't give the right kind of right-of-way and in Kendrick they did, so they kind of made Kendrick the end. And then Kendrick is right the head of that Troy grade. See, that was a bad grade, for them days.anyway.

SS: I'd heard something about one time there was a real bad accident coming down to Kendrick.

OS: Yeah, there was a bunchleft Troy there, two engines on and a bunch of railroad rails, I don't know where they was going with 'em but they couldn't hold 'em comingto Kendrick and the brakeman on the back end uncoupled the caboose and he stopped that and another fellow tried to uncouple the rails, but the goldarn thing flopped over in the creek and killed him. Then got down to Kendrick and the Kkilled four of em.

SS: Well, was the brakeman in the caboose at fault?

OS: Oh, there's always someone in the caboose.

SS: But what I mean is- should he have cut the caboose loose? Did that make it worse?

OS: Yeah, he cut the caboose loose, that's the only thing that didn't wreck, as far as I can remember. The rest of it was all wrecked. And there was another time that there was several carloads of hogs- and as they pulled up about Kendrick they broke loose, they come down here backwards. And Herman and I was downtown and we seen the darn thing going by at a pretty good speed. far behind was the engine and I guess they had a freight train out on the track somewhere between here and Arrow and they run into that. Smashed all the cabooses but they never hurt a pig.

SS: You mean, it came clear down through Juliaetta, all the way down to Arrow?

OS: Did it what?

SS: Went all the way down to Arrow before they hit?

OS: Oh, yeah. Pretty near the same thing happened the other day. They was loading a car up there at Kendrick and it was shaking a little bit and finally the darn thing took off all by itself and started down the track on the siding and it got down there; there's a I might have showed you one of those before-

SS: A Derail? derail

OS: Yes, a you know what that is, don't you? It's a car comes down and it runs over the track- well, they had the car setting there about four or five days before they got it back on.

SS: Why is it that this is such a rough area for trains? Did you say it's harder than most?

OS: The company wanted the right-of-way for nothing, and people wasn't quite willing to do it that way. And it seems like Juliaetta wouldn't give it to 'em and Kendrick did. And Kendrick is named after a rail road engineer, so they kind of favored Kendrick. And Kendrick was a little bit. They had about four or five rigs coming in there for freight; Juliaetta didn't have that muchbut when they got to Juliaetta- it seems that there are two stories there. The Indian Reservation, they couldn't cross it down here, Juliaetta permit- another one I think is, they run out of money. They stopped in Juliaetta for four years.

SS: Juliaetta had mostly- it was Potlatch Ridge and Fix Ridge and was there any other ridges that Juliaetta had?

OS: This American Ridge up here, butA go back very far, that went to Kendrick. Kendrick had Potlatch Ridge and LelandSouthwick and Bear Ridge and Texas Ridge and Little Bear Ridge and American Ridge. They had quite a little more there. I think you could find that somewheres in the history book, just why that was- I don't know where.

Was Kendrick a bigger town than Juliaetta?

Neither one was anything. Just a street down town. I think I showed you a picture, didn't I, Juliaetta years ago?

I don't know if you did or not. I've seen- Oh, wait a minute, is that that- (blank)

It was just a what they call a big rain shower come along, cloudburst. And it took the railroad out down below here, too. I got some of those pictures here that. Here's some more of that. That was that road up there from Kendrick *American Ridge. That's probably the way you come down, wasn't it?

— hit Kendrick worse than Juliaetta?

Oh, about the same. It hit up in here. The railroad track- I got some pictures down hereeomewhere too. The railroad track down here was washed out, still under the goldarn rock pile.

You told me when I was here before that time that Heimgartner came down when that happend, but were there other times that-?

That was longer ago, that was snow crashed down the mountain and washed out, come down the railroad tract , but this one here was just a cloud burst up here on the hill and took the railroad out down hereAthe road up the country.

It took out the road between here and Kendrick?

Yeah. Railroad, pretty near all of it.There was a reservation- I think reservation opened up. Now on that same page on the bottom is another one of those marks. Is there a mark around one? Birth of a Nation.

Yeah, did you ever see it, suppose?

Yeah, I did.

Well, how long ago?

SS: Oh, it's a classic movie. It's a classic, so they showed it again. When I was in college they showed it there. It was by Griffith.

OS: Yeah.-That was quite a show. That was really the beginning of it. It showed in Lewiston. a big orchestra with it, but later it was showed everywhere. They showed it in Kendrick finally, too.

SS: But you weren't going up to the reservation, you were just going driving?

OS: I drove up anyway. And I think why then we registered, too, I didn't get nothing.

SS: Was that your Maxwell that you drove up?

OS: No, that was the Overland. Belonged to Jim Emmett there at Kendrick.

SS: Well, I thought that you got a Maxwell?

OS: Well, I did, but see I was working for this Kendrick garage, he was selling Overlands. And I drove up there for them.

SS: Would you tell me a little what it was like working in a garage back then? I mean, that was when cars were first in the country, right?

OS: Yeah. The fellow I worked for, Lewis, he sold the first car in Kend rick to Gerald Ingles father. I had to stay up there three or four days to show him how to drive it. Model T Ford. And before that there wasAtwelve cars, I think, in the country.

SS: When you say the country, what do you mean?

OS: Oh, Juliaetta, Kendrick, American Ridge, all the Ridges. That was the first car I think that was sold up on the Bear Ridge.A American Ridge had two or three cars. But otherwise, there was nothing around, any cars. Well, for years, in wintertime, you went afoot or a buggy. Summertime the same way.

SS: Were the cars very reliable back then, or did they take a lot of work?

OS: Well, if you went from here to Lewiston without a flat tire, why, you bragged about it I (Chuckles) In a Model T Ford, if you didn't know how to drive it, you come down the

END SIDE A

OS: — but you had to know how to drive a Model T- I could get along with it alright. Put it in low gear- itAlow gear when it got too steep- then going downhill the brakes got hot, and going uphill the engine got hot.

SS: Were people scared of them?

OS: Oh, yeah, yeah. I remember one Decoration Day that was in 1915, I took a bunch of women up to Kendrick cemetery, and I wasn't very much a driver myself either- 1914, I guess it was. But before I started I backed up a little bit, boy, did one lady let out a big holler! Of course, the boss' wife was along, and she says, "Oh, you always got to do that before you get started." I says, "You sure tell 'em a good lie!" "0h,!u she says,"they believed it."

SS: Was it hard for them to learn to drive?

OS: Yeah, you had to spend two or three days with them. The worst thing going up hill is to get started; get their foot off of the brake they went backwards, and then when they stepped on the gas they killed the engine. That was always the worst part of it. These automatics, anybody can drive, but them things wasn't as easy as that. Then they had to shift gears. Start in low and then shift- then push your clutch down and then push over into second- well, the stick shift is the same way yet, but that's all you had only the Model T Ford, was lust, down was low and up is high, that's all there was.

SS: Was there much money in the business of selling and repairing cars?

OS: Oh, I was working for this fellow, he had a jewelry store before, and I worked for him, I got a dollar and a half a day; a dollar and a half a day and board. They about the price of gasoline- a dollar and a half a day- and gasoline was about forty cents. that about four gallons of gasoline. For a day's work I'd get four gal lons of gasoline and I'd go to Lewiston, but I couldn't get back. Now, by gollies, they howl about the high price of gas. A fellow gets about- lot of 'em get twenty-five dollars a day- how much gasline can you buy with that? They got no business(Chuckles)

SS: Well, what could you- what was the main work that you did on the cars? Is that what you were doing? Like relining the brakes?

OS: Yeah,that was on the Ford especially. Then the rest of 'em- there was something to do, either the spark plugs went haywire or the transmission didn't work. Just regular repair. 'Cause I was the only one around the country. This Lewis, the boss, he was good him self. His wife worked there, too, she was quite an energetic person. She just died here last year in Lewiston.

SS: What did she do? Did she work on the cars, too?

OS: No, she was a bookkeeper and she got to do a little driving. Did a little taxi work.

SS: It wasn't really a dray line, though, was it? It was just a garage.

OS: Kendrick garage. It finally ended up by- my brother and Ed Deibold got it in 1919, and then/Deibold's still got it; that same garage.

SS: What about your Maxwell? Was that a very good car?

OS: For them days it was. But going up hill it'd always slip out of se cond gear, you had to watch that. Had an engineer come out from the factory one time, he was going to fix that. He worked two or three days up there- I think only about six of 'em come in, every one of em slipped out of second gear and he overhauled 'em, but in about a week they all slipped out of second gear again. But Ed Deibold- later on- Herman- all the cars did that. We had "the engineers- - told them "oh, that would never work." But on second gears, we'd grind a little notch in there so they'd stick there. "Oh, you couldn't shift gears." ButAafter that he fixed a lot of 'em. Pretty near all the ears, second gears always slipped out of second going uphill and/ fixed a lot of 'em up there. That was one big job for a little while then. The gasoline service was better then than now, you could always get gasoline on Sunday and holidays.

SS: you know, I was wondering about them cars; did people want to get them right away or did it take years before a lot of people trusted cars instead of horses?

OS: You mean for buying 'em?

SS: Yes, for buying 'em.

OS: Oh, they generally got 'em right away. See the first year I worked up there we didn't have a car, the second year, why, this Lewis a carload shipped in; Maxwells. And he sold 'em there in no time and then it wasn't very long after that, why, he changed over to sell Overland. He sold a lot of them, or quite a few.

SS: Were the townspeople the first to get 'em, or was it the farmers?

OS: Oh, about the same. There wasn't so very much of them that you could only pay a dollar down and a dollar next week, you you gonna have to pay for 'em.

SS: Right when you bought 'em? The whole thing?

OS: Yeah. Now, the Maxwells was $850 and most of 'em paid for 'em.I guess the boss knocked off a little bit for cash.

SS: - Did you know Alexander's store?

OS: Did I know him?

SS: Yeah. In Juliaetta?

OS: Oh, yeah. That man by the name of Adams that died up there last year. Did you know him?

SS: I knew kho he was.

OS: He worked for Alexander store, and he married Mrs. Alexander's sis ter and he was the bookkeeper down there for years at Alexander's store and then when the store burned up why then my brother was wor king for the Electric Light Company, Wilmotts, by golly, Herman and Wilmott both wanted to go to California and they didn't have no book keeper and of course, I had been taking care of the electric end of it generally an, by golly, Herman got this fellow by the name of Adams up there and that's how he got started with the Washington Water Power. Worked for Willmott and that spring him and I read the meters and did all the line work, oh, we hired some outsideronce in a while between Kendrick and Troy then Adams stayed with them- the Wash ington Water Power until he retired, well, Herman did, too. Of course, .stayed with Willmott and went on for the Water Power.

SS: Did you stay with the electric light busines, too?

OS: Oh, I never stayed with it, but I could if I'd wanted to. I got into the telephone business instead of that.

SS: Is Mrs. Alexander's sister still alive?

OS: No, she died here about six, seven years ago. She taught school in Kendrick, Juliaette then in Kendrick then when she lived in Moscow she drove to Genesee and taught school there for years.

SS: What was Alexander like? You know, the man.

OS: Oh, pretty good sort of a guy, I always kind of liked him, a darn good merchant as far as that goes. He had a good store here.

SS: I understand he was Jewish.

OS: Yep. He was a Jew and then he had a brother-in-law at Kendrick that run the store up there. But I don't know whether he was a Jew or not. He started in selling cars before Lewis did. He sold the big stuff, you know, Hudsons. I think he was mostly Hudson- Detroit, I think they called it. Alexander had a good stor,e they had one in Lewiston. That was his brother, I guess or uncle or something.

SS: Well, I heard that Durham and Caughman had a store in Kendrick In the real early days.

OS: Yeah.

SS: And then went to Moscow.

OS: Caughman?

SS: Durham and Caughman.

OS: Were they related to Alexander, or do you know?

SS: I don't know. I think they were Jewish, too.

OS: Yeah. You know what Jews invented?

SS: What?

OS: interest. They invented interest. They generally made a living any way.

SS: Do you think Alexander tried to take advantage of people?

OS: Oh, I don't know, I don't think so.

SS: I've heard he was pretty good.

OS: He was just a darned good merchant, I'd say. Talking about the store business, a little later than that Charles Noble's grandfather a store in Juliaetta for years and then Charles's father run the or third store and Charles he's about the fourth generationalth the store in Juliaetta.

SS: When you were doing that-

OS: If some of the railroad companies would be interested, I'd give them this.

SS: I'll tell you

OS: Then he finally give it to the railroad and he found out he give it to Vollmer and he sold to the railroad.

SS: Your folks gave it to Vollmer?

OS: Yeah. They thought they gave it to the railroad and instead they give it to Vollmer.

SS: You mean, they thought they were giving it to the railroad?

OS: Yeah, they thought they give it to the railroad and instead they gave it to Vollmer.

SS: You mean, they thought they were giving it to the railroad?

OS: Yeah.

SS: So your folks didn't know they were giving it to Vollmer?

OS: No, probably seen in the paper where Vollmer. (turn your rig off there and I'll tell you some more about that railroad) GP*-6*0/ They would have give nobody any money for right-of-way. Well, every one theught that was terrible because the Washington Water Power gave them so damn much. Well, if the farmers- all of them the way they wanted it, why, they'd a got the electricity for nothing. That's what most of 'em was after and the same way with the telephone outfit. They'd say, "Well, you can build across my land, but I'll have a free telephone." Used to be real strong that way. And the electric light was the same way.

SS: Well, how did the telephone company handle that? Would they go along with that?

OS: No. Pay for the right-of-way and you pay for the telephone. But the worse one come in, why, the light line was built to Kendrick, they come down American Ridge above where the road is, there is an old road up there. And a fella name of Hiltman up there he give 'em the- Yeah, he give 'em the-this Dunkle he didn't know- he's the fellow I went to Spokane with. He didn't know much about it and he says you can have the right-of-way if you'll give me free electricity. Well, he fell for that. Well, when the free electricity come in, by golly, he never used it up there on the hill, he says, "I'll take your free electri city in town." Well, they did for a while then they quit. "I'll send my free electric light bill over to my son-in-law, Frank Boyd." And, goldarn, he was heating the house and everything else.Then old Wilmott had a line in after they built that darn thing, just to get out on the road, but he wanted his free electricity. You couldn't do that. That went on- they were building aline a all down below and this Wilmott, he wasn't very good at it and he never got no right-of-way, had the holes all dug and the fellow down below comes by and he says, "This electric light company is not very reliable" He says, "I'll have to have some money for that to get out on the road." So they had to dig the holes down to the road again. That's the way they treated you.

SS: jou know, like you take that railroad guy coming through; what would he do if you wouldn't have given the right-of-way for a hundred bucks?

OS: Oh, they can condemn it and go through anyway.

SS: Is that what they'd do?

OS: Yeah, that's the way they'd do, I guess they had to do that on some of 'em.

SS: I know that's what the highway department does.

OS: The railroads would do the same thing, because there was one feller that can't stop 'em, but a lot of 'em tried it. Oh, there's a lot of thing went on. Yeah, this free right-of-way business that was a joke. Well, we had that on the water business here. There see, the spring up above here, the town had- To begin with a dirty trick went on there. The spring is right up on- on - up above a field up there and my cousin.he put this in strawberries down here and this fellow over here, and he took it away from him. And later the town wnated the spring, this Martin Thomas up here owned the whole works up there he sold it to the town for $1,000. And this fella over here that took it away from my cousin they finally give him- that crossed his place $500 and they give us down here $25- it crossed us just a quarter of a mile, which is okay and the fellow down here, they give him, I think $100, across his. And then they come on later, the fella who owned this place down here, he fell out with the water system, it crossed him and he wanted free water. So- he- tDff\c up, theycrossed his and he wanted free water. We gonna have to get free water for crossing our right-ofway. Oh, I says, "That'd be a dirty truck." Says, "I'm not going to sign that." And so he says, "Well, I'll get it." And I says, "I don't think you will." And so he wouldn't pay 'em, so they just shut the water off on him. —we turn it back on again- he sawed the pipe off. He had an old well out there and he was going to have that well fixed up and he says he's going to get that free water. This fellow name of Halliday is the only one that'd do that- it would cost about $100 to fix that well up, well that was too much, got through with it, he pays his water bills. And he was a rich farmer in this country. He lived down here. So that's the way , and when he seen that I wouldn't sign up for free water he didn't even go up any further fellows. He says, "They probably forgot that." And the funniest part of it is when you look down in the records down there, on the minutes book somebody tore out those pages with that on it, where they bought this right-of-way. They might even make it work. (Chuckles)

SS: So, the upshot was he didn't get no free right-of-way.

OS: No. (Chuckles) But they all wanted something free. When the REA come in there they wouldn't pay anything for right-of-way. Well, I can see why, because some of these guys wanted free electricity the rest of their lives for the right-of-way across the place. They had a good system there.

SS: The REA was giving everybody a good deal.

OS: Yeah. with the government money, but they wouldn't buy- they wouldn't give anything for right-of-way. Well, they give a dirty end again, now they crossed our place up here and we put on the darn deed that they pay for all damages. Well, they put it on there and and when they brought the deed back again, they changed that, they scratched that off all damages. Oh, we didn't want to sign it, but we finally- when they got it agtoing, why, we signed it. And it wasn't very long when they built that line. We had our piece of land in al falfa, and they didn't open the fence, they just drove through and tore it to pieces and went down therough it and fixed it all up again and they went down the second time and tore everything to pieces and didn't have to pay anything, and that was on the contract and when you said anything to them about it, why they was going to ask the con tractor, well the contractor says, "We're supposed to have a free right-of-way to go anywheres." So that was a dirty deal that they was pulling on you. But some fellow looked ahead far enough up there the Parks up here; the lineAcome up here and they had to go across here, another field, and the guy that the fence line here, he wanted a big price for it. They wouldn't pay it, so they built the line,around here for about three times the price. But that free rightof- way, there's two sides to that. Some of them wanted too much free. We had a telephone line over on the Clearwater, and generally pretty hard to get over there in horse and buggy days. There was a farmer over there says, "Hard to get over there, I'll take care of it- your line- this winter and I won't charge you very much." Goldarn, when lie gothe took more money than all those farmers put in over there. He was going out every day fixing telephone . There's a lot of tricks to it. - You haven't got that thing turned on, have you?

SS: Yeah, I put it back on a little while ago.

OS: Well, turn it off.

SS: That bad a story, huh?

OS: Yeah, about this 'recorder turned off)

SS: —Telephone and you know, and your brother's electric line and all that, well, that's a community service, so you could take advantage of people-

OS: —from here to Kendrick, you couldn't get up there only afoot or a horseback, which I never liked, or with a buggy. And we generally get on the train that gets up here at eight o'clock- went to Kenlater drick and got and there was another come back at two o'clock and come back on it. If it couldn't run there was another come back at nine o'clock and then there was another way, you could walk down the railroad track. About half the time we did that. There was a man and I overhauled the line above Kendrick. We hauled all the material up there the first of the week, then the next day we got on the train went up to Kendrick, worked 'til five o'clock and walked home.

SS: Was this a freight that would be going up at eight?

OS: No, it was a passenger.

SS: A passenger train?

OS: Yeah. They had dang good passenger service here for a while.

SS: How many trains a day was going—?

OS: Two going up and two going down. One went up in the morning at eight o'clock- they went from eight 'til nine and back and forth in there there some time, but that was away- from here to Kendrick. Then I took care of electric light problems in Troy- that was real handy too. You go up to Troy in the morning, read the meters up there; we got through at noon, why, we could get back about noon and then we'd come back on the night train about nine o'clock.

SS: Did you see many hoboes riding the rails?

OS: Oh, not too many. They become a nuisance they come around here wanting something to eat, but they disappeared.

SS: Did they have any camps along in through here? Where they jungled up?

OS: Yeah, there wasat Kendrick, they kind of it for them. They had a boxcar there kind of lived in and cooked their beans and stuff. But the railroad finally stopped that. Down here they had a hobo camp. They'd lay up and the next day they'd be on the road again. They mostly went on freight trains. But the freight trains they didn't want to accommodate them, they didn't stop anymore at these towns. I used to ride down to Kendrick. Lot of time I'd get back about four or five o'clock and a freight train come down I'd get on it and they always stopped down here, but if the cars don't stop down here then it got a little worse. Had a telephone trouble down at Arrow one time and we walked down, that's eight miles and there was Herman and I- three of us- and we got down to- and it was just about time we'd make that train at four o'clock and Herman, he got on the side and he seen we didn't get on, so he got off, too. Well, then we tried-that was working for the Bell System, and if we wanted to hireAto bring us back, why, that was okay. We got after the goldarn section boss down there. Well, first he'd take us up for $10, we wouldn't a had to pay it. And by golly, he finally backed out. The only way to get back to Juliaetta was afoot or there was a freight train come up at nine o'clock, so we waited for that friehfet train. But it went on never stopped in Juliaetta and went to Kendrick. But then there was a passenger train down at nine'clock and finally we come back the following day.

SS: If you were going to ride a freight, say, like this one from Arrow, where would you get on it?

OS: Where?

SS: What part of the train would you ride? got

OS: Oh, we generally, as close to the engine as we could because those coal burners the cinders was awful bad, you got back farther.

SS: They wouldn'.t care if you got on a freight?

OS: Oh, some of 'em'd take you off if they seen and others that didn't care. Some of 'em were pretty hard boiled. But the railroader in them days thought they was very important people. You pretty near had to your hat to the conductor on a passenger train.

SS: Were many of these guys on the train local, or were they mostly from elsewhere?

OS: Well, they was- they finally got the local. I come pretty near get ting on that deal myself. There was a fellow name of helping on the telephone outfit in 1913 or '12, he was going on the railroad and he wanted me to go with him and I didn't, but he finally did. And he got to be the engineer on the freight train- and on the pas senger and the last job he had was when they had just one car down through here. And I asked him one time- I used to ride with him on the front end- I said, "Why the dickens don't you retire?" He was as old as I am. "Why should I retire I get $1,100 a month sit ting on this stool for four hours a day. But, they finally stole the stool out from under him.

SS: Why do you think these guys expect you to tip your hat to 'em?

OS: Oh, they was so much important; they had important jobs. Some of 'em were pretty nice but most of 'em- well it wasn't too darn many years ago on the passenger train back East— jWft \ My wife and I was back there in Chicago, our daughter was going to St. Louis and we tried- we had our ticket; round trip, but we couldn't get the reserved seat coming back, said we'd have to get it back there, so we went in and asked for it, says, "No, we can't do a thing for you." It was around Christmas. "You'll have to wait, I don't know how long." And so that kind of ended that. Well, my daughter's father-in-law come back ' says, "How are you making it?" "Oh," he says, "I got a reserved seat right away." So, went down there to ask him again "No, couldn't do anything about it." So I says, "How did he get it?" "Well," he says, "finally says," says, "had to go some other place, the Union Pacific. We can get you one as far as Denver." Then you have to take your own again. So, we got a ticket to Denver and when we got to Denver there was a brakeman, he was a eeal nice sort of a guy, he says, "Whatever you do, don't get out of the station, they'll never let you back on, but get back on again somewheres." And we was supposed to change trains there. When we got back to the conductor, "No room for you." I says, "Okay." And we went back to the fellow, there was a fellow standing there in the doorway and he says, "Is there any room in here to get back to Spokane?" "Oh, I got lots of room here but this is firstclass." I says, "We don't give a darn what it is, we want to get to UcMUefi "Well," he says, "get on." So we got on there and nobody in the car but my wife and I and here come the conductor, "I told you you couldn't get on." "You told me that's clear full, you told a darn big lie," I says, "nobody in here."

SS: Yeah.

OS: Now there's lady saloonkeepers everywheres.

SS: They were rare in those days?

OS: Yeah. They had a saloon down here. Oh, they had a brewery down here for years. When we went to school that was our whistle at noon, was the brewery whistle. KBut this fellow, he just runs the saloon. And I know the one feller up here he says, "You know there's a woman down there running that saloon?" And he says, "What is he doing there now?" He says, "The women all running saloons." They were a whole lot more orderly then than they are now, they wouldn't get so darn noisy and rowdy as they do now.

SS: Did she, when she run the saloon, do you think that some of the local people, like some of the local women would look at that as if they didn't like it?

OS: I suppose they figured that she was kind of an outcast, but she was a German woman and couldn't talk English very good, so had not much to do with anybody anyway.

SS: Did she ever have - I wonder if she ever did have a hard time keeping order in there?

OS: I don't know, oh, they might have, I don't know about that.

SS: Was she the barkeeper herself? The bartender?

OS: No, her husband was running - she was running the bar and the whole thing. But it wasn't like it is now, they get so damn noisy and the more you drink, the more beer they give you.

SS: Wasn't like that then?

OS: Huh?

SS: It wasn't the same?

OS: No, get so darn noisy. They'd probably sit and play cards with a bottle of beer on the table. That was about the only enter tainment they had them days.

SS: Except to go to the movie theatre.

OS: There wasn't any them days.

SS: Was this back before-

OS: That was before. Yeahvthe first movie theatre I saw was here and my folks says they was.moving pictures, we couldn't figure out what that was. And we went down there they had to crank it by hand and an awful poor light. And I'm sure that instead of winding on a reel they went down in a clothes basket. That's how come they was so darn explosive and if they'd catch afire they'd really burn. And then they'd wind it back up on the other reel again. And I remember yet there was a train coming and, oh, did the people holler and the train was going to run over 'em! We was just kids then. That was the first moving picture I saw.

SS: Where was that at, in Lewiston?

OS: No, it was down here at Juliaetta.

SS: Juliaetta? Would you go to Lewiston much when you were young?

OS: Oh, we got down once or twice to the fair. They generally run a train. They'd go down here in the morning, the railroads, and back in the evening. We used to ride on those once in a while. That's for the fair and just about the same way to Spokane. car onto Spokane have a little bigger and a little discount.

SS: How often would you go to Spokane?

OS: Oh-

SS: Maybe once or twice a year?

OS: Heck, no!

SS: More?

OS: No, about once every- I think I never got to Spokane 'til about ten, twelve years old, and then probably once or twice afterthat.

SS: But Lewiston would be a couple of times a year?

OS: Oh, no! Not by train. Didn't get to Lewiston 'til they got the car then we kinda got down there maybe once or twice a year. down there every week because- but in those days couldn't get enough gasoline to go down there and back. And the tires only run about 1,500 miles and you had to buy new tires. Then they howl about expenses high- they were sure higher then!

SS: You know, I wanted to ask you about the wine business here in Julia etta. I understand there was a winery here in the early days.

OS: Yeah, showed you a picture of the people that run it. If you wart: to turn that off a little bit, I'll find that. No, I give that pic ture to somebody, too. Showed you where they raised the grapes.

SS: How was that thing set up? Was it the same people that run the winery that raided the grapes"for it or what?

OS: The wine cellar's still down here. Part of it, they took part of it down. Fellow name of Frank Eberle. I gave the picture of him and his wife to Nobles down here. Herman's wife had it up there at Kendrick and they give it to them. Well, Herman got his album, the folks had it.

SS: So, was that a going business?

OS: Oh, I guess it was. It must have been in the early '20's when they sold it and left.

SS: What ?

END SIDE B

OS: I suppose it did, he made quite a little bit. I used to get down to his wine cellar and see thebarrels settin' in there.

SS: Well, you know, when they started this winery up at Troy, that made me think about that I'd heard that there'd been one down here years and years a go.

OS: Well, there was one later, the fellow's still down there he had one there six or seven years ago.

SS: Down here?

OS: Yeah, still down here. He quit the winery business but he's still got the grapes. Seems like it don't take many grapes to make wine.

SS: Did this Eberle have many acres of grapes?

OS: I think he had about three acres.

SS: You know, you raised bees, didn't you for a while?

OS: Yeah.

SS: What was the deal on that?

OS: Oh, just got it for our honey, but nobody liked the honey anymore arid and didn't like to be stung, so we quit! (Chuckles) Then, they were kind of a nui/sance, anytime you wanted to go somewhere maybe on Sunday those old bees'd swarm, you had to take care of 'em. do it different now, they take the queen out and put the swarms back together again and they don't have the swarms, maybe leave the country, I know they have this big bee farm down here, you've probably read in the Lewiston paper, but ours all died here one year and we had the empty hives there, the next year some of 'em come in. What killed 'em we never knew, there was no spray, I was sure of that. And every body else around here was, my uncle used to be quite a bee raiser, but I think his probably all died then, too, becausenobody had any more but some come in from somewheres, get in the hives themselves.

SS: Did you provide the hives for them?

0S: Yeah.

SS: What did you use for hives then?

OS: Oh, made a box as a regular beehive. I got rid of my beehives last year. You know what I did with them? Give this Emery at Kendrick. He's going to raise bees. My uncle used to sell quite a little honey it sold for about a dollar a gallon. That stuff weighed twelve pounds. Gosh it was heavy.

SS: Did people use honey a lot more than they do now?

OS: Oh, maybe about the same.

SS: I was wondering maybe they used it instead of sugar.

OS: Well, instead of syrup, but it wasn't so very popular. I think they didn't buy as much then as they do now. It was too cheap, they wouldn't buy it.

SS: What about- wasn't there a flour mill in Juliaetta?

OS: Yeah. My uncle come to this country in 1888 and the first job he had was digging the ditch for that flour mill; waterpower. Then they used the water power to light the town, that was in 1940, so they made electricity with it. And they finally pumped the water out of the creek up to the reservoir, the power come from the same place. Used to be a flour mill in Juliaetta one at Kendrick and the other one at Leland.

SS: The sameAowned the flour mill for a long time?

OS: Well, it kind of stayed in the family then went out and then got back again. The fellow, Holbrookbuilt the blamed thing and run it quite a while then he sold the blamed thing to different ones and then a fellow name of Vincent got it and he run the light plant and that to gether then he quit the flour mill business, run the light plant and some fellow at the university came downA» going to show him how to make money on the light and they monkeyed around there and measuring the water and measuring electricity and put the dynamo up stairs where it used to be downstairs and run the wire out through the window and the thing burned . (Chuckles) And they couldn t figure where they could make any electricity for nothin' anyway. the rate come down- it used to be, I think forty-five cents a kilowatt. So, now the Washington Water Power is about a cent and a half.

SS: Was that supplying electricity just to the businesses in town or was-

OS: Well, finally run it clear up the hill. Anybody that wanted light they had - there was no meters on it, they had fifty cents a light a month, I guess that's what it was. It was little candle power, made about as much light as a twenty-five watt or not that much, the old carbon light. Then, I used to work for 'em about every so often. The power plant, why, somebody had to stay there at night and the way they do is to sleep there all night, nothing to do and used to stay there and got about fifty cents a night out of it or maybe nothin'.

SS: What were you supposed to do wh die you were there?

OS: Sleep. Started in the evening and shut it off in the morning. And, of course, I never got into it, but the mushrats would dig a hole in the ditch and then of course, at time the whole ditch went out.

SS: Muskrats?

OS: Yeah. Dig a hole and then the water'd start coming out through the hole and by gollies, that made the hole big in a hurry, I guess. Course, then, they had- there were no lights that night after that anymore.

SS: So, they just- that electricity was only just for at night?

OS: Yeah, they began only at night and finally- and Holbrook bought it back again and I helped him then and we put on all of them. There was an awful lot of kicking went on but they had enough power then for a while. First time we had enough power was about 1915 they changed from the carbon lights to the Mazda lampa. See, the Mazda lamps it took five watts for a candle power. The Mazdas was one watt, so that helped 'em like everything. Then they put the meters in and of course, they kicked like everything but the town got bigger and they didn't have enough power and then they startedArunning in the daytime. First they just started 'em running on a Monday for wash-day and I think WednesA for ironing day, when they started in selling electric irons, there wasn't any before that. And then finally the thing went up in smoke and they had no lights for about a couple of years.

SS: So, that sounds like a pretty good business to be able to use the same thing for making flour and providing electricity. That's a nice combination.

OS: Yeah. But a farmer run that and by golly, he wasn't onto it at all he didn't charge enough, you might say. He didn't make a living on it. He was a retired farmer, he finally bought it and they kick on the electricity too high, well, that was cheap, and that don't work. They had more lights then .hat time he was running it in Juliaetta than any place in the country. I think he got twenty dollars for it.

SS: So, it provided street lights for the town, too?

OS: Yeah.

SS: And what kind of lights were these? Were the carbidei?

OS: No, they were carbon. They were kind of a circle with a horseshoe in it. I could show you one if I knew where to find it. But compared now they were very dim, about like a coal oil lamp.

SS: You say you- that Juliaetta had more street lights than most of the other towns.

OS: Yes, for the size of it. This Benson-maybe you know, Callison ?

SS: Yeah.

OS: The uncle run it- no the grandfather run it. He was the last one to run the thing. But he wasn't much of a businessman. He charged too much, why, that's okay.

SS: Do you remember- did that flour have a name that they put out?

OS: Pride of Potlatch. They got a sack down there i Noble's store. And we could take a sack of wheat- a bushel of wheat, I guess and get back a sack of flour. They kept what come out of there for their profit, see, that was bran and stuff like that; they kept that but you got the flour.

SS: What kind of setup was it in the mill? Was it really run-

OS: To begin I didn't see that.

0S: Waterpower to start with?

OS: Yes. To begin with they had these old millstones. Great big stones. But I never seen them run, I seen the stones lying around later on but later on they had the same kind of milling equipment as you see in the big mills now, only it wasn't ball bearing. They run it three or four times- first they run it through the one machine and take the flour out and through another machine took it out. They had the same- The bleaching was kind of a funny outfit. Kendrick had a bleaching outfit. They made a gas, ozone, I guess, thenA run the flour through this gas that made it white, bleached 'em. And Juliaetta had the same darn thing. They made the gas- run down over a piece of iron and they had the same gas. They colored their flour that way. Didn't make the flour any better, but that was later put on. They had the same equipment as the big mills only not as much of it.

OS: What kind of engine was it?

OS: Just waterpower.

SS: Waterpower?

OS: Yeah. Ran the mill in the daytime- a little bigger than- and the light at nighttime and it really figured out very good. Kendrick had no light. Well, they did have some before that but I don't remember- that was steam. It didn't prove out, they quit that. Then for a little while Kendrick didn't have anything. When Iworkfl) in the garage Kendrick didn't have no electric lights.

SS: They used steam for a while?

OS: Kendrick did to begin with and then they finally- oh, that fellow that went with me to Spokane, he put in what they call a semi-diesel engine; one cylinder. And they run those for a while. But the fel low put up the money- maybe I told you this the first- the fellow put up the money- the first thing did, he come out of college and so his father-in-law give him enough money to put in a- give him $10,000, gonna put in a power plant/at Kendrick. He looked the thing over and there was plenty of water there. He had to put in a power plant, he had a franchise for the lights, a pretty darn good one, for the street lights and they went on and by golly, they figured out there was no water there so he got a couple of semi-diesel engines. And they was one cylinder. And they finally got the darned thing a going and finally the Washington Water Power had Troy and they give him Troy. So he ran a line from Kendrick to Troy and run both of 'em for a while. And Old Wilmott- Herman mentions him- he was pret ty good friends, said, "you know that thing don't work, here you got an engineer hired -and the darn thing don't bring in enough money to . pay a both of 'em, and I don't get nothin' out of it.and he finally fired the engineer and I guess the other guy, too, and hired another feller, Gene Taylor, you know him didn't you? Hired his uncle, he run the darned thing for a while and he didn't do quite so bad but still the outgo was bigger than the income. So, he finally built a line to Moscow.

SS: From Kendrick?

OS: From Kendrick and hooked onto Washington Water Power. He kinda made it pay out then.

SS: Now, how did it happen that Herman and you got involved in this business.

OS: I don't know. Well- turn that off again.

SS: But this is a story that we should have, about how you guys got in volved.

OS: Well, okay, - Porter has a bank down here and his boy and we was good friends and his wife died. WWl.this boy was was kind of a nut playing with electricity and stuff and he give us enough wire to reach from here down to town. We put in a telegraph system, and we fin ally hooked a telephone on the end of each one of 'em. And this Porter's uncle finally come into the country and he bought the telephone- he didn't buy it, he started a telephone outhe fit through the bank; from the bank andacross here, got that started. Well, then we got on the darn telephone line then, because we monkeyed with it and the first thing he hired us for three dollars a week. And we got our noon meal out of it. And that wasn't just electrical work, telephone work, did his farming for ihim, what he had over there and milked the cows for him and did everything. That s kinda got us started. And he finally- we was still working for him in the tele phone office, finally got a dollar a day. And we built this line from Kendrick to Juliaetta and he put the two, Kendrick and Juliaetta onto one switch board so you get night service and then he had to build this line from Juliaetta to Kendrick. That took quite a little bit and that's we got a dollar a day out of it. Then he took sick and died and then we bought it from him for pretty near nothin' and paid for it out of Herman running the telephone system and I was running- working in the garage for a dollar and a half a day about then. Put all the money together and we paid for it in four, five years. And farmed, besides.

SS: You were farming, too?

0S: Yeah. Together it give a pretty good boost then. 1918, I think it was, we had a darned good wheat crop and got up to two dollars and something a bushel. And we sold it right for the high price.

SS: Were you farming right here?

OS: Yeah. The whole place there. We got about fifty acres in here. We didn't just work eight hours a day, we worked when it needed working. Or seven or six days a week whatever it need. We didn't make a prac tice working on Sunday, but if it needed- anything that needed doing on Sunday, we did it, telephone work or farming or what it was or milk the cows; that was always on Sunday.

SS: What would you do for your relation when you wasn't working?

OS: Go to bed and sleep! (Chuckles)

SS: That was it? Either sleep or work?

OS: Huh?

SS: That was it? Either sleep or work?

OS: Just about, there was nothing here to go to.

SS: Wasn't there community get-to-gethers fo some kind or other?

OS: Not very- very little. Generally our project was go over this hillside and kind of explore it like the kids do now. A bunch of us got to gether and there's an old mine over there, runs in there about three hundred feet, and we'd all have to explore that every week or so or Sunday or month or so.

SS: Was it an abandoned mine shaft?

OS: Its still over there and it caved in, they couldn't get into it for years and I know we used to go out and in, we carved our names on the rock in the end. They opened it up here last year, they build the road close to it and the fellows that was in there said there was a lot of names in there, dated 1904.

SS: What were they mining for over there?

OS: Oh, some old lady dreamt of a coal over there. (Chuckles) So, she dug a hole.

SS: Now, I heard about that, that there was a bunch of spiritulists who were-

OS: Yeah, I think she was one of 'em. That was a Mrs. Snyder, and I think a couple of her boys, F»ank and Chrlie did most of the diggin' over there. Yeah, there was a lot of work on that, seems like it's solid rock all the way in.

SS: But it was a dream, that made 'em decide to do that.

OS: That's what I heard.

SS: That's what I heard, too. There was kind of a group of people that were spiritualists that were looking-

OS: Well, these Snyders, I guess was to a certain extent.

SS: Do you know what a spiritualist is? I don't know what that is sup posed to mean.

OS: I don't either. You talk to the spirit s* I guess. They tell you stuff.

SS: I think- I'm trying to think-

Recorder shut off-

OS: — and awful road, I guess and old dolmboS £Wk, he came out and he's buried down here, but nobody knows exactly where. But the schoolhouse was right on top of the hill. Yeah, I probably showed you that picture of the schoolhouse. We used to play ball up there and right up the street in the middle of the cross- the white cross up there in the field, they say that's where Old Gorman was buried.

SS: Gorman ,that's right.

OS: Yeah, that was his name.

SS: Did you ever hear of him putting a curse on the town?

OS: No, never heard of that. jive got a letter somewhere, never could find it though, where the folks was writing back and forth when my father was here. One of them letters says- there's a fellow name of Gorman come to town and he homesteaded some land up above town and he figured he wasreally make things come throuhg, going to get the railroad to town and I don't know what all. But that's all I ever heard of Gorman. But they still call it the Gorman place over there. Gene Taylor's got it now. But he is buried right up this " you could see right up that main street, up there in the field with a cross. And there's an electric light pole sitting right close to it and he's just about where it is. And Gene says he thought he knew where it was, but I doubt it.

SS: Talking about cross- that makes me think I was going to ask you, do you remember the Ku Klux Klan here in the '20's?

OS: Yeah. This Duncan, you know I showed you the picture- went to Spokare with us, he was trying to organize here in Kendrick. And had a meeting and we didn't have a theatre then- the building's there- had a meetig there one time and I went to it. I don't remember what the talking point was- get rid of the niggers, I guess for one thing. They didn't like them.

SS: There weren't too many of them around here, though, was there?

OS: No, there wasn't any. There was one fella around here and he was a darn nice sort of a guy. A nicer fella than the rest of the whites were.

SS: Who was that?

OS: That negro, I don't know what is name was. He had a little restau rant up there in Kendrick.

SS: In Kendrick?

OS: Yeah. He was there- Herman and I set up the flag pole up there. And there was a lot of people around there, and that fella served donuts and coffee to everybody there.

You set up the flag pole? For what?

The town, just the town. Then they're set up the one in Juliaetta, too.

Did he stay for very long, this fellow that run the restaurant?

He must been there three or four years, I think. But just sand wiches and stuff, he did a blamed good job of it. Used to have a Chinaman up there, too.

I've heard of him. Did they call him Gene Chinaman?

Yes, Gene Chinaman, yeah.A Got all the scraps around town and raised a pig or two.

He raised vegetables, didn't he?

Yeah, most veletables and whatever he raised growed good.

Was he a friendly fellow?

Far as I know, he was.

I don't suppose he had all that much to do with the town though?

Oh, nc, but there wasn't much to do with it.

I wonder if this negro man did a good business? If they'd stay away from his place because he was Negro or not.

No, I don't think it made much difference. The railroad then, they needed a section boss one time and the railroad sent a fellow down there, I guess was a Japanese, and by golly, they give him orders to get back on the train again.

To begin with, about fifty acres of this place was in watermelons one time. This started the deal. Well, as long as-he Md on*. And«r \out they finally started hauling 'em off, and he tried to stop it and by golly, and they'd stop and theyd run and make fun of you and everything else.

And he got after- there Was a lawyer in Moscow and he told him if you put a few shots in 'em, that'll fix 'em. And so I guess they went one night- two or three times there was shootin' over here. One night we come home from the show one night, and here it is right up above here, it was banging away and I guess they was in the patch and they hit a kid in the hand and he was from Kendrick. His mother, she says- and they finally told me either pay for the melon*or we turn you over to the sheriff. Well, they didn't want that and they didn't have any money, so he got a watch he give 'em. Watch, I guess, was probably a dollar watch and the next day I was up to Kendrick. His mother was in a hotel, "There was a highway robbery down there, and the boys was down there in the street and they shot at 'em and took the watch away from 'em." I said, "You got that a little bit wrong." I says, "They was stealing watermelons and they told 'em to stop and they wouldn't stop, then when he shot 'em and stopped 'em, they says eitherAthe sheriff or give us $5 and he had his watch." "That ain't the way he said." "Well, that's the way it was." And then he finally- Peterson, he took a shot one time and he hit the wrong one, I guess, and he put 'em in the hospital for a while. And later the next day after it happened, "Want you to come over and look this thing over, I might get into trouble." He says, "He was pretty bad hurt, we tracked him way down around through the field." Stepped about ten feet at a time, he was in a hurry to get out of there I guess. And he was oveJ from close to Genesee. He had, I think he had a car then already, I guess they had a load of melons they was gonna haul out and he got in the hospital and he had a time gettin' out. First Peterson took me over there to show me how it was. they was together came out in the paper that Cochrane shot him and all that. Well, hatever you do, don't tell 'em Cochrane was gone that night. And there wasn't anything said and he was in Canada, I guess, for some reason. And the guy come to trial alright, but just before that I guess they found out that Cochrane wasn't here and they didn't know who shot him so they threw it out of court.

SS: But he was the wrong person?

OS: It was the wrong person.

SS: Did they hurt him bad?

OS: They hurt him pretty bad. He was in the hospital for quite a while. Hit in the back. But the way he said, he says, a fellow way up there in the field and they took a shot at him and there happened to be a fellow between him and them and that's the one he hit. It was kind of an accident on his,,

SS: Peterson was lucky.

OS: Yeah.

SS: Since he thought it was Cochrane. He thought it was Cochrane.

OS: What?

SS: He thought it was Cochrane?

OS: Cochrane and Peterson was in together in the melon business and they blamed Cochrane for doing the shootin'. But he did some shooting bewas fore and some of the other neighbors down there-yyhere- he had trouble with 'em and they wouldn't do anything. He a couple of lows there and just laid there. He said, "Get up right quick and I'll take a shot at you." He had a the other started to run so the cut one of his fingers off.

SS: Cut his fingers off?

OS: Yeah. Bite his fingers off. Never anything said about that This this fellow that had the winery, he had a grape patch down there and there was a mill ditch down there and they used to steal grapes all the time. By golly, he didn't like it, so he went out there with a shotgun I guess and did a little shooting and shot at them and they took a run down there andAhad to jump across the mill ditch and in they went.

SS: You were saying when she came, you mentioned this Japanese guy, I didn't hear what you-

OS: Oh, on the railroad?

SS: Yeah. What was the story on him?

OS: Oh, they needed a section boss. The railroad sent down a Japanese- I guess if you want any work done, why, Japanese ahead of anybody. And a hunch of them in Kendrick met him at the depot and told him to get back on the train, they didn't want him here. And I guess he left. And the fellow, the guy after him, was a first class drunkard on the railroad; drunk all the time. And a fellow got killed down at Arrow- The depot agent told thetrain,went down at nine o'clock "Now don't go down there, you can't get down there." Oh, we've got the section boss down there watching the track." Well, I could show you a picture of how he watched it. the train went in and killed one man. They finally took him- seems like they couldn't fire a guythey put him down someplace in a dry country, but they got another fellow after him- section boss, a darn nice sort of a guy, altogether different. Never drunk and behaved himself and fcthat other feller cussed some of the workers just to beat the band and he wouldn't do nothin'. This fellow they got there now, you wouldn't know that he was a section boss, and he worked, the same as the rest of 'em do.

SS: And this Japanese guy that tried to get on, when was that? Was that before the Depression?

OS: Oh,that was about 1903 or '04, somewhere around there.

SS: Well, you know, this- the Klan, what did they ever do around here? Did they burn crosses, or what did they do?

OS: Not that I know of- I don't think they did anything that I know of. Some from Lewiston was up trying to organize 'em. I don't think they ever got very far.

SS: Because I know they had the sheets and everything and the hoods, they wore the hoods.

0S: Yes. They was all I don't remember vejftt much about that. All they was doing was giving the Negroes the dickens. That's all I can remember of it. was about 1918- oh, '19, somewheres around there.

SS: I was thinking, I was wondering, because I've heard about 'em around before, and I've been wondering what the heck they did because since there wasn't any Negroes around here to speak of they had some other reason - they must have had something they wanted.

OS: Oh, some of the Lewiston bunch wanted to organize. They weren't.big at Lewiston either, there were only four or five, I think.

SS: They were Indians, but that was about the only people-

OS: The Indians seemed to be alright with 'em I guess. But just what the idea was I don't remember.

SS: I'm surprised that there were so many people who were stealing-who were willing to steal then. That way, it's not so different than it is now.

Yeah, there was quite a horse stealing went on here one time. They caught three of 'em- four of 'em- by golly, a couple of fellows that served in the Pen- one of 'em had-just a kid, they put him in for nothin'. The fellow that did the stealing lived down here. He lived up in the canyon- Bushburner the ringleader, he kinda plea ded f0r hig wif6j she was Sick- he didn't get nothin'.

OS: and another one from the other and the other one died and this other one is still around here.

SS: The ringleader got off easy?

OS: Yeah, he got off easy. He was always a trading horses or stealing horses, doing something.

SS: Did that go on for a long time before they fianlly caught up with them?

OS: Darned if I know. That was about the last I ever heard of it.

SS: If a guy was stealing horses around here in the real early days he could run into Vigilantes, I would have thought.

OS: i dont know if they had any those days.

SS: You know when they had moonshining- Prohibition and the moonshin ing going on; Frank Brocke told me that the guy that had been the doctor here during the flu epidemic-

OS: Doctor Kelly?

SS: I'm not sure that it was Kelly, it might have been Kelly but he was new he come in just for that- or came in about that time- Mr. Brocke said that the doctor- the regular doctor got the flu- and this other guy started doing the rounds for him, you know, and then after the epi demic he started making moonshine on Main Street in Kendrick. I wonder if that was Kelly or not.

OS: I don't know whether that was Kelly or not. Didn't think he ever made any moonshine- the only moonshine - made- he was a horse doctor, he made it up above Kendrick.

SS: Above Kendrick?

OS: Yeah. He was always making moonshine.

SS: Did he get caught?

OS: Not that I know of.

END SIDE C

OS: —was. These kids didn't get drunklike they do now. I've seen a lot of those say, why those Prohibition days was as bad as it is now. That isn't quite so. You didn't see these dances and a bunch of drunks around 'em all the time. See they drunk some of it they probably had a jail and throw him in.

SS: Did they use the jails in these towns?

OS: Oh, a little bit. The worst one I ever seen- in Juliaetta one time there was a couple of fellows kidnapped a government man over here at Orofino. Nobody thought very much of it, but they was trying to find these guys, these four, and by golly, I think there was four of 'em- they come through town here, and then they found they were kids here down at Park, you see, see 'em sleeping down here, these four guys and they got the cop up there and got these guys up there and put 'em in jail. And the first thing the cop asked the they got guns with 'em, but I don't think much wrong with 'em, really.'He says, "Let's tell the sheriff." And they had the guys up there for kidnapping. You ought to have seen how important Juliaetta got the next two or three hours. Cops and everything was here. I had a good picture of them guys down here, don't know what became of it.

SS: Was it the Lt. Governor that they—

OS: Lt. Governor that they kidnapped over at Orofino.

SS: Did they get him alive?

OS: I don't know just what they did with him, but He never got very far- don't even know what they kidnapped him for. But that wasn't too long ago.

SS: x was going to ask you a little bit about the threshing business, too.

OS: The what?

SS: The threshing business.

OS: Oh-

SS: I understand that you ran the oiler. You were the oiler, I mean.

OS: Well, that was- with every threshing machine they always had to have a separator, oiler and two sack sewers and that was the machine crew. I was the oiler for one year and didn't like it and they wanted me to take a couple of horses and drive 'em and I told 'em I wouldn't do it, and so I got fired. (Chuckles)

SS: You didnt really do much with threshing?

OS: Oh, I was out three years; made about $50, $60 every year. That was cash money, you couldn't spend it. That's what you buy your clothes with all year. Old Ed Taylor, Gene Taylor's dad, he was a roustabout he was the feller that hired the help and brought the stuff into the cookhouse. The first day I was up there they gave me four horses; I didn't like that at all. You had to get up earlier and up later and I told 'em I didn't want any horses,Athey put me on as oiler. Well, that was alright, but it turned out to be roustabout, separa tor tender and every other darn thing. And dirty job. Next year, why I told 'em it wasn't any of that any more, just going out in the field and pitch. The first year when I had four horses, they gave me 50c a day extra money for ;Knever asked for it. And they wanted me to take these horses and I wouldn't do it. Well, either do that or quit and I says, "I'll quit." That was out here at Cornwallers-go to get on a train in the evening- I had to stay over there- couldn't get out til the next day. The boss says, "Well, after we got through threshing for this one guy, "You can get back out in the field work again." I says, "Oh," I says, "I'm quit altogether, I've got a job Juliaetta." Where I did. This Porter strung the telephone lines in here in Kendrick and he was paying us a dollar a day and the threshing paid $2.50, so I went over there. And that night I heard 'em in the cookhouse, this Taylor, "What's he going to do anyway?" Oh, he told Gene's day that he's got away better job. "I don't know what he was over here for anyway. Get more money." I told him the next day, "You were sure a cheerful liar!" But there at work they all believed it.

SS: What did they do? Did they give you more?

OS: Well, I quit then. They wanted me to stay with them, but these fel lows here stringing, they needed me, I come over here. That was $1 a day, but the other was $2.50; $2.50 and board, you might say with the threshing crew. But you had to start in threshing at six o'clock and quit at seven- that's twelve hours. And when I had a team I had to get up an hour earlier before that. They always had breakfast at five and that was a pretty long day for a kid.

SS: I was wondering about who the people were that-how Juliaetta sup ported people living in town, I mean. Now, I can understand the people in the farming country, they were all farming, but in town, what were the people doing to make a living? Some of them had stores but what about the rest of 'em?

OS: Well, some of 'em- there was a few schoolteachers- generally about two of 'em down here, maybe three. And then there used to be two saloons down there. I think,there was even three down there. They kept the saloonkeeper and there was always about two stores. And there was a shoe store down there for a while. And there was two blacksmith shops. But they didn't figure they'd have to make three or four dollars an hour then, if they made two bits an hour they was happy- if they made anything.

SS: Did everybody that lived in town- did they all work at these stores or was there other things that they did, too?

Well, there wasn't very much other things- oh, they had a little road work every year.

SS: Do you think there was much difference between the town and the coun try? Between the town and the farms?

OS: No, not much, I guess. There wasn't no entertainment on the farm. Neither was there in town. Generally had a ball game on Sunday. When Kendrick and Juliaetta played they always had a fight in with it.

SS: Did you ever have a hard time get a hard time in Kendrick because you were from Juliaetta? You were a Juliaetta boy and not a Ken drick one. Did they suspect you at all?

OS: Oh, there was nothing said about it.

SS: But then there was fighting every time they played baseball.

OS: Oh, yeah. Some of these farmers was always in with them, too. And when they had the ballgame between Pine Grove over here- I don't know whether you know where that is- they always had a good ball team and generallyja fight developed in it, too. There was always one or two guys that when a umpire called it one thing he was wrong, and then by golly, then they'd have it! And you know with an umpire it was impossible to see what was going on exactly.

SS: Who used to umpire the games?

OS: What?

SS: Who used to umpire the games?

He did an awful lot. If you want to look up some of the old Kendrick Gazettes- I guess Troy andendrick had it too, one time. I guess the newspapers took it up. They really give Kendrick a heck of a black eye the way they treated 'em and I don't know hat all and then the Troy paper took it up. They kept the fight go±ng

OS: Oh, that fellow over here on the RidgeJjy the name of Schetsell(?) that one ball game. They said the umpire was crooked and everything else in the Troy paper. And as far as that goes- a basketball game Kendrick and Genesee used to kind a be on outs all the time. One ball game they had over in Genesee quite a bunch of Gene see bunch over here and I don't know who beat any more, but they each had a pretty good team and when the Genesee bunch started home their t ires was all cut. By golly, you oughta seen the newspapers- Gene see paper that come out- Kendrick people cut their tires, they had a heck of a time. And the Kendrick hey followed it up and found out it was the Genesee bunch that cut tie tires. But the Genesee paper never said anything about that anymore. (Chuckles) They always had something wrong.

SS: Why do you think it was that they - little towns fighting each other?

OS: I don't know why- well, the telephone business come out the same way when this Porter had it before, he had a telephone office in Kendrick and one in Juliaetta, just daytime service and he was going to put the two together and have a night operator. Well, these people on Fix Ridge, they wouldn't have nothing to do with Kendrick and of course, they wanted to build their own line then. And when we took it there was two systems down here, they had one the farmers built and the one.- Porter had. As soon as we got going- see they had a way out through Moscow- there was another system at Mos cow and another one in Troy. And then in Kendrick, in connection with them. Well, Moscow quit the same time we did and we just bought it in 1915 and Troy quit, so they had no way to get out and they was kinda forced to switch us then. They were, up in the air about that, they weren't going to be switched to Kendrick. And what made it worse then, Kendrick kept the tiephone on the Porter line be cause it reached into Kendrick and you could get the doctor at night and so they had one fellow on each ridge and both telephones, so they could call that fellow then he'd call in and get the doctor for 'em. And that was kind of a dirty trick but they did it. We finally got 'em together with a lot of kicking and hard feeling.

SS: Was there much of a deal on the Fourth of July?

OS: Oh, Kendrick used to have some great big- awful big celebrations. We run our theatre there one Fourth of July- we started in at nine o'clock in the morning Fourth of July and we got through about two o'clock in the next morning. Went all day long and the house was full all the time. And we took in- what was it?- two hundred and some dollars, I think.We had three or four different pictures, of course, that run the bill up like everything. But towards the last I couldn't even- Christmas used to have a free show- couldn't even get a crowd for that!

SS: pbr a free show?

OS: Yep. And then here- it was last year year I guess the Commercial Club I think paid for a show and Jerry Brown run it and they paid for the picture- they didn't have much of a crowd either. That was free. People change their ideas.

SS: Oh, I was going to ask you one more thing- You were telling me how you guys in the telephone business- what about the electric business? What about electricity- when did you get in the line?

OS: Oh, they kinda run together.

SS: Is that what it was?

OS: Just about. When this Holbrook had this system down here, he says I could kinda help out.and Herman did, too. Go down and run the plant once in a while. Then we did a little wiring,what little that was done. And we had any line work to do, why, they had no tools. One had some climbers but he couldn't climb it so we had to do that for 'em. kind of got into it. Then when they- Kendrick- see Herman was working for Willmott before the Washington Water Power bought it and he just stayed on, and so was Evan Adams.

SS: But you, yourself, you didn't work very much on that electric?

OS: Oh, one winter when they rwere all- Herman and Willmott went to Cali fornia, why I had Troy, Kendrick and Juliaetta to take care of and Evan Adams he did the bookkeeping and some of the meter reading and this Phil Johns down here, I think he kinda was ready to help any time, and we made it alright that way. That's the time I got two paychecks. I think I got $100 from the electric light company a month and I think I got $50 out of the company. And there was another feller helping us quite a little bit but he didn't work in the warehouse a lot, but whenever it was a little bit cold or a little bit too warm, why, he had a headache or something's wrong. If it was real nice he'd help and there wasn't very much to do.

SS: I noticed that you're reading what Herman wrote that your wives had to do some demonstrating- help the people- help the ladies learn how to use the-

OS: Herman did more of that than I .. Yeah, the Washington Water put those cooking schools on, they do it yet, to a certain extent. And they always had a- and it was generally like Herman and Adams he had to wash the dishes. Those women were demon strating were educated, and when they demonstrated they wanted 'em to use the same dish and clean it out again and use a new dish and then they had more dishes to wash than anything else. I always tell my wife- "There's two of us eating here, and we got about fifteen, twenty dishes to wash. Where's the rest of 'em?" They still do that.

SS: Your sister worked in- for the telephone company for many years, didn't she?

OS: What?

SS: Your sister worked for the telephone company?

OS: Yeah, I think that was about 1918 to 1952, I think. She did the book-* keeping and operator and all of that stuff.

SS: She must have gotten to know things pretty well spending all that time.

OS: They generally than, nobody called by numberAthey just give the name and had to know them. And on them darn switchboards they had that little drop that fell over, that clicked. We had one girl, she wor ked five or six years, when one of them droppers fell over with a little different click, she knew what line it was. And they was to me, they all sounded alike. My sister was pretty good at that but she didn't know thatmuch. I think we had about 100 different operators when we ran it from 1915 until 19- oh, I don't remember, 'til we changed to dial.

SS: Did you have to have twenty-four hours service?

OS: Well, we did- when we got iton twenty-four hour service- but to begin with the service at night was ' temporary service. They still have it in a lot of places. The operator sleeps there in the room and the bell rings when anybody calls. So then, she'd get up and answer it. And a lot of times there wasn't nothin to do at night. And the operator there generally had a girl stay with her that went to school and she did the night work, what little there was to do. There was quite a little of that done. That was done here and Troy and I guess at Moscow too, as far as that goes. And there was a boy that went to the university, he worked at Moscow at nights. Well, he got his room out of it. Telephone business wasn't think ing very much of business them days. Just, a byproduct. And when radio come in we figured the busy end of it.

SS: The telephone?

OS: Yeah, But it turned out different.

SS: The end of radio?

OS: Yeah.

Why did you think that would finish the telephone?

Well, they was doing everything without wires, we had to have wires.

And when radio come in- Herman, he got the first ladio there in Kendrick. would work down

They had quite a time. There was one fellow in the canyon.

He - someone in Spokane said, "I'll make you up one." He didn't buy any then, "And if it doesn't work we'll send it back again." So it come down on a night train and we had a line fixed up from here to Kendrick I was going to play the phonograph if it didn't work. Two guys thought it might work, but the rest of 'em all figured, By golly it proved that way sothe darn fools, what they doing here? ASo, we didn't have to play the phonograph they had a few radio stations on. Then the funny part of it- when the girls wentAthere Lewiston had no radio, there was none around, they had two lines at Lewiston, they put it on the long dis tance line at night and theVoperator listened to they had people at the hotel listening for it. Finally a long piece come out in the Lewiston paper that the same line had an arrow on it says, "There's something funny, that arrow, when the operator took down the receiver there was radio onA ." And asked the telephone company they can't figure out where it come from. Well, we could figure out where it come from alright!

SS: You just kept the line- some people would just keep lines open to listen to the radio?

OS: As I say, maybe two or three calls a day on it and the rest of the time they used it for radio, or just to play with, you might say in the evenings, generally. Of course, daytimes there was no radio.

SS: I wonder where the stations were that Herman would be able to get? Where were they even coming from.

OS: Spokane put one in pretty quick, that come in pretty good, KHQ. And then there was one in Moscow,KFAM. He had some fellow running one himself up there, but he had quite a time keeping his equipment together then. I think we give him a transmitter receiver or two and he He was out there by that water tank.

SS: Was that Lou Allen?

OS: No, I don't think so, I don t know who he was. Then probably started in selling radios. I think sold quite a few around here one winter. See the first year they got in radio you couldn't buy 'em you'd buy the parts. I think Callison, I think I made him one, then I made Mr Roberts up there one. And there was a friend of ours in the Moscow hospital in bed all the time, I made him one. He said that was the most entertainment he had for the whole hos pital when that thing start in.

SS: Were they real popular when they came in?

OS: Oh, yeah, everybody had one of them. See, Herman had just about $1,000 invested in radio and loudspeaker systems. He finally got a loudspeaker, I think, for a couple hundred dollars then he had to get a power supply, another fifty or sixty. And he spent a lot of money on it.

SS: This was just for his own use? He spent a thousand dollars?

SS: His own use and I know one election- I think I had my radio then- 1924, I think it was- when the Democrats lost out and the Republi cans got in, I don't know what year that was. And Rathey (?) up there, he had a hotel. And we had a setup there, because the whole damn town was in to listen to the radio election returns. And Old was awful blue, he says, "Looks like the Republicans gonna beat us." So, I think that must have been 1924. (Chuckles) Yeah, then they holler about the cost of living; now right now everybody's got one. Well then, we sold the radio*about as cheap as $160. Now you can go out and buy one for four dollars and a half that would do more than that did.

SS: That's what they cost? That much?

OS: Yeah, we got $160, I think for the radio and it took about $30, $40 worth of batteries and they didn't last very long. So, everybody had. You can't tell me that the cost of living went up on that, that went down like everything.

SS: You and Herman both built radios for people?

OS: Yeah, we put a few of 'em together. There was nothing much to 'em.

SS: Then after- then pretty soon they started coming out as a unit?

OS: Yeah. Crosley finally- we was one of the agents for the Crosley. We sold a few of those. There was a fellow in Kendrick, fellow by the name of Carlson, he- we wouldn't sign no contract with the company cause 'em. He signed a contract, he got the Cros ley agency away from us. Well, then, by golly, we got after the company— way better radio, cost more money. We took that agency on.

SS: What was it called?

OS: Fada. F-a-d-a. And we took that agency on and we musta sold- I know one time we sold over $2,000 in one month, we owed 'em for radios I think we paid for 'em. Sold quite a bunch of 'em. Fix Ridge, six or seven up there and Bear Ridge, we had a few of 'em up there.

SS: People had the money to pay for these in cash?

OS: Yeah, most of 'em. We'd give 'em 10% off and split the cash- wouldn't sell 'em no other way. This other fellow in Kendrick, when he first started in , he'd give 'em time. Well, I suppose he's still trying to collect some of it. And sold him one, was nine dollars and he gave me a check for it and I never cashed it didn't know it, and I found it not long ago and his wife is still living, and I said, "I'm going to give you that check some of these days!" (Chuckles) I think it's dated 1925 or '26, somewhere's around in there. Yeah, that cost of living on radio sure went down. Five dollar radio'11 do more than a $200 one would then.

SS: That's technology.

OS: Yeah. But the price come down, at that.

SS: blank

OS: — three stops, they monkeyed so darn much time.

SS: In Moscow?

OS: Yeah.

SS: Now wait, what were the three again?

The first was the water tank, you know the steam. Then they went up it) to the first depot, thatwhere they unloaded express, then they had to go up to the passenger depot- you know where that was maybe- and the people sure did kick on that. And there's another thing- that Inland come in, that was in 1908, the electric from Moscow to Spokane and I was out with a threshing outfit there- you could go to Spokane and back for $1. And they had a train every hour. And a lot of 'em only one car. But, by golly, they didn't monkey like that other lay out. They had a cream can they slowed down and throw it off. The other train,kthey had a cream can first they stop then a brakeman get off and put that out there then the get off, then they unload the cream can then they get back on again. And that takes so darn much time. We go to Spokane a lot of times, we up to Moscow on the railroad, Northern Pacific, and to Spokane in there we got on a electric, course it didn't ride as smooth, but they got up real speed and by golly, there wasn't all that monkey work. But the railroad, you know, they used to call it- the railroad always did that, they always monkeyed so darn much. That was the union way of doing things. Killed all that time. They always did do that. I know £ got bawled out to beat the band down here one time they was working on the bridge and they was boring a hole by hand there- "Look like you fellers would at least get you a electric drill." you're one of those guys that don't want anybody to work." Oh, I did get bawled out. "Yeah," I said, "You're the fellow that wants to work and don't get nothin' done." But they finally changed that deal, they gotta work a little bit.

SS: This Cecil-

0:00 - Movie theaters in Juliaetta and Kendrick; popular movies; holes in the screen

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Segment Synopsis: Movie theatres in Juliaetta and Kendrick. They were run more for fun than money - 250 an hour wages. Last movies in Juliaetta were high priced, $25 each. Earlier efforts to run theatres. Popular movies: Trail of the Lonesome Pines was the most popular. Holes in the screen; water pistols. A young man who learned to work on the movie and telephone equipment without always asking for a raise.

18:00 - Poles down in Kendrick on Easter Sunday

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Segment Synopsis: Twenty-three poles down in Kendrick on Easter Sunday.

21:00 - Trains at Juliaetta; railroad accidents in the valley; washouts

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Segment Synopsis: Trains at Juliaetta. Juliaetta didn't give the right-of-way, so Kendrick became the terminus. Railroad accidents in the valley. Kendrick had more ridges for freight than Juliaetta. Why the railroad stopped at Juliaetta for years. Washouts.

29:00 - Birth of a Nation; first cars in the country

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Segment Synopsis: Seeing Birth of a Nation. The first cars in the country; they weren't reliable.

30:00 - Fear of cars; high cost of gas; Kendrick garage

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Segment Synopsis: Fear of cars. Hard to start on hills. High cost of gas then compared to now. Kendrick garage. Fixing second gear on the Maxwells.

36:00 - Alexander was a good merchant; stores in Juliaetta

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Segment Synopsis: Alexander was a good merchant. Jews invented interest. Generations of Nobles have had stores in Juliaetta.

40:00 - Parents sold right-of-way to Vollmer; farmers wanted free electricity

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Segment Synopsis: Parents sold right-of-way to Vollmer, thinking it was to the railroad. Farmers wanted free electricity for giving right-of-way to REA. A man who got free electricity from the local company. A man who made the company dig their holes over again off his property.

44:00 - Farmer who held up the water system; farmer got paid to fix phone lines

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Segment Synopsis: A rich farmer who held up the water system for a free right-of-way. REA took no liability for damages on his place. The farmer who got paid for fixing phone lines.

49:00 - Riding the trains; hoboes had camps; riding a freight to Kendrick

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Segment Synopsis: Riding the trains. Hoboes were a nuisance; they had camps. Riding a freight from Arrow to Kendrick. Railroad men are often haughty.

56:00 - First movie; afraid of oncoming trains; going to Lewiston for the fair; local winery

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Segment Synopsis: A German woman who ran a saloon. His first movie: people were afraid of the oncoming train. Going to Lewiston for the fair was rare, Spokane much rarer. Local winery.

60:00 - Winery; raising bees

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Segment Synopsis: Winery. Raising bees.

63:00 - Juliaetta's water powered flour mill; muskrats digging holes; "Pride of Potlatch" flour; bleaching flour; Kendrick's power plant

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Segment Synopsis: Juliaetta's water powered flour mill. It supplied electricity to the town. It burnt up when experts tried to change the set-up around. Muskrats dug holes in the ditch. The town grew too big for the supply. It wasn't run as much of a business. "Pride of Potlatch" flour. Bleaching flour. Kendrick's power plant didn't have enough water, but ran on semi-diesels; it wasn't a success.

74:00 - Starting at the telephone company; buying the company; working seven days

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Segment Synopsis: Starting with the telephone company. How they made money to buy the company. They worked seven days when needed.

77:00 - Mrs. Snyder's sons digging for coal; John Gorman buried on the hill; Jean Chinaman

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Segment Synopsis: Mrs. Snyder, a spiritualist, dreamed that there was coal in the hillside, and her sons dug for it. John Gorman was buried on the hill. The Klan talked about getting rid of the Negroes. A black man who ran a restaurant in Kendrick was a fine man. Jean Chinaman. A Japanese section boss ordered to get out of Kendrick.

82:00 - kid caught selling watermelons; shooting the wrong thief; cutting a thief's fingers off; moonshining horse doctor

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Segment Synopsis: A kid caught stealing watermelons lied to his mother. Shooting the wrong thief by mistake. Cutting a thief's fingers with a knife. Grape thieves fell in a ditch. More about the Japanese section boss and his successor, and the Klan, which was largely from Lewiston. Ringleader of horse stealers got off easy. The moonshining horse doctor.

90:00 - Kidnappers caught in Juliaetta

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Segment Synopsis: Kidnappers caught in Juliaetta.

92:00 - Threshing work; fights in ball games; sharing line with Kendrick

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Segment Synopsis: He didn't care for threshing work. Making a living in town. Fights in ball games between the towns. Fix Ridge didn't want to share their line with Kendrick.

101:00 - Fourth of July movies; free Christmas movies; the electric business; telephone operating at night

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Segment Synopsis: Fourth of July movies were popular, but eventually people wouldn't come to free Christmas movies. Getting into the electric business. WWP cooking schools used a lot of dishes. Telephone operating with temporary service at night.

108:00 - Early radios; building radios; selling radios

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Segment Synopsis: Early radios in the country. Playing the radio on the phones . Building radios; Herman had $1,000 tied up in his equipment. Town listened to his radio for election results. Selling radios.

114:00 - Train stops in Moscow; union procrastination

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Segment Synopsis: The train stops in Moscow. The electric to Spokane was faster. Union procrastination.

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