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Latah County Oral History Collection

Remembering Latah County and Idaho Life at the turn of the 20th century

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Date: October 04, 1974 Interviewer: Sam Schrager

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SAM SCHRAGER: Grace Wicks relates many memories of early day life around Genesee, in cluding the great importance of goodhousekeeping, heart-hand marriages, the stockshow celebration, Genesee stores and cultural events, playing piano at the local movie house, the big city of Lewiston. She describes the trying World War I years in her family with the terrible injury of her brother Lew, and also, the major family undertaking, that was washday.

GRACE WICKS: I'd like to talk about washdays I can remember. I can remember .. fen at my grandparents' home where my great auntie was struggling to wash the long woolen drawers of my grandfather,—her brother -her younger brother. Her name was Mary Jane Laffeexe and his was Joshua Giles they lived in Troy, Idaho at time.

He had problems with his elimination, and this meant that she had a terrific taste,of trying to keep him tidy. wore the heaviest of woolen drawers and long shirt with long sleeves and high neck—winter and summer. He said in the summer it insulated him, and I guess it did; because he never seemed to be over warm, and in the winter he needed it; so that's the way he dressed year in and year out. *** §ver the washboard those heavy garments would become almost as rigid as boards. Swt She would struggle with the yellow soap and the wash board and eventually out would come a very cleanly garment, which was thence hung on the line so that it got all the sweetness of outdoor air. 2^3/then they were ready for the next time. These people were as clean as any in their time, but they bathed once a week and changed their underclothing once a week. 0HW* Grandfather slept in his underwear. They also had heavy blankets on the bed. And I can remember one of the most uncomfortable nights of my entire life in their home, when I was put to sleep in a guest room between Mother and Dad, which was a warm position anyway/ and up and down my back was this hot, prickly feeling that robbed me of my rest. It was caused by hand woven, woolen sheets~-not blank ets? -sheets. You could see the warp and woof very plainly in their texture, and they were prized possession, sfet aside the delight of company in winter wea ther. Being, as I found aiiae years later, completely allergic to wool, I broke out in red welts all up and down my back, and that was a very^ uncomfortable situation. I thought Troy was aWeat metropolis, population was probably because there was a train that went through at night on the Northern Pacific track, and the. cows who grazed around the village had bells. Now that was «* sophistication to me. lo wake in the night" perhaps it was during this miserable night"~I can remember the satisfactions of hearing those two sounds to which I was strangeyand which meant somethigg magic to me.

Another washday Iremember very clearly was at home on the farm. We had a washer, which was a wooden tub with a handle on it on the side^ and it turned back and forth with some vigorous arm propelling it, four hundred times for the dirty towels, four hundred times for the dirty mens' shirts, much less time for the tea towels, and much less time for the ladies' undergarments. Of course, Mother didn't stop with one petticoat'-she had one inner petticoat and two outer petticoats, and this was for every day, yjhen she dressed pp she had more. She had a corset cover. She had all of the proper fixings to be adequately covered at all times. This made for lots of washing'and in due time- my older sister joined her in numbers of garments, antT so there was lots of light under wear. The towels, in addition to the four hundred turns were put to boil in heavy lye suds on the big old kitchen range in an enormous washer boiler. This had a lid, and in due time it would just boil and bubble and smell up the house, make steam in the house, and that was a delicious odor of cleanliness. Often times Dad would help us, many times the big boys, but sometimes it'd be Dad-and when iris^was' I was always glad because he was a generous treater. Mother didn't believe in in-between meal snacks, but Father was a little more lenient with small, hungry people, from time to time he would slice off some of her del icious homemade white bread [oftentimes dark bread, but more ofter white) and put on a thick covering of good homemade, well worked butter ,'j and then, for the pure ambrosia, he would put on plenty of sugar. Now this was a washday treat be cause Dad wasn't in the house at any other time. I remember it to this day~ and walking out into the yard feeling simply on cloud nine, and listening for bluebirds, or watching any of the exciting events that the animals created 'round about, and thinking that this was a very nice world. Now the next washday that I remember came about in a different way. Mother had electricity in town after 1916, which means I was ten years old, and she wanted an electric washer, but to get it! Father's income, he told me one time, was such that sometimes he was glad for even an extra calf at the end of the year. So it wasn't any use to look to Dad to buy the electric washer, $ut she had Follow Me-, and there was Ruby, that hot blooded riding horse, and one way and another, she just figured out that if she sold those two very fine possessions, she could maybe get some things that^f do her more good. So. she sold Follow Me~ he went for a very good price and broke all our hearts, but this was par for the course when an animal was And later sold Ruby, and this yielded enough money for an electric washer, an excellent Maytag, with an agitator middle, and a wringer—a round roll wringer--and it also yielded enough money for a piano. Oh, was this a real not for anyone but me, because the rest of the family had to listen to me thump. But for years my mother had been having me go to friends to take music lessons on the piano, and then come at eleven-thirty each morning from school and stop by for thirty minutes of good practice before I came home for lunch, which of course at our house at noon was dinner. So I was pretty well along in taking lessons on how to play the piano, and here I had one of my own!!

For the first three days I thought it was disloyal not play it, and I am sure the family must have nearly lost their minds, but they were very indulgent and very loyal, and they never once indicated that they were completely tired of that banging. I had a number of nice little pieces and both Mother and Father showed me off to every guesj: that came^ an* this was great stuff^at that age.(laughter) Nov} the washdaysthat I remember with the Maytag were also unique in one way. Oh, let me retrogress, and go back to the farm. Because after all of these turns on the washer and all of the wringing that some sturdy arm had to do because Mother's was not equal to it, and all of the boiling and then all of the rinsing-^and Mohher was a great rinser because she felt that soap left in garments was not good for peoples' skin, let alone her precious family's skin, so she was very careful to rinse,* and of course everything was spring water, and the least bubble of soap showed, so she would put it through one or two or three waters. Then it would be wrung the final time and put upon the clotheslines. Father was never one to put up a clothes post. He depended on nature or what was hand y. For example, a droopy wire could go from the corner of the toilet to the corner of the bedroom of the house,. Or it could go from the pear tree over to the corner of the porch, or wherever there would be space indicated. And that's where we'd clothes along toward four in the afternoon, having begun good and brisk and early in the morning. those clothes would stay out all night and we hoped it wouldn't rain, and wouldn't blow them. But if it did we had very sturdy pins and very sturdy precautions were taken so that they would nt blow off. Many times they wrapped around and got very tangled, especially the legs of a man's long pants. But otherwise the clothes just stayed there till they finally dried, in good weather that is. In winter time, oh, what a struggle to get the clothes dry. -^acrd if you were in such a position as to have to wash the winter cotton blankets, to get them dry meant having draperies of wet steaming garments around the living room for days with the heater going full blast. Oh, usually--I'm exaggerating on thafcv'a day and a night did it. Most of us just suffered it through and kept as clean as possible. Then the clothes had to be brought in and the kitchen table would be heaped high lt was a big kitchen table that seated it would be stacked with these stiffly frozen (sometimes)clothes, or stiffly dried clothes, and then would come the task of fold ing them and putting . em away. B«rt iiost of the time, when they would have been hung outdoors, we were rewarded by their delicious smell. And how nice we knew they were going to be to use. so we didn't mind much. Beet the folding pro cess was yet another one of the tasks of laundry*-a big one—-matching all the socks for seven, eight or so people^ dtoing all of the towels in a stack, and all of the tea towels in a stack, and all of the underwear for various people in their stacks. Oh my, this took a lot of sorting and a lot of doing. To go back to the electric washer* During World Warl, when Father came back to take care of growing food and the boys were in the service, we had to go to town to use the electric washer, and this meant a full day. Mother would pack up all of the dirty clothes, and me and into the buggy we'd go, and into town we'd —wdfcti whatever other errands she had to do. g we'd pet down to the house and open up,the closed smell of it and get water heated. We had a faucet for cold water, and we had a reservoir for heating water, but coming in in the sum mer meant that we had to fire up, fill the range and get it going, and the sweat would pour a** the wood 4 v'w have to be gathered, and the whole bit, :$ we'd get things going, and in due time start the washer, a/mm rtKwi get: tiwn out on the line as fast as ever we could so that we could go home that night with a dry batch of clothes. This took a lot of doing, and there wasn't very much time for. little gir^to get to that piano which she had been deprived of for a few weeks, or a few days, whatever it was. "Mf my goodness, I didn't go to the lengths of hunt ing up a little girl friend to play with, there just wasn't time. If I had a minute, I dropped nto the pianorand had my fun. That was a real pleasure.-*Hd World War I, we had a number of catchy songs, like OVER THERE and KEEP THE HOME FIRES BURNING, and IT'S A LONG, LONG TRAIL, and'the other one,IT'S A LONG LONG WAY TO TIPPERARY. All of these tunes had great spirit. As~*h«a there was the nostalgic love song of TIB. WE MEET AGAIN, and MARQUITA "'. delightful tunes which I thoroughly enjoyed playing and singing ,4kKl iafe/^times Mother sang with me, and we'd have a little fun along with our work.

I am torn between two ways of washing. Our apartment house affords yet an agitator washer with an electric wringer. Using this is a real privilege, because one keeps one's clothes so beautifully white and beautifully bright col ored, because you never mix colors in that kind of washer*-you just use another washing— another tub full of water. Now, in an automatic washer which is down stairs, and which we can use for twenty five cents, I frequently go down, but it's for specialized occasions,' because if I give to the temptation of putting a full load in, and load in dark-colored things with my light-colored underwear, pretty soon I have a slightly dingy look to the whole light batch of clothing that I want to use. Ami. this jfciMPt makes me cringe. So oftentimes, I don't use the quick way of washing for the twenty five cents. I go upstairs and take the time that it takes to do a good job. And that's just what I've finished now! TSmr, some of the other things I wanted to talk about this morn;ns . We were talking about the boys going iiko World War I. This meant that my father, who was then along toward fifty or in his fifties, with a bad back, had to take the six -hors-e team of costly mules that the boys could handle with their young vigorous shoulders and use them to plow and harrow and^seed^do the other farm choresr^rffhose animals were Missouri mules,and they cost eight hundred dol lars a span^ which was outrageous when you could get a good team of horses for two hundred and fifty. But these mules were marvelous animals, except that they had hard mouths. By a hard mouth- I mean that they Wsd been abused along the way, and there were callouses on their lips, etc, so that they didn't respond readily to being pulled in guidance by a bit. So Dad's poor old shoulders would get so tired, and his back nearly break across the small of it, kad he'd come in and sit on the kitchen stove oven door so that the heat would pour out upon his tender muscles; and hope for some relief before he'd go back and try to do his work again. Of course, he would have hired it done by someone if he possibly could, but there was no available man to be found. My next older brother than I was four years older, and he just was too young to take on the task. My oldest bro ther startled my folks by coming in one day and saying, "I'm enlisting." Well, of course no parent likes to hear that. But I remember Dad setting his mouth and the tears coming to his eyes, and he swallowing right back, and sticking out his hand to Lew, and saying, "I'm proud of you." MWL Ho Lew went to enlist in World War I. This was 1917. But he was rejected. He was rejected because he only had one-fifth of vision in his left eye. What had happened was that as a boy he had been in the barn tending the animals, and there was a wire stretched from one end of the barn to the other, and on that a lantern hung and could be moved from place to place to light whose ever task was at hand. One time that wire broke, and by some ill chance the broken end landed square in Lew's left eye and took four-fifths of his vision. It was the left eye, so he felt that he per haps would pass the physical examination, and it was only then that we realized how little vision he. had had all this time in his left eye. So he was rejected. But in due time his number came up in the draft, he went to be examined, and was taken. He landed, eventually in a machine gun battalion which was the crack ill the AEF in France, once the war was over. He could shoot with that right eye like a million dollars, and it didn't bother one bit that his left eye was nearly blind.

Ben came ^Long to be also drafted, and he went into a remount section. This meant that^This life had always been with animals, so it continued to be. Jmm He worked hoi.ses and mules through the entire war and saw no action. However, Lew's service was so filled with action that he still is suffering from it. He was such a young and hardy man, but a dreadful thing happened to him in the bat tle of Chateau Thierry. E€ Abig shell burst right in front of him and knocked him backward into a trench. He landed on the back of his neck, which didn't break his neck, but which so_ damaged it that for many years he had the most excrciating from time to time that would last usually about three days. His face would be livid, and his eyes washed of color and he would be jso very ill during that time, fan** the doctors at the Vetd Hospital told him that until his neck became rigid he would have to endure this pain. Bat- they could give him no compensation, because, when this happened to him he was gathered up and taken to a hespital and no connection of* record was made of his problem, though he was eight months in hospital. During this time he was given drugs to ease his agony, m0L until he was too dependent upon them. Then he was broken of thaCt dependence and all of this took much time, and yet never records cleared that this was a soldier hurt in action. Finally, after twenty years or so he received eleven dollars a month; which was better than nothing, but which always seemed irony to the family. I visited him recently, now that he is eighty years old and in a nursing home in Lewiston, and he barely cam. move his legs'. He said this all stemmed from when he had a forced march along with his battalion into Germany through the mud for twenty-four solid hours, and there wasn't one drop of water or one bite of food for them during the entire time. AMI when they got their destination there was food there, and many soldiers became violently ill when they ate. Bat Lew said he escaped because first he drank a great deal of water. So he was able to stand it. It's often that the first-class private has caustic comments to make on the leadership of the second lieutenant who is in charge of him and his buddies. Lew's comment along this direction was of the time when he was standing guard, and everybody else was asleep in an exhausted sleep because they had been in an offensive. MSS tjfhey'd had no food for such a long time, and it came and the Untenant bounded up and he said, "Wake everybody up, here's food." BUB Lew went over and took the lid off the can of stew and out to him came the odor of the sourest, spoiled batch of food that you ever smelled. 4mWk He told the lieutenant, and the lieteliant was a little dingy, and he said, "Oh, wake 'em up, wake 'em up!" 4Hffi Lew said, "What's the reason? What's the good of it? They're so tired and they can't eat this.". "Well, those are orders, wake 'em up." Lew said, "I'll shoot you, before I'll do it." And he said, 'You know, that young man was younger than I was, and he just kind of turned around and walked away, and he never did give me nV , - : time about that. But he said I'd have killed him. (laughter) They got pretty short tempered, I am sure when they were that tired and had been on that kind of wretched business that long. When letters would come from my big brothers I would 1ms, bringing the mail home to my folks. I would stop enroute from school at the post office, and our mail box was 221, and the combination was one on J, and one oriR. Now pioneer merchant in Genesee was Jacob Rosenstfc'i n, so we always said the combination was Jacob Rosenste/i n, one on J and one on R. And if there was a letter from the boys-- and oh my, those were infrequent""but_if one did get into that mail box, I'd go home ten feet tall, stepping high, barely able to get there so that Mother could slit the envelope and we all could read how the boys were. JStoi We'd look at that postmark so hard, because at least we knew they'd been alive to write the letter. ISfet p^ws of hurts and news of their doings was all too infrequent.

During the time that Lew was in this hospital'unidentified, as it were, he re ceived not one letter from home or one scrap of mail because he was just lost. And he received not one cent of pay during that whole long eight months. This sand in the craw of a human being, and Lew has always been quite a quiet, taciturn, over-serious man,' but I am sure a personality that couldn't measure up to that kind of adjustment would never have survived in wholesoneness mentally through such an ordeal.

There are many hurts in war that can't be counted on the casualty list, and nobody hates war more than I. Jtal $s each one has engulfed my life—this one first, and my husband in World War IX, my brother-in-law and nephews in the Korean War, and my son in the Vietnamese War- -each time, I have to make my terrific adjustment. Now, we were going to talk about some other things— Sam, today? Oh, I was going to talk about heart- ir\l*-hand * wasn't I? Well, heart-»t - hand aff$4Mg had to be more or less resorted, in pioneer times, because as I said before in these interview^ so many more men came on the adventuresome trail of conquering the West than women did, $ so the men had to do the best they could. And if they were respectable people they wanted to marry the women that they ecoeartad with, and they wanted to establish homes and raise families, mwrnmrnm they would send back, maybe^for somebody they remembered, or maybe they'd go home and marry a widow of an old friend, or maybe they themselves were widowers, and they'd go back and marry a younger sister, or a younger person in the town from which they'd come. One couple that I know- knew very well, were wonderful people. The man's name was Will Nixon. He was a highly respected farm er in Genesee, and a very close friend of my family, In fact, at my father's fun eral, he saia to me, "Grace, I think I am your father's oldest friend who will be here. ' -fa* a man named Joe Baobgoikr stepped up and said, "Ho, Will, I think I'm his oldest friend here." And so they had a little exchange, both of them being well along in their eighties. Dad was seventy three. MBBmr Mr. Nixon=-Mother called him Will, and Dad called him Will, but to us children he was always Mr.

(End of Side A)

Nixon— Reeded a wife, and so he sent back East, and I don't remember just how, but it had something to do with letter writing, so this wasn't true heart — in-hand, but it was a lettered courtship, Am lie asked this lady whq_sf name was May,but I don't know her maiden name, who was a very refined and lovely looking person who wore glasses with a delightful little chain that went back to an earpiece, which had a very feminine looking nose pincher across the bridge of her pretty no . She was a_lqvely person. And it was their oldest child that made the spot in our raspberry patch. But they lost this boy early in life', and then they had another daughter, Frances, who was a lovely girl, but she died in her teens also, from a quick throat infection. And that left only the girl, my age, also named Grace. She presently is retired school teacher in Clarkston, and is the heir to the vast family holdings, which were choice, on the south side of Genesee and on down the Central Grade-"well laid out land which of course has no heir". Mr. Nixon was a scholarly man, as was his wife. They both were students and very intelligent people. WSt When Mrs. Nixon came to the depressed years of the menopause, her personality became quite ingrown, and one day she walked into the Snake River.

Another couple that was a true heart-in-hand couple, the man was very handsome, but the woman was definitely plain, hmi they both had signed up with th agency which would get lonely people together. She had come West and had married this gentleman who had a fine farm south of Genesee, where the family in third generation is farming. AuT They quarreled. They were known to be a quarrelsome couple. They tried to keep their family squabbles private, but theirchildren were also contentious in some instances; they had three. It was an un pleasant domestic situation always, but they lived out their lives together of over forty years just with pure endurance. They had one daughter who was happy and pretty and she got away from home early. beautiful woman. They had a son. who was by streaks exceedingly charming and exceedingly exasperating. He went to the University of Washington, and was quite a hell-raiser. But he married a lovely girl from Troy, and they had a nice family, the son of which is presently farming the home place.

There was also another couple. Well, there Were three of them :- the women were half-breed Indians. And in each case, the people lived out their entire lives together; produced very handsome children who adjusted well to society, and who were not ashamed of their antecedents, who were glad they inherited Indian land, and who lived very useful and pleasant lives, well ac cepted by everyone. As a matter of fact, I know a fourth one. One of these couples, where the half-breed part came in, the man was an army man who retired straight as a ramrod in his saddle, and his full-blooded wife was a dear woman and she was shaped just about like an egg: fat, a little greasy, black eye4, lank haif?land dull of expression. But she was afine woman just the same, and produced-two. very nice daughters. I remember her one time coming to my mother's home at Mother's invitation, ancunwrapping a beautiful white elk Indian dress; beaded and trimmed with procupine quills, and elk teeth,and fringe. It was a work of art. Idon't'where it is presently, but Iam sure that if is not destroyed. 3a*S if we «an get it for the museum here it would be a real treasure. I don't suppose anyone has approached the family to having it preserved in such fashion and it might be something we could pursue because the half-breed daughter still lives in a lovely retirement home over on the coast. She had the start of herZJ'ia^ grant, and her husband was a good farmer, and they also acquired what the old soldier had accumulated, so they had a very fine start. *atf they went on from there, and they are comfortable, indeed. I wouldn't say wealthy, but certainly comfortable. As a matter of fact, there wasn't a single one of these couples which had the. start from the Indian land but what did very well. There was one Indian woman whom I haven't told you about. Her name was Lilly Viles, and she had a tepee in her dooryard, and part of the time, when she wanted to in the hot summer;she slept out there. Now the silly story""and I am sure it was a silly story these days, but as a child I believed it""was that she had human scalps along the bor der of her room. Sot I think this is completely erroneous, it just made a good story. Her daughter was married to a white man and lived over just a Ittle way , and I could see Mrs. Viles Indian land and fdk«. tepee when I rode up to the gate for a little ride.

MRS. WICKS: What else were we going to talk about?

SAM SCHRAGER: The thousand dollar

MRS. WICKS: Oh, yes. Many women were great helps to their husbands in those days where everybody was scrambling as best they could to better their lives and theirptandard of living. This woman was an emigrant from Scandinavia"! don't know which of the three or four countries *"-put she stopped enroute West to work as a maid in New York City. These immigraii* girls were highly prized as domestic help. They were strong; they were willing; they were clean; they were in many instances skilled. Well, she had a thousand dollars saved up when she came West and married this gentleman. The standard of living was pretty sub for aViumber of years, and I suppose they were resorting to peasant standards in order to get a start because they certainly did well. Stories were told that when the boys got out of bed in the morning the loaves of bread were put in the warmth of the blankets, so that they would rise. And now, that's just a real good story, but whether that happened or not is anybody's guess^ and I rather imagine it didn't, but then it could have been the practical way. Aspt b\ie time after this family, had two big half grown boys and two younger daughters, they stopped enroute to a Fourth of July celebration down at Spalding, at my grandfather's place, and bought an entire tree's fruit of sour cherries. They picked it hastily, and stripped that tree in very cleanly fashion. By cleanly, I mean they picked all of the fruit and loaded it Into hhe wagon where the cookstoye sat. And down the hill they went to celebrate the Fourth. Utaf fheir idea of celebrating the Fourth was a very pragmatic one. They got the fire going in the cookstove, and the two boys just got on their hands and knees and some boards were laid across them, and Mrs. ABC began rolling out pie dough as fast as ever she could. And she baked cherry pies. She didn't take time to take the seeds out. But she baked cherry pies which sold for a whole great big dollar abiece! Now that was a full day's wages, so if we were paying twenty, thirty, forty dollars for a cherry pie these days, we'd understand what good sports those men were to buy those pies at a dollar apiece. Well, they baked pies until the cheries were gone, and had a very profitable day. Aod liow much the kids got to celebrate was problematical, and certainly beside the point, so far as the the parents were concerned! Another story from this family is one which I find quite touching. They grew pigs, and it was wise to use stubble pasture for pigs because there'd be lots of dropped grain, and Seec^ that had good nourishment in the winrows of the crops. As*d«« pie pigs would be pastured, herded by some person, and oftentimes they were taken over to the Craigmont area which we called the Camas Prairie. There are several Camas Prairies in Idaho, o this is the one that's near the town of Craigmont. M- fhere the human being who was the pig- herder would camp and have a saddle horse and a very simple arrangement for living, but would keep those pigs where they were supposed to be, and they would thrive on the food that they could forage. When the weather got cold toward fall, then the herder was obliged to herd them back over here to"home. Well now, the herding chores fell to the lot of young teenage daughter. k very refined and nice girl in every way ko married well and was exceedingly respected in the commun ity, out when she stopped her herd to rest for the night, and it took more than one day to bring the stock across the long distance, 5he had to bed down just where the herd was. Aj*id ne tmme my sister was shocked to find this nice girl asleep beside the side of the road as Dad and my sister rode by in the buggy, and there was this girl resting in her bed right alongside of the dusty road. But this was pioneer necessity, and it meant that the girl had lots of gimp to be able to do that. She went on to inherit very nicely from her parents, and her husband inherited from her because she young with tuberculosis. The vast holdings of that family, one way and another, is still held, still en joyed.^ and still very well handled. They are good people. This country was settled by a fine class of people. Not always so many social graces, but so far as character was concerned, they merited the respect of each other. -And wMle they didn't always have the same standard of living, these people helped each other, and were kind to each other, lent money to each other, and built a world.

Regarding what they did for each other, let me tell the story of my grand mother and her sugar bowl of Oregon Grape jelly. Sugar was at a premium--it cost nineteen cents a pound! And it was black as it could be, ai most ^solidified black strap molasses, feat at least it was sweet. Jooct Grandmother brought, when she first came here from Oregon. a sugar bowl full of Oregon Grape jelly, a great luxury. As j^ike all jgfeigiiteo*- women, she was called in to Jelp at the confinement of a neighbor, and she went over to her, and I think I can tell the name of 4nhiA-:]fL: ( :—my grandmother was Adelia Jain Mrs. Lewis- and the woman -f whom she was called was Mrs. Wahl? the first in the area of that name. And Mrs. Wahl was being confined with twins, and Grandmother helped to bring ikem 11 into the world. teT ^s a great treat, took along the bowl of jelly. ter*feaspn. by teaspoon this was put into cool spring water and stirred for a little cordial as a lift for the person who was ill. This wmm the bedsides of wemsy sick people. There was never pay for this kind of kindness. This was a neighbor's love for a neighbor.

Speaking of lending money: Lola Clyde told me this story, and perhaps she can tell it better, but she told,a member of the Wahl family going to borrow money from a person who was in the area, but wasn't a close neighbor? and so of course had no friendship involved especially. §WK the money was in a kero sene oil can in the early day bank. The money was taken out and lent to Mr. Wahl eighteen percent interest compounded monthly was charged. These were before the days of usury, and the renting of money, then was very costly. Of course now, in car contracts when we pay thirty-height percent inter est, we don't blink an eye. But that eighteen percent in those days looked pret ty Ijad^in every way, but- oh, they had to have the money. And that gentleman told my dad that he would never get out of debt, and his .son would never get out of debt, and his .son's son would never get out of debt. *"Wmi I lived to see the day when.not only were all three out of debt, thanks to the bounty of this won derful country here, but from the acres that were preserved in the family's hold ings ,_all of them were comfortable, indeed. And still are So are the descendents. This is a magnificent legacy, and to me represents the deep worth of America.trheit can do this for people who were born overseas and came here. My grandfather was such; just that close are we to European soil. HM I think that when you ponder this at all, you are deeply grateful for the privilege it has been to live the lives of hard work, yes J but great pleasantness and comfort we have known in this area. Where a sense of place is so important; where we feel such deep roots; where the house we lived in, one of which still stands, where in one corner our dear little Aunt Carrie died at age fifteen of spinal menengitisj and where in another corner the only baby of Adelia Lewis that was born in Idaho, was They came in '78, and he was born about 1880 to '82. because he was about ten years old when Mother was married, and she could hold out her arm and he could walk right under her arm. So, he was just a little boy when his older bro ther married my mother.

Now, what el se were we going to talk about?

SAM SGliRAGER: Discuss about the way that people always were ready for people being in the house, and the fact that you always had to be dressed well, and—

MRS. WICKS: Well, goodness sakes, if you had any self-respect you didn't go around look ing like a mess because anyone stopping by would judge the condition of your house, and the condition of your person, along the scale of cleanliness and readiness, and personality, and the whole bit, by how you appeared at the door. you certainly didn't go to the door in any bathrobe or dressing gown, or anything but proper clothing. Hired men were around, and they were strange men in your home. Maybe the school teacher was there, maybe guests were there; so when you got out of bed in the morning, you washed your face and combed your hair and put on clean clothes. And then you got breakfast. 4S you didn't have an ugly looking table, you had a cleanly table with your food as attractively set out as you could. It was not only important that it be abundant and del icious, but that it looked well. And your kitchen floor was cl y swept, and it was mopped and it was clean. JHBiVhen somebody went to your cupboard and opened the door they didn't find a mess. You were your own servant, so when you created food and set it on the table, they wanted to be sure it was clean. When you invited somebody to stay all night at your house, you wanted to be sure that there was ample providing for cleanly, pleasant beds. This took a lot of work, but goodness sakes, it was like putting on a clean apron when you went out into the yard to talk to somebody. You certainly didn't go around with your tummy wet from doing a washing, or anything else, feople didn't take each other casually. People took each other at face value, and you saw to it that was your best foot forward, if it could be achieved. And to any doing woman, it can be achieved, if she's taught that way. if a man is taught that way, he doesn't go around sloppy either. JBPHl when you go into their houses, there isn't an ugly odor of unaired human beings, or sleep, or over-old cooking smelli. You have in not only the cleanliness and welcoming smells, but orderly less so that life is pleasant and comfortable. bad it wasn't that women were trying to be snobby by being good housekeepers, or that their men were overly conscious of this effort women made,* it was part of their pride in homemaking. You didn't do a lousy job. You had as nice looking things around as you could; you had them in order, you had things ready for your family to weat when they needed them. If you sat up two-thirds of a night making a graduation dress, your daughter went across that stage in as lovely fashion as you could bring about. This was your love and your pride in your home. AK ;?or people to be scruffy; to that class of woinqn* was just lazy. To not be provident for the table by having delicious canned fruit, or cookies baked ahead, or your bread which was fine grain ed, or your butter which was properly worked so there were no white streaks from too little preparation, or whatever it was you served" ""you did it as well as your ability and your time and skills would allow. It was part of self-respect, feni That's why people have been so antagonistic to - hippies. Because the older people see in that a lazy, scruffy attitude toward life. It just wasn't their way. Now of course lo b sometimes we heard the story about the woman who wanted to be the first one to have the whitest and earliest wash on the line, so she just went to the drawer and took out the brand, clean pillow cases, ran them through the wa 1 and went outside to hang em up. She beat her neighbors. Well, of course, there was silly little stories like that, you know, regarding good housekeeping. But I tell you, to^ live where women do all their own work, as all of us did, and where we had very S§*r helpfc from the grocery store, it meant planning, it meant devoted attention. n also the nickf?/ had to be stretched at all points, so it meant thrift. When I would come home from school and enter my mother's sweet smelling home with food cooking, and tb e table ready, and the food all just waiting to be dished up /that's the way we called it, it was to be dished up) and put on the tabled well I tell you? now that was a joy that just went to your very heart. 4mi that's why it was done~^ that way. It was to make people happy. And it isn't a bad way to live, is it?

No it wasn't a bad way to live.

My mother's ingenuitA' paved so many of the rough spots in ritofrli^eV. For example, one time down on the ranch there were no preparations for Chris cause it was such a lean year finaneially.u' So she sent Dad down to the canyon, where there were no conifers growing at that time, and he got a branch from one that he finally found, and brought it up; and they leaned it against the wall, care fully, and banked around n e stem, and she had some orange crepe paper-*—wonderful, wonderful. And she filled it with rags in little round balls, and made decorations for the branch of the pine mmJmmh, and hung the little orange balls on it. M she took one of Dad's empty cigar boxes and covered it with some material she had from somebody's outgrown something-or-other, and made a beautiful little sewing box,4ft in that she put a thimble, and some needles, and some little rolls of threads, adroitly placed around matching paper, so that my little sister had a sewing box for Christmas. And that was her Christmas, ijtefl Dad made a home made sled, which was the two big boys' present together. I wasn't born yet, and I don't remember what she fashioned for the baby, but undoubtedly5 something. And so. they had Christmas, after all. And that was just how they managed. An other time I remember when Dad and Mother put our stockings on the backs of chairs and Just lightly attached them there,' I don't remember how they made them stay, but this was a nice Christmas because I got a doll. And in the toe of Mother's stocking there was a five dollar gold piece from her husband! Anft in his, a gold watchJ^ob from her. Also sticking out of the stocking for Dad was a piece of coal because he'd been so naughty!! (laughter) Of course he got great pleasuse out of having a little joke. He was always getting fun out of something. I remember his fiftieth birthday. We were all invited to his mother's for dinner, and to Grandmother Jain the nicest dinner you could have crisp, creamy bis cuits with good boiled hen, made into rich gravy and the pieces of chicken all slathered through it, and then just put all over these biscuits. I don't know whether we had it that day or not, but l'll_bet we did. And so Dad's brothers spread-eagled him in the archway between the dining room and parlor, and Grand mother came with her cute little butter paddle and gave him fifty J^^r and one to grow on. Mr they were so afraid I'd give this away because I adored Dad, and I wasn't about to let him be punished, for having his wonderful birthday, and they were scared I'd tell him,* so they cautioned me and shook their fingers under my nose*-I was not to tell him, So, when he came in, his brothers grabbed him and had him down in a minute. (Laughter) Lots of fun, lots of fun!

(End of Side B)

I have some early day programs from, I think this is where I got the Jolly Joker s name.-~/:rhey were a literary club at the turn of the century. sM*the very best people in town were part of them, and they put on Shakespearean plays, and they dressed beautifully. Jffli ihere was a costume company in Spokane called Miller and frequently. if there were costumes needed^ they were rented and brought down complete with wigs and the whole bit. kw*mmm. they did things quite elegantly. We also had lyceum^ AgsJ these of course were traveling players that were on a regular schedule and went from town to town, and they did very nice things. I remember my first Swiss yodelers were on the lyceum program, and they were magnificent in my childish eyes, just wonderful. They dressed in their native Swiss costumes, and yodeled like, oh!, like the wonder ful people you knew they were. We also— I have a program from 1913 of the Jubilee Singers. These were a traveling fclegro group, and they were high class people, who sang opera^ and very lovely music. Skilled musicians. They also sang spirituals, and delighted everyone with those. But there- I got to go to both those programs. My memory is very long, I am quite sure I can remember being rocked by my mother, when my head was cradled in her left elbow, inside elbow. I am sure I can remember that memory. JmW I remember being three years old, because I stood in the door between the kitchen and the diningroom on the ranch— it wasn't a diningroom, it was the front room— I stood in that doorway and I could just reach my fingers across from one casing to the other, and think, I am three years old. I remember being put down for naps because of flies. We have no problem with insects here. But oh, insects were such a problem in pioneer times. Mother was, besieged by the awful problem of bedbugs on the farm, because, part of one room was boarded from the homesteader shack where the wood had bedbugs in it. -»d my mother didn't have 'em by the time I came along, ' goodness but she_had struggledjrighily to get rid of those insects. Because in her goodjhousekeeping standards that was nothing but dirt that you allowed around if you had a bedbug. Well, I saw them in my life, because from time to time a hired man or sheepherder bedrU. would get left on the porch and in they'd come, or they'd land in the bunkhouse from the back of a hack, or a wagon from a sheep camp, or a cattle camp, Aid there would be those creatures, and she'd have to go to work again. *M so, it would just be in a frenzy that she'd go after those.

I had an experience, myself, which might be d interest. At Idaho State, which was then the Southern branch of the Unv^-ersity of Idaho; Iwas a housemother, since my husband, who was a football coach, was^professor of physical education. So we lived in this diraiitory as proctor and hostess, and this week end we planned to entertain all of the parents of the fifty-eight young men who lived in our dormitory for overnight. The young men were going to sleep on the floor or with each other, or any other way they could manage^' but the parents were to have their double deckers,4^ We had everything in absolute apple pie order* when in came a senior pharmacy student from the room across the hall to say, "Mrs. Wicks, there are bedbugs in my room!" Oh!, what an awful thing that was. Well, of course we sealed it off, and the maintenance people came over and as soon as the company was gon^ Cyanide was used, and that took care of that. But of course, all of us had to get out of the building for a while. MBk. the knell of utter despair that he brought to me when „h^said' There are bedbugs in my room', since I'd had all this childish conditioning that this is the worst thing that can happen to any housekeeper.(laughter) That was a dismaying thing. Well, to get back to my long memory: I can remember being laid down on my metier's bed for a rest, so I must have been fairly small, and that the flies bothered me. a those days you used stieky fly paper, you used poison fly paper, you6 use that old fly swatter, which was not commercial, it was home done. Sometimes it was a newspaper—sometimes , slit and sometimes just in a spanker.— sometimes it was a piece of leather, nailed to a little board of hand holder size. It was various things, but oh, how the flies and insects were fought, and how much I do appreciate the ease with which we live these days.

Well, to get back to early life in Genesee. I'll go to my own childhood, because actually our family retired and moved - and Dad moved to town when I was four, fyad we went back to the farm for summers until I was seven, and then the big boys took over very soon, and then we just went back during World War I m Which brings up something, don't let me get by until I tell you, and that's playing for movies, which came during that interlude, and I may forget to tell you this. But the movies of course were silent, and they were black and white, and they hired someone who played the piano to make the sound effect . The show was only shown once, so one didn't have much practice in what was to be come next\ but they did have a libretto, and I could read that, 4nd when a march was indicated.I would have the Platsburg March or the Hungarian March done by Liszt. Oe the General Pershing March, or the Stars and StripesForever or any of these marches, I would have. Or they would indicate perhaps A lullaby, and I would have everything from Brahms to a d/egro one. Or they would have a love story, and I would have everything from Love s Old Sweet Song to I u » ' * ' - " Till We Meet Again, or Marquv.ta, or whatever. Amr- so, if the man— he paid me two and a half a night, and if he'd only known, I would have paid him for the prestige and joy of it, mt when it came time to be on the farm in the summer, this presented quite a problem* because to get to'Saturday night show, my dad had fc- hitch up a horse and take me. But he was determined I was to keepAnice lucrative job. So he'd take me to town, and we'd go to the show. I can't remember whether he went or not; probably didn't, probably went over to the poolhall and played a little game of solo, but when the show was over it would be pitch black at night. We had no light of any kind, but that horse would take us home. Jkd if you ea imagine how black a night can be**'usually there's a little light outside, but some nights are black, where you don't have electric lights around anywhere. You'd be amazed at how far electric lights show and how accust omed we are to them now. Ba I remember those as the blackest trips, AiSf fof course Id been under a nervous strain to play for this show,' and while I en joyed it, it took a lot out of me, and I would be so exhausted by the time we got home, ^tUte t was only once a week, and we would only be there maybe a few weeks, and it'd be over. So. I wanted to be sure to talk about that before—

SAM SHMGER: Cou.\d uo^ uJcCfrd^ ~^^ /Howe, cCt JIu)hl le uou~ ^icu^ecS '

MRS. WICKS: Oh, I could watch the movie entirely. The only thing was I had problems in the instrument. The piano was hoisted from the stage to the floor and the floor to the stage for each event that came in the opera house, and. of course this didn't help tuning much. And also, peanut shells seemed to wander in and around, and finally the whole center octave would not make a sound, and I com plained. I could play in the upper octaves and the lower ones, but the middle octave simply made no response to my fingers. Anal so Mr. Herman had a tuner come. They took a two quart can of peanut shells out from that instrument, and a little boy's cap. (laughter) But I got to see that showj I tell you, I had the most wonderful time with those good shows. There was never a dud,, I never saw a bad show. They were all good, to my eyes, (laughter) Oh, such a lovely evening I would have. And later on when I had beauX, why, it was delicious from start to finish, that particular night of the week. Well, now, to get back to early Genesee: in my day, there was nothing to do unless you stirred it up yourself in the way of recreation. We had lots of little clubs, and we danced, and we had lots of little fun games that we played, and we were all expert at cards --Pedro, Five Hundred, Whist, Hearts, Pinochle, and eventually Contract Bridge. But that didn't come til] along in the twenties. We could have a happy time with a batch of fudge and a deck of cards and each other. Or another thing that we did that was lots of fun, is somebody would play the piano, everybody would barbershop harmonize, and if somebody could play the violin, well, joh!, that was really ct b^AUS ***** ^e would dance, and we would pop popcorn, and we would have so much good fun. But the tinkle of the old piano was what was the center of the gaiety. JUS goodness sakes, I played for funerals; I played for weddings; I played for shows- we had lots of home talent plays, just worlds of 'em, fajt eventually I grew up to the place where I had "1 the lead here and there, I was determined I was never going to be kissed until the man}asked me to marry him kissed me. We were very much along those lines those days. We kept ourselves pretty much to ourselves, we didn t touch every body exx*?p~1~ .in dignified dancing? and it was very dignified. But I had to kiss a manr-he was in the bank-"he had ugly teeth, and I was tlie maid in the play, and he was the policeman; and at one point I had to kiss that man? and I bet he didn't get one bit of pleasure out of it, because I made myself the most rigid little piece of cardboard you ever saw. (laughter) I suppose he had many a laugh about that to himself, but I was most uncomfortable. Oh, dear!

Well, let's see, some more of early Genesee. Goi ng to town to trade was an event* ^L.t happened once a week, sometimes. And then again, it would happen just when it was handy, or when in bad weather Dad could go on horse back, or one of the big boys. Horseback meant a limited order. But of course, we didn't buy too much out of the grocery store, anyway^ Alainly coffee, tea, sugar and salt^ vanilla -- fhings of that kindj because we raised about every thing else, flgr Dad paid the grocery bill once a year, maybe when he'd take a load of potatoes to Lewiston- on the big old Wagon. And he'd come back with i4 loaded with everything from colored crayons to new underwear. Oh, it was de licious. Or else he'd come back with the cash and Mother'd order from Sears, or Monkjey Ward. Of course, those catalogues were of great use from the time they came until they were used leaf by leaf in the toilet--Mtftty as my Grandmother called it. M we set great store by trading, and being the baby in the family and much indulged, Dad used to kid me because I always used to say, "Bring me anything?" and, he'd say, "A nice papa." 4md I would lio**k crestfallen, and then he'd bring out the little striped sack of lemon drops, or what I called little TrafrsrwR-y they were these little lumpy covered peanuts, but they were bay color, so I called them little bays. Or once in a while, there'd striped stick candy, and stick candy was a great joy Jbecause what you could do with a stick of candy was suck the end of it until it got as sharp as a needle, and then you'd go around pretending you had a surgeon's needle and you could make kind of little dents in your skin with it. But of course, that left a little sweet drop there and that got sticky after while out. I thought they were great sport, (laughter) My older brother and sister were fair game for me to ask for nicke's. And one time my brother Ben, I nitron the main street of Genesee for a little treat. nd he didn't have anything smaller than a fifty cent piece, but he gave it to me and I went into Smolt:'s Confectionery and I spent it jail for nigger faces Which was a little licorice candy, ^awi8 then I fed all of my friends, andwe ate tilXwe couldn't face them any more; and eventually, so that no one would find out how foolish I had been ('cause I could realize that this was completely out of linej, I b-u^'et^them in the cracks of the wooden siq^ewalk ,And /for years, walking over that batch of boards I felt a wave of deep guilt, (laughter) But my brothers were jso good to me. And even my brother who was only four years older^ hen there came a stock show one time, I probably was about six and he was ten, or seven and eleven, he shined shoes all day and he made ten dollars, and he gave me a dollar to spend. Generous and dear. But that older, down-to-earth brother

Lew, what did he do^ lie was working in the bank then, and he gave me ten cents, and I could use it on the wheel that spun and brought you delicious prizes, and he said, "Oj^, you can spend it any place you want to, but just once, Don't jiou ever do it again, because those aren't good *^,c that you get from the wheel. So-, I spun the wheel just once, and that little flapper deal stopped where there was a beautiful vase, and the lady wrote GRACE on it. And I probably showed it to him just kind of silently and maybe very indirectly^tell him that the pointer didn't always stop at a bad place with cheap stuff, look at what I had. (laughter) I suppose he chuckled about that too, but that was quite a thing. The stock show was the big event of the summer. The men took great pride during this interlude of the early teens, oh, 1912, '13, '14, etc., in the fine stock they had on their farms; 4nd the imported good stallions) and they had heavy draft horses that were Belgians, and they would make much of their stock. This was before Hereford*;but they had good milk cows-"Holsteins and Guernseys, and Jerseys, they had good horses --horses were the main thing. And they had fine pigs. And they would show these at L*^. stock show that would last about three days in Genesee. And Mother would plan on that, and our whole wardrobe; for the summer around the needs of the stock show. IBM, if it rained, which sometimes it did, and our little white shoes and our embroidered dresses and everything would get soaked*-- ah, my! that was the worst thing. But we'd be out Sf the farm all moved in, and when we came to town there'd be no furniture ) but just the running geari, Dad would call it, of how we could bach it during the celebration. 4sl Mother would have a boiled ham all ready, and she'd have lots of bread ready, and her delicious butter and jelly, and we'd bring milk, and we'd baifch for afew days, feM Wf course my grandmother always lived in town, and her house was always open to us with delicious food and hospitality. We also had an uncle,who had the barber shop in town, and his home was mighty good pickings, too. And so we didn't have anyplace that we ate except at the family tabley because we wouldn't dream of buying a hamburger from the little quick and greasy food selling stand; because we were sure it wasn't clean. We were just positivemkMmfc4tet besides the flies were around, and no doubt some of that meat did get polluted. «€ we didn't have to depend on that because we could always go and have proper food. lit. it would be a three day celebration, and it was greatly looked forward to. Our fun would be augmented by a merry-go-round that would come and once in a while a ferris wheel,4t the music from either one of them was such that to this day. I think the circuses have lost out, and many times shows of this kind have lost out; because they don't have the music any more, I noticed at the fair this time: they had music again, but sometimes it's a silent celebration, and that just lift people's spirits at all. When the circuses came, and oh!, what an event they were, and went parading down the street with the calliope blaring forth in some delicious series of soundsit didn't have to be specially in a tune, just tooting, oh , my goodness, you could hardly wait to ask your dad for the money to go to that circus. Now that there isn't any, and it's silent and off by itself on the edge of town, who cares whether you go or not! Ir'doesn't whip you up at all. And it seemed to me that the decline of circus attendance accompanied the lack of music. I've always th iought this..

SAM SCHRAGER: What kind of music did they have then?

MRS. WICKS: iometimes. with the larger circuses they would have a little band. And the roustabouts, or whoever doubled for trapeze, or whatever- would toot a horn whenever WrtA had an idle moment. And there would always be a big bass drum. ;tar. Whatever there was to carry the melody would be pressed into service, and iheir uniform would consist of any kind of pants^ but matching coats and hats, usually with a stocka4e on them, or a little decoration on the hat. A«-:^i*e*n when we'd see these same people in work clothes, gathering up the tent or moving the animal cages or whatever, we'd be so surprised, because -fWd been so grand a few minutes before in fine clothes'-in the ring perhaps} whipping the: horses through their act or taking a chair and a blank cartridge or two to the lions' act or whatever, you know. We didn't have very many big circuses in Genesee, but we had them in Mosocw and we had them in Lewiston. HSH foing to Lewiston was a tremenduous experience* because that's where you got your new shoes, that's where, when you needed glasses, you finally got your glasses, that's where you drank your first milkshake^ "ftiat's where you had the lovely experience of going to your first dance with a beau. Oh.'my! Mot the first dance with a beau, as such, really, because my first dance was at the Knights of Pythias Lodge, when my father and my three brothers were pressed into service to lead my faltering steps around the floor. I think my first dance was when I was about thirteen, which would be in 1919. And I know my big brothers were just home from the war,and they weren't much for dancing, it wasn't their cup of teaJ but my sister loved to, and my younger brother did and I did. -Ami pie reason those older boys' didn't was because their f\g*xrt$ loves didn't care much about dancing. So they kind of were lost as partners along the way, 9hk* by going to Lewiston to my first dancer-that meant getting into a man's car and riding, and maybe being taken to dinner and then up to the Dreamland, where they had a «uitibari with little mir rors all around it, and those little mirrors would flash lights in most dazzling array around the walls of the building. xid phe Mann Brothers Srchestra was well known in this area, and one of them was a redhead as I recall. ", goodness, made marvelous music, and that was a date to be paid attention to, I tell you. 'Course, I might have long hair down my back, and high laced shoes, and not be with it like the girls who had bobbed hair and rolled socks and high heels, but finally I grew up and got those things,too. Dancing in your own familyjloying circle, is a pretty nice way for a little girl to learn. This is what the Mormons have done for generations, and it's a real nice experience for the whole,

family. I went to a Mormon dance down in Soda Springs, Ljtfo^C : one time, which was for the benefit of a missionary going to convert the heathen in Switzerland— which didn*t seem very realistic to me, but that's where he was going? and of course he was taking the Mormon faith there, which was not mawm faith. I danced all evening with people named Lau^ who were pioneer Mormon proselytizers that had been sent by Brigham Young up there to settle along with some other fam^ ilies. tomd? I danced with a boy seventeen and I danced with a man of seventy-**two. I had no partners but Laus and my husband. Asd I forget how much money, a hundred and fifty-four .orsomething like that dollars they gleaned for the young man that night. JM .('of course, it was a family affair, as sweetly done and as wholesomely_ done and as happily done as any event you can figure . utr to do, I wander away from ehW^ pretty badly, don't I? Let me tell some mote about some of the stores, because this trading business was lots of fun.

One of the stores that I have mentioned, was Smc i Confectionery. Mr, Smolt was a cigar maker who did his cigars by hand from imported leaves shipped in from Cuba and Havana. And. his delightful, very much the lady wife, who was a *« was around in the busiaes* all of their lives. This was alovely place for child- f ren to go, or anybody to go. They had the nice tables and chairs with the wrought^ twisted backs and legs, and the marble cities for the tables, and they had lovely silver holders for the glasses for ice cream sodas and lovely containers for sundaes with the proper length of handle on the spoons, and their products were of excel lent quality. Mr. Smolt also was a practiced candymaker and he made his own choc olate creams. Aft ike had adelightful experience in our confectionery store. *m$* Ed Smolt, the son, carried on and as long as this happened Smolti was a center of delight for young people, find flhess might be being played on a table somewhere with Ed and the dentist or the veterinar^or somebody, qi was also adrama center, because Ed loved to play the lead in our home talent productions, A3| he loved to wear the costumes that were rented and brought down from Spokane. He was the center ofjnuch gaiety and pleasure in the community.

Then, the next place was the post office., which was always run by somebody who was afriend, whether it was the Democrat or Republican appointee, depending on who "tiie presidents political party was. Then, up the street a little ways, there was Jake Rosenste**n's store. He was an early day Jew who came to settle very early, and probably one of the first merchants, Aad qe moved his store into the location I speak of as Genes .ee, because the first Genesee, was out at the four corners on the flat, which I can point out to you. Silt* when the railroad put \4-s depot a mile and a quarter, I guess it was,west of where the community was, why the community had to move to the depot and the railroad tracks. Some of them tried to hold up the Northern Pacific people in the cost of getting right-of-way, so just balked and didn't do it. *Aia; s Mr. Rosenst n moved his store. his store always had a peculiar odor;—it was of pickled herring^of dry goods, leather, cheese, and unaired closeness* 50jgd" there weren't any windows except in the front , which meant that it was a dark prospect that one went into with this odor, and I somejway associated this with the Hebrew race for years. But they were lovely people. »d\ they gave my grandparents on their golden wedding an niversary, a silver service, of which the sugar and creamer I still use. And another store across

0:00 - Washing, washdays, clothes washing, etc.

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Segment Synopsis: Washdays: her great aunt washing Josh Lamphere's long woolen underwear. People bathed and changed underclothes once a week. Hard night"s sleep on handwoven woolen sheets. Troy was a metropolis to her with its night train whistles and bells on the cows. Washday at home: four hundred turns of the tub, lots of women's undergarments, and treats from father; boiling, rinsing, drying, and folding. By selling Follow Me and Ruby, her mother bought an electric washer and a piano which Grace played. Washdays in town during the war. Keeping clothes white today.

16:00 - World War I

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Segment Synopsis: World War I. Father had to farm himself then^using Missouri mules with hard mouths, which strained his muscles. Her brother Lou, wishing to enlist, was rejected because of an old accident to his eye, but later was drafted. A severe neck injury put him in the hospital, unidentified, for months, for which he never received compensation. A twenty-four hour forced march without food or water. Lon threatens to kill a dumb lieutenant. Letters from war. The difficult adjustment of wars.

28:00 - Heart-in-hand marriages; native american and white marriages

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Segment Synopsis: Heart-in-hand marriages, Will Nixon went back east for his wife: tragedies in the family. A quarrelsome Heart-in-hand marriage survived by endurance. Indian and white marriages. Lilly Viles had a teepee alongside her house; a children's story was that she had scalps.

37:00 - Food and travel out west

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Segment Synopsis: Thousand Dollar Annie made a thousand dollars as a domestic on her way West. It was said the bread was put under the boy's blankets to rise in the morning. On the Fourth of July, the family picked cherries, baked and sold cherry pies for a dollar each, without taking out the pits. The daughter's pig herding.

46:00 - Pioneer cooperation

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Segment Synopsis: Pioneer cooperation. Grandmother gave Oregon Grape cordials to sick people; Mr. Wahl had to borrow money at 18%. How America has helped and given roots to her people.

50:00 - Women and appearances at home; dislike of hippies

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Segment Synopsis: The importance of keeping up appearances at home. Women always looked well, kept the house and cooked well. Pride in homemaking. People took each other at face value. They dislike hippies because of their scruffy attitude towards life.

55:00 - Lean Christmas

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Segment Synopsis: Mother's ingenuity in celebrating a lean Christmas. Christmas presents. Paddhling father on his fiftieth birthday.

60:00 - Literary club in Genesee

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Segment Synopsis: The literary club in Genesee got costumes from Spokane for Shakespeaieplays. Yodelers came with the lyceum. Jubilee Singers, who were Negro, sang opera and spirituals.

62:00 - Earliest childhood memories

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Segment Synopsis: Earliest childhood memories: "I am three years old." Mother's trouble keeping bedbugs out of the house; fighting flies.

67:00 - Piano playing at movies and parties

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Segment Synopsis: Grace played piano at Genesee movie for $2. 50 a night. The blackness of night driving home. Cleaning out the piano so it would work. Parties, played cards and sang to piano. Kissing a man she didn't want to in a play.

73:00 - Going to town and other excitements

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Segment Synopsis: Goodies from town. She spends fifty cents on candy for her friends, and feels guilty after. Celebrating at the stock shows. The uplifting music of the circus. Excitement of trips to Lewiston. Her first dance at the Dreamland.

76:00 - Genesee stores

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Segment Synopsis: Genesee stores. Smolt's confectionary had a wonderful atmosphere. Jake Rosenstein moved his store from the original site of Genesee when the railroad changed its location; his store was dark and had a strange odor.

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