Kate and Sue McBeth,
Missionary Teachers to the Nez Perce
Com. of Indian Affairs Report
Com. of Indian Affairs Report Agent's Report
Board of Indian Com Report
Allotment Meeting 1889
Although the General Allotment or Dawes Act (24 U.S. Stat. 338), which not only allotted lands to Indians but opened the "surplus lands" to white settlers, did not become law until 1887, the Nez Perce faced allotment issues much earlier. Article VI of the 1855 Treaty gave the President the right to survey and allot lands to those wishing to "avail themselves of the privilege," and Article III of the 1863 Treaty authorized a survey of agricultural lands into 20 acre plots, to be assigned to each male over 21 years of age or head of family. Despite repeated pleas from agents to increase the acreage, this 20 acre limit was still in effect when Alice Fletcher arrived in 1889 to allot the reservation.