Kate and Sue McBeth, Missionary Teachers to the Nez Perce

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

1877 WAR BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS REPORTS

U.S. House. 47th Congress, 2d Session. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners for the Year 1882 (H.Ex.Doc.77). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1883. (Serial Set 2110)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 665-736. In U.S. House. 48th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1883 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, V.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1884. (Serial Set 2191)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 681-747. In U.S. House. 48th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1884 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1885. (Serial Set 2287)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 755-887. In U.S. House. 49th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1885 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1885. (Serial Set 2378)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 921-1060. In U.S. House. 49th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1886 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1887. (Serial Set 2467)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 911-1049. In U.S. House. 50th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1887 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt .5, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889. (Serial Set 2542)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 733-859. In U.S. House. 50th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1888 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889. (Serial Set 2637)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 797-962. In U.S. House. 51st Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1889 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1890. (Serial Set 2725)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 779-968. In U.S. House. 51st Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1890 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891. (Serial Set 2841)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 1099-1258. In U.S. House. 52d Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1891 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1892. (Serial Set 2934)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 1269-1432. In U.S. House. 52d Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1892 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1892. (Serial Set 3088)

"Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners," pp. 999-1151. In U.S. House. 53d Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1893 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893. (Serial Set 3210)

COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS REPORTS

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 269-468. In U.S. House. 28th Congress, 1st Session. Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress, 1843 (H.Ex.Doc.2). Washington: Blair and Rives, Printers, 1843. (Serial Set 439)

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 299-502. In U.S. House. 28th Congress, 2d Session. Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress, 1844 (H.Ex.Doc.2). Washington: Blair and Rives Printers, 1844. (Serial Set 463)

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 448-643. In U.S. House. 29th Congress, 1st Session. Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress, 1845 (H.Ex.Doc.2). Washington: Ritchie & Heiss, 1845. (Serial Set 480)

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 35-175. In U.S. Senate. 31st Congress, 2d Session. Annual Message of the President, 1850 (S.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1851. (Serial Set 587).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 265-582. In U.S. Senate. 32d Congress, 1st Session. Annual Message of the President, 1851 (S.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 3). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1851. (Serial Set 613).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 221-544. In U.S. Senate. 33d Congress, 2d Session. Annual Message of the President and Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1854 (S.Ex.Doc.1, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1854. (Serial Set 746).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 321-576. In U.S. Senate. 34th Congress, 1st Session. Annual Message of the President and Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1855 (S.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1855. (Serial Set 810).

Also contains "No. 105, Instructions From the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to Commissioners Cumming, Stevens and Palmer, Appointed To Treat With the Blackfeet and Neighboring Tribes," pp. 530-533, the detailed instructions from George W. Maypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for use in the negotiations of 1855.

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 554-832. In U.S. House. 34th Congress, 3d Session. Annual Message of the President and Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1856 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1857. (Serial Set 893).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 289-696. In U.S. Senate. 35th Congress, 1st Session. Annual Message of the President and Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1857 (S.Ex.Doc.11, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1858. (Serial Set 919).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 353-669. In U.S. Senate. 35th Congress, 2d Session. Annual Message of the President and Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1858 (S.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1859. (Serial Set 974).

"Affairs of the Department of the Pacific," pp. 330-415. In U. S. House. 35th Congress, 2d Session. Annual Message from the President and Report of the War Department, 1858 (H.Ex.Doc.2, Vol. 2, Pt. 2). Washington: James B. Steedman, Printer, 1858. (Serial Set 998)

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 235-466. In U.S. House. 36th Congress, 2d Session. Annual Message of the President and Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1860 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1861. (Serial Set 1078).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 624-831. In U.S. Senate. 37th Congress, 2d Session. Annual Message of the President and Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1861 (S.Ex.Doc.1, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1861. (Serial Set 1117).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 169-576. In U.S. House. 37th Congress, 3d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1862 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1862. (Serial Set 1157).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 128-634 . In U.S. House. 38th Congress, 1st Session. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1863 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Vol. 3). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1864. (Serial Set 1182).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 169-772 . In U.S. House. 39th Congress, 1st Session. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1865 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1866. (Serial Set 1248).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 1-362 . In U.S. House. 39th Congress, 2d Session. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1866 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1867. (Serial Set 1284).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 1-397. In U.S. House. 40th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1867 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Vol. 3). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1867. (Serial Set 1326).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 461-840. In U.S. House. 40th Congress, 3d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1868 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1868. (Serial Set 1366).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 445-1058. In U.S. House. 41st Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1869 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 3). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1869. (Serial Set 1414).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 467-859. In U.S. House. 41st Congress, 3d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1870 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 4, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1870. (Serial Set 1449).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 417-1122. In U.S. House. 42nd Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1871 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1872. (Serial Set 1505).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 391-847. In U.S. House. 42nd Congress, 3d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1872 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1872. (Serial Set 1560).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 371-756. In U.S. House. 43d Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1873 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874. (Serial Set 1601).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 313-648. In U.S. House. 43d Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1874 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1875. (Serial Set 1639).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 505-879. In U.S. House. 44th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1875 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1876. (Serial Set 1680).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 381-685. In U.S. House. 44th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1876 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1877. (Serial Set 1749).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 397-728. In U.S. House. 45th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1877 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1878. (Serial Set 1800).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 439-811. In U.S. House. 45th Congress, 3d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1878 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1879. (Serial Set 1850).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 69-375. In U.S. House. 46th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1879 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880. (Serial Set 1910).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 83-404. In U.S. House. 46th Congress, 3d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1880 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1881. (Serial Set 1959).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 1-394. In U.S. House. 47th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1881 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1882. (Serial Set 2018).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 1-432. In U.S. House. 47th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1882 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1883. (Serial Set 2100).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 3-376. In U.S. House. 48th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1883 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1883. (Serial Set 2191).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 1-395. In U.S. House. 48th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1884 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1884. (Serial Set 2287).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 3-872. In U.S. House. 49th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1885 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1885. (Serial Set 2379).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 79-919. In U.S. House. 49th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1886 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1887. (Serial Set 2467).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 1-755. In U.S. House. 50th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1887 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889. (Serial Set 2542).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. I-910. In U.S. House. 50th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1888 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889. (Serial Set 2637).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 3-795. In U.S. House. 51st Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1889 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1890. (Serial Set 2725).

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. III-778. In U.S. House. 51st Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1890 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891. (Serial Set 2841)

The Commissioner includes an appendix to his report that contains the rules for Indian schools that were sent to agents and superintendents, which includes curriculum, employee responsibilities, a list of approved textbooks, and various other instructions to be followed. (pp. CXLVI-CLXXI)

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 3-1097. In U.S. House. 52d Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1891 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1892. (Serial Set 2934)

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 5-1268. In U.S. House. 52d Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1892 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1892. (Serial Set 3088)

"Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs," pp. 5-998. In U.S. House. 53d Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1893 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol.2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893. (Serial Set 3210)

GENERAL

Josephy, Alvin M, Jr. "People of the Plateau," pp. 14-181. In U.S. National Park Service. Nez Perce Country: A Handbook for Nez Perce National Historical Park, Idaho. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1983. (National Park Handbook 121). (I29.9/5:121)

Smithsonian Institution. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 12: Plateau ed. by Deward E. Walker Jr. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1998. Gen. Ed. William G. Sturtevant. 1978- (SI1.20/2:12)

Newest volume of the Handbook of North American Indians, the long-awaited Plateau volume includes the Nez Perce as well as their neighboring tribes. It includes sections on prehistory, history, peoples, and special topics. The source to use when interested in a broad overview of the Plateau and Nez Perce people, with important topics covering religious movements, kinship, mythology and fishing.

Smithsonian Institution. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 4: History of Indian-White Relations ed. by Wilcomb E. Washburn. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1988. Gen. Ed. William G. Sturtevant. 1978- (SI1.20/2:4)

For an excellent overview of Indian policy, including military, political, economic, religious and conceptual relations, this volume is the source to use. Provides good explanations of the often confusing nature of laws, treaties, and the various government entities that existed to regulate Indian relations from colonial times to the present.

"Trade," American State Papers: Indian Affairs, V. I (Doc.102), pp. 684-685

U.S. Forest Service. Draft Annotated Bibliography of Selected Materials Relating to the Nez Perce Indians, the U.S. Military and the Conflict of 1877 by Dan Gard. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Region One, 1995.

 

ILLUSTRATIONS

"Nez Perces, No. 33" (lithograph). In U.S. House. 36th Congress, 1st Session. Reports of Explorations and Surveys for Pacific Railroad, Vol. 12, Bk. 1 (H.Ex.Doc.56). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1860. (Serial Set 1054)

"Old Fort Walla Walla, No. 42" (lithograph). In U.S. House. 36th Congress, 1st Session. Reports of Explorations and Surveys for Pacific Railroad, Vol. 12, Bk. 1 (H.Ex.Doc.56). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1860. (Serial Set 1054)

 

MAPS

"Washington Territory East of the Cascade Mtns. Showing Topography of the Mines Region" (Map No. 1). In U. S. House. 37th Congress, 3d Session. Annual Message of the President, 1862, Pt. 5: Maps (H.Ex.Doc.1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1862. (Serial Set 1160).

"Department of Columbia Map of the Nez Perce Indian Campaign" (map). In U.S. House. 45th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of War, 1877. (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1877. (Serial Set 1794).

"Indian Reservations" (map). In U. S. House. 46th Congress, 2d Session. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1879 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880. (Serial Set 1910).

"Indian Territory, Showing Location of Kansas, Nez Perces, Pawnee, Poncas and Osages" (map). In U. S. House. 46th Congress, 2d Session. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1879 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 5, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880. (Serial Set 1910).

 

RELIGION

U.S. Senate. 35th Congress, 1st Session. Indian War in Oregon and Washington Territories (S.Ex.Doc.40). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1858. (Serial Set 929).

This report is the result of a Senate resolution requesting a review the origin of the Indian wars of 1855-56 in the Northwest, submitted by J. Ross Browne. While he refutes the speculation that settlers provoked the war and determines "emigration and settlement" triggered the violence, he includes the 1853 publication Account of the Murder of Dr. Whitman and the Ungrateful Calamnies of H. H. Spalding, Protestant Missionary, by J. B. A. Brouillet, Catholic Bishop of Walla Walla as an illustration of the tensions caused by the competing sects of missionaries. Brouillet wrote his text as a refutation of charges made by Henry Spalding that Catholic priests incited the Indians against Protestant missionaries. Browne correctly assesses that the competition for Indian converts created such an atmosphere of animosity that little credence can be given to either missionaries' accusations.

U.S. Senate. 41st Congress, 3d Session. Early Labors of the Missionaries in Oregon (S.Ex.Doc.37). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1871. (Serial Set 1440).

The publication of H. Ross Browne's report on the Indian wars of 1855-56 and his inclusion of Bishop Brouillet's account of the causes of the Whitman massacre caused an uproar in Oregon. A committee was formed to investigate the charges, and a Senate resolution ordered this executive document be printed. Compiled by Henry Spalding, it consists of depositions, testimonials, published articles, and resolutions by Christian associations. Testimonials charge that the Hudson's Bay Company incited Indians against Americans, and the remainder is devoted to praise for the Protestant missionary efforts, (in particular the efforts of Spalding and the martyred Marcus Whitman), and denunciations of Catholic missionaries. A highly emotional combination of anti-British, anti-Catholic rhetoric.

 

TREATY-RELATED

"Agreement With the Nez PercÚ Indians in Idaho" (May 1, 1893), 28 United States Statutes at Large, pp. 286, 326-332.

"Treaty With the Nez PercÚ Indians" (June 11, 1855), 12 United States Statutes at Large, pp. 957-962.

"Treaty With the Nez PercÚ Indians" (June 9, 1863), 14 United States Statutes at Large, pp. 647-654.

"Treaty With the Nez PercÚ Indians" (August 13, 1868), 15 United States Statutes at Large, pp. 693-695.

U.S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Certified Copy of the Original Minutes of the Official Proceedings at the Council in Walla Walla Valley, Which Culminated in the Stevens Treaty of 1855. Portland, Oregon: Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1953. (copy of original minutes on file in the National Archives).

Transcript of council held from May 28-June 11, 1855, in which William Craig acted as the main interpreter for the Nez Perce; also includes a projection of census figures for the Nez Perce, Cayuse and Walla Wallas. This is a complete transcriptions of verbatim responses recorded by the name of the speaker, and fascinating reading.

U.S. Senate. 53d Congress, 2d session. Agreement With the Nez PercÚ Indians (S.Ex.Doc.31). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1895. (Serial Set 3160)

The full report of the 1893 negotiations concluded with the Nez Perce Indians for cession of surplus lands following the completion of allotment on the reservation. Includes an interpretation of the terms of the agreement, the bill itself, and, most importantly, the full text of the five weeks of council meetings held.

U.S. Senate. Committee on Indian Affairs. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 2 (Treaties), compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler [2d edition]. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904. (Y4.In2/2:L44/2).

 

WAR DEPARMENT

"Affairs of the Department of the Pacific," pp. 330-415. In U. S. House. 35th Congress, 2d Session. Annual Message from the President and Report of the War Department, 1858 (H.Ex.Doc.2, Vol. 2, Pt. 2). Washington: James B. Steedman, Printer, 1858. (Serial Set 998)

"Report of the General of the Army," pp. 33-137 In U.S. House. 44th Congress, 1st Session. Report of the Secretary of the War, 1875 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 2, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1876. (Serial Set 1674)

"Report of the General of the Army," pp. 3-165, 482-660. In U.S. House. 45th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the War, 1877 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 2, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1877. (Serial Set 1794)

Extensive military reports on the Nez Perce War of 1877, including: general report of General of the Army William T. Sherman (pp. 7-15); reports by all commanding officers under the overall command of General Terry, Department of Dakota, many including communications and casualty lists; and General O. O. Howard's report, which includes accounts of councils held prior to the war's outbreak (pp. 589-596), military action (pp. 601-630), and Chief Joseph's surrender speech (pp. 630).

U.S. Army. Department of the Columbia. The Status of Young Joseph and His Band of Nez-Perce Indians Under the Treaties Between the United States and the Nez-Perce Tribe of Indians, and the Indian Title to Land. Portland, OR: Asst. Adjutant General’s Office, 1876.

U.S. House. 34th Congress, 3d Session. Indian Affairs on the Pacific (H.Ex.Doc.76). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1857.(Serial Set 906).

1877 War Bibliography
(citations preceded by asterisk are from Draft Annotated Bibliography by Dan Gard)

*Beal, Merrill D. I Will Fight No More Forever: Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce War. New York: Ballantine Books, 1973.

Beal’s work, done in 1958 under contract with the National Park Service, presents a fairly well-balanced account of the day-to-day movement and actions of both the nontreaty Nez Perce and their military pursuers. Good, in-depth battle analysis. Drawing heavily from the works of L. V. McWhorter and Mark Brown, Beal is among a host of historians who shake the myth of Joseph as war chief, placing him instead in the proper context of tribal protector and diplomat.

*Brown, Mark H. Flight of the Nez Perce. New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1967.

Although this book focuses primarily on the military aspects of the 1877 conflict, it also contains good historical insight into the Nez Perce tribe. Brown draws from contemporary written records using reports, diaries, reminiscences, firsthand accounts, newspapers and periodicals. Brown’s military background led him to search for sources many had not previously sought out.

Gibbon, John. Adventures on the Western Frontier, ed. Alan and Maureen Gaff. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Contains three perspectives on the 1877 war. *"Battle of the Big Hole," which originally appeared in Harper’s Weekly on December 21 and 28, 1895: Colonel Gibbon’s firsthand account of the attack he led against the nontreaty Nez Perce on August 9, 1877. Fairly well balanced, considering his perspective on the event. "The Pursuit of Joseph" was originally published in American Catholic Quarterly Review in 1879, in which Gibbons relates his march from Fort Shaw to Missoula and down the Bitterroot Valley; his description of the hardships crossing the rugged terrain illustrates the abilities of the fleeing Nez Perce to move the elderly, women, children and warriors and stay ahead of pursuit. "Enemies Become Friends" is a previously unpublished article written after an 1889 meeting with Chief Joseph at Lake Chelan, Washington. Gibbon relates how he interceded to help Joseph’s band in their early and difficult years on the Colville Reservation, and Joseph’s reciprocation in refuting rumors that persisted that Howard rescued Gibbon’s forces at the Battle of the Big Hole; Joseph asserts the Nez Perces left the Big Hole to continue their escape before Howard arrived.

*Hampton, Bruce. Children of Grace: The Nez Perce War of 1877. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1994.

. . . Provides an excellent overview of the history and events surrounding the conflict between the nontreaty Nez Perce and the military. A fast-moving, interesting and understandable presentation. Hampton tends to focus greater detail on the thoughts and actions of the military than on the nontreaty Nez Perce. He does, however, succeed in shifting the leadership focus away from Chief Joseph and more towards Chiefs Lean Elk and Looking Glass, who were more directly involved in battle strategy. An excellent book providing a readable, well-written account of the Nez Perce War.

Harper’s Weekly. 18 August; 1, 29 September; 17 November 1877.

The Nez Perce war occurred just one year after the Battle at the Little Bighorn, and the flight of the Nez Perce was big news, raising fears and fascination, first among the populace of Montana, and ultimately the entire nation. Harper’s Weekly sent Vincent Colyer, a reporter/illustrator to cover the flight; his illustrations are a mixture of imaginative inaccuracies portrayed against a fairly accurate scenic background, while his dispatches reflect the usual, although somewhat sympathetic, rhetoric of the day.

*In Pursuit of the Nez Perces: The Nez Perce War of 1877, as reported by O. O. Howard, Duncan McDonald and Chief Joseph, comp. Linwood Laughy. Wrangell, AK: Mountain Meadow Press, 1993.

Three excellent perspectives all reprinted and combined into one volume.

O. O. Howard’s Nez Perce Joseph: An Account of His Ancestors, His Lands, His Confederates, His Enemies, His Murders, His War, His Pursuit and Capture: Considered by some to be the most important single work done on the military aspect of the U.S. government and the nontreaty Nez Perce. Differs from his official account of the war, due perhaps to the prior publication of Chief Joseph’s version of events. As the title indicates, Howard chose to recognize Joseph as the primary leader of the nontreaty bands rather than acknowledge other chiefs as the true battle strategists. Don’t look to Howard for a well balanced approach to this story;

Duncan McDonald’s series The Nez Perces: The History of Their Troubles and the Campaign of 1877, published in 1878 by The New North-West: McDonald, a Nez Perce descendent and reporter for The New North-West, conducted interviews with Nez Perce refugees of the conflict. His reports tell the story of the 1877 flight from an Indian point of view, a first for any western newspaper of the day. McDonald’s articles gave a voice to the Nez Perce never before heard during the course of the conflict and helped change public opinion about the role played by the nontreaty bands;

"In-mut-too-yah-lat-lat-Speaks," a translation of Chief Joseph’s An Indian’s Views of Indian Affairs, a North American Review article published in 1879: While these are supposed to be the words of Chief Joseph, one has to consider the accuracy and validity of the translation from Nez Perce to English. Still, this work is valuable in terms of understanding the Nez Perce War and associated events from the viewpoint of a man intricately involved. Joseph’s account helped dispel many of the misconceptions about the conflict put forth by the military and the press. Joseph’s story has since been recently released under the title, That All the People May Be One People, Send Rain to Wash the Face of the Earth (Sitka, AK: Mountain Meadow Press, 1995).

*Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997, orig. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.

Excellent work covering the post-contact history and culture of the Nez Perce people and various Northwest tribes, including the Cayuse, Walla Walla, Joseph’s Wallowa band and others. Josephy focuses less on the events of 1877 and more on the cultural and historical aspects of the Nez Perce. Solidly researched with a good bibliography.

McBeth, Kate C. The Nez Perces Since Lewis and Clark. With an Introduction by Peter Iverson and Elizabeth James. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, [1908] 1993.

Kate McBeth spent from 1879 to her death in 1915 as a missionary among the Nez Perce, first in Kamiah, and later at Lapwai. The Nez Perces Since Lewis and Clark celebrates the Presbyterian missionary work begun by Henry Spalding in 1836, and continued by both Kate and Sue, her older sister, who trained native Nez Perce for the ministry. Operating under a mindset of black and white, heathen and Christian, McBeth offers a view of the Christian Nez Perce, as well as the world of a missionary.

*McWhorter, Lucullus Virgil. Hear Me My Chiefs! Ed. By Ruth Bordin. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, [1952] 1983.

A must read for anyone interested in the Nez Perce and the events of 1877. McWhorter’s close association and friendship with several survivors of the Nez Perce campaign help him to bring this stirring account to life. Though thoroughly researched, McWhorter’s version of events comes strictly from the Nez Perce side of the story. As he states in the introduction, "It is an Indian story, told from an Indian point of view, and depends largely upon Indian sources." McWhorter died before completing his manuscript so it was left to his son, who drew upon his father’s extensive notes, to complete this work. . . .

"Report of the General of the Army," pp. 3-165, 482-660. In U.S. House. 45th Congress, 2d Session. Report of the Secretary of the War, 1877 (H.Ex.Doc.1, Pt. 2, Vol. 1). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1877. (Serial Set 1794)

Extensive military reports on the Nez Perce War of 1877, including: general report of General of the Army William T. Sherman (pp. 7-15); reports by all commanding officers under the overall command of General Terry, Department of Dakota, many including communications and casualty lists; and General O. O. Howard's report, which includes accounts of councils held prior to the war's outbreak (pp. 589-596), military action (pp. 601-630), and Chief Joseph's surrender speech (pp. 630).

U.S. Army. Department of the Columbia. The Status of Young Joseph and His Band of Nez-Perce Indians Under the Treaties Between the United States and the Nez-Perce Tribe of Indians, and the Indian Title to Land. Portland, OR: Asst. Adjutant General’s Office, 1876.

The author, Major H. Clay Wood, researched the legal history of the government’s relations with the Nez Perce, and submitted this report prior to the formation of the 1876 Commission (of which he was a member) that was assembled to decide Joseph’s fate. Wood asserts there was a legal basis for Joseph’s claim, and offers solutions to the problem. Although General Howard submitted this report to the General of the Army to be included as part of his report on the 1877 war, it was not published in the Department’s official account.

Yellow Wolf. Yellow Wolf, His Own Story. By Lucullus Virgil McWhorter. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, [1940] 1984.

One of the few firsthand accounts of the 1877 campaign from a Nez Perce participant. Yellow Wolf fought in every battle from Whit Bird Canyon to Par Paw before escaping to Canada just prior to Joseph’s surrender on October 6, 1877. From 1808 until 1935, [Lucullus] McWhorter conducted interviews with Yellow Wolf in an effort to understand and record the story of the conflict using the words of a man who took part. Yellow Wolf, McWhorter, and an interpreter returned to places along the trail where Yellow Wolf reminisced and offered his views of what took place. Excellent photographs help to highlight Yellow Wolf’s incredible story. Many of Yellow Wolf’s accounts are retold in McWhorter’s . . . book, Hear Me, My Chiefs.