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Latah County Oral History Collection

Remembering Latah County and Idaho Life at the turn of the 20th century

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Date: November 05, 1976 Interviewer: Sam Schrager

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FB: Oh, not an awful lot.

FB: Picked peas,you know what the picking peas was? You know Moscow was a pea town years ago. Sort of a center. That's when they first begtfn raisin1 peas.

SS: About when was that that people started going in town? Was it in the Depression?

FB: About after. I don't know when I did pick, butjof course, they picked peas lonq before I did. Ny kids were grown up and my youngest boy was in the war when I went to work picking peas. But they'd done it many years before, ^ashburn- Wilson Seed Company and several others. I don't know, every woman pretnear that had boys she put 'em through University sortin' peas. We always called it picking peas but we sort. ^Had great big, Iexpect around town you d see some yet. They don't pick peas any more but they still sort the peas by machinery. You set, like a great, long schoolroom and you had your individual desk and the peas come down on a belt, you know and you set there and pick out the

SS: The belt stop or was it moving?

FB: It was moving all the time and somebody down below was a hopper tender that emptied em, let 'em down ithe bin below when it got full. And old ladies seemed to, not old ladies, old girls and mirried women all worked at pea pickin'. And they sold 'em for seed Iguess. Shipped 'em overseas. I don't know just what they did do with all of it

SS: So each girl got her own peas. Nobody else would check yours, you had to...

FB: No, just the hopper down below. And if you let too many, well probably the next year you wouldn't get called back if you didn't do apretty good job.(chuckles)

SS: Idas it hard?

FB: No. Not after you got, it was a little bit, oh you get a litte dizzy when you first start, the first year? But afteryou got immuned to that and you could just set there and you didn't dare talk, it was like school, you know. Every thing was quiet. You didn't dare go to sleep or anything on the job.

SS: I bet it was tempting to go to sleep

FB: Yes, sometimes for some of them it was. If they'd been up late or something. But there was always a floor boss going around that would talk to ya if she thought you was gettin' sleepy. One woman who's passed away now^ she was, what didthey call her? We just called her boss but she was a floorwalker, Mrs. Lailock for 31 years at one place. And so she seen lots of people come and go. 60 women sometimes worked there. At the head of full crew there was 60 women.

SS: All women working on the crew?

FB: Yeah, the men worked in the warehouse and they had to keep the bins full in order to keep those places for us to pick. Yeah, it was all pretty fine and pretty good method.

FB: It was a woman's job, I guess.

FB: Yeah, never any men picked peas that I know of.

SS: What kind of pay?

FB: Pretty good pay. Course it wasn't, started out at probably 25 cents an trour when the pea houses started. And then it got up to about, I don't know what at the last, what we did get. Probably oh nothing like thay get now, not 2 and 3 dollars, but probably up to a dollar. I can't just remember.

SS: 8 hours a day?

FB: Um-hm.

SS: How many days, 6,5?

FB: Yes. If it was in season, why it would be 5 days, 6, 5 days a week didn't very often work Saturday and Sunday although sometimes they'd have a rush order and ' they'd ask whoever would come back could come back on Saturday.

SS: Did bhey give you overtime?

FB: Oh yes. Overtime was always time and a half you know. Them days and like it is now, I guess, I don't work enough to know, but I'm sure it was overtime. But those days are all gone now. I don't know, well, there's other jobs, I guess. I tell you now they all get a job up at the university, secretaries and file clerks and what have you. That's where all the, not the same bunch of paa pickers, they're?! dead, but this new bunch of young ones that want to work,that's where they do and that's what they always said about the farmers when they got too old to do the hard work and milk cows and things, why they moved to town and went to work up to the university. FB: There's more men too, up the university.

FB: Well men and women both though. Vide know several of work, partnership, you know.

SS: But you say there's lots more women now working at the yniversity as compared to what there used to be.

FB: Sure.

SS: Used to be most of them would have to pick peas.

FB: Yes. Everybody was picking peas, yes.

SS: Did you do that for very many years?

FB: Oh, I probably only done it about 10 years, didn't I? got old enough for Social Security, then they won't let ya work if they know you're that old. But many, I think Agnes and Bess and all that bunch, I'll bet they worked 25 years at the peas.

SS: Were they from Viola too?

FB: Oh no, they're from town, but they're old lodge people...

SS: Rebekha?

FB: No, they're Royal Neighbors.(laughs) Oh that didn't mean anything connected with the peas, it just happened that that bunch that I know did work in the peas.

SS: Can you tell me the techniques that you used to pick peas?

FB: Oh nothing, you can spot a shrivelled up pea or a black pea or just let the good ones go by.

SS: There were hardly any in there?

FB: Some batches it would be just like anything else, some batches were good and not much to pick out and some batches would be poor. They buy the peas from all the farmers and some would be good peas and some wouldn't be so good.

SS: Usually were there a bunch of different peas that would get in, or one or two?

FB: Uh, Ithink they- were Alaska peas that we used to pick. I think Alaska is the popular pea around, I'm not sure. Arid then, long ago in the days, you know uhen Rattle and, always packed fruit in the fall, you know. Until this country went to wheat farmin', there u^e big orchards and there were packing houses all around. All the young people then packed apples, peas and what have ya. They still do it down to Yakima, I guess. But I think down there they have mostly machines too, to sort and everything. 3ust acertain cycle, just like these! quiltin' you know, that will all run out after awhile. Ithink it will. (laughs) I'm not sure but I think it will.

SS: You packed apples in Ouliaetta, right, 'cause I remember you told how you spent the money that you made.

FB: Did I? Well...

SS: But when you packed down there, was that right at the cannery or where?

FB: It wasn't cannery,packin' plant. We'd put 'em in the boxes, wrapped em in papers and put Jem in the box and they were shipped out. Like they do at Yakima now.

SS: Where did you stay when you were down there?

FB: Oh, we boarded, some of would, I can remember where I stayed. I only packed down there probably two falls and I stayed with a girl who had worked up here in the prune orchard, you know. Big prune orchard up on the hill here. And we used to pick prunes. And then later then I went down there and worked in the apples. But I suppose some of 'em worked else stayed at the hotel or something.

SS: You boarded with this girl who came up here. Did she board with you when she was...

FB: No, she stayed up where, at the Chaneys where they just got acquainted with her and just got a job down there, so it was a place, her mother would board us and that's the same way when we wor^ci over here to the orchards, out of Moscow. A farm lady just boarded half a dozen of us girls.

SS: At the orchard where you were picking?

FB: Not far. Probably down the road a mile.

SS: Were you picking?

FB: No, Inever picked apples. Ialways just packed in the packing heuses.

SS: Uiere they packing this in big boxes?

FB: yell ordinary apple boxes that you see no.. And pear lugs. we always called around in the stores now, the big boxes. Idon't knew ho. much, 40 lbs. they Might?! think Carlson has an ad in the paper, S3.00 for a40 lb. box of apples.Out, that's out Troy, you know^arlaons? That's Connie Sheflin's uncle, you know.

SS: That's right. Do you remember what you got for packing?

FB: Yes, Ithink ID and 12 cents a box was pretty good. SSk How many of those could you pack?

FB: Well, some people, could, good packers packed 100. They figured to make 10 dollars aday. But Iexpect 75 kids' limit.

SS: E^en that sounds good.

FB: Yeah, it was pretty good for them days, it was pretty good for them days.

SS: Working in the peas and packing, did you have much time for socializing, was there break time?

FB: In the pea we You could go get you acup of coffee or anything in^five minutes, every hour.

SS: Was that enough?

FB: Yeah. Enough.

SS: You needed that break time.

FB: Yeah, you could...

SS: To get away from it.

FB: Right. Um-hm. And the packing, Idon't remember what we done, the packin' when yeu was on your own, you could leave year stand and go any place you wanted for alittle bit, 1suppose. Isuppose if you stayed away too long you'd be fired, I can't remember that, but...

SS: That's because it was however much...

FB: Yeah, that was our own lookout, we tried to pack as many as we could, you know. So I suppose we didn't kill much time.

SS: I would think that the work in the peas would be hard, the tediousness.

FB: It was, but you got , the women all that worked most of 'em had families, and I can remember hearing them, what they'd done over the weekend, Saturday and Sunday. They'd say we come back to pick peas to rest up. We rest the rest of the week and then we wash and iron and cook and get ready for the next week. And I'm sure that's what we all done.

SS: You mean you actually worked harder on the weekend?

FB: On the weekends, sure. Ttoat was sittin' you know. And it was kinda boring but then, it wasn't hard work.

SS: Would it hurt people's backs?

FB: Oh some people complained here and there, but I don't think it ever hurt'em.

SS: Or their eyes?

FB: Well, it might have been hard on their eyes. Some people who didn't have good eyes. Yes it might have been, but I didn't know anybody that oouldn't pick peas in them days. They all could.

SS: But working on the weekends at home. That makes it sounds like a 7 day work week.

FB: Well, it was a pretty good, but then, that was different and they say a vacation is anything different. It relaxed you to do the different kinds of things that you had to do. Course some of 'em didn't do anything over the weekend but most that I knew had families and somebody at home. So...

SS: Do you think that most of those people that did that picking that it was necessary to have work for the family income?

FB: It's extra. Sure it was. And quite a few were widows, maybe their husbands had passed away. But a lot of tymes husband would work there too, she would work in the packin' room and he would be damn emptying sacks of peas or something. I know lots of 'em had their husbands work too. I don't think they had to work as much as they do now. They got so they, they didn't need as much quite as thev do now. You know, live simples* Now people start out when they get married with more than their mothers ever had. Or think they have to have in the house, more. I think that's a lot of it.

SS: So that wasn't.

FB: Tht was extra money for extra things, I think.

SS: You said sending the boye to college.

FB: Um-hm, that was a lot of it. I think Agnes put half a dozen boys through the university picking peas. I guess her husband worked too, but I can't remember that, oh they were just common, ordinary workin' people, didn't have any land or anything, woEkad in town and she got started to doin' that and every year and then it got pretty good along after, when I first started we didn't get any unemployment, and that got to be quite a racket then. You could draw almost all summer what you'd made in the winter.'Cause it was, that was the good thing about pickin' peas. When you were out of a job, it was seasonal work, then you could go on drawin' I guess about half you made, didn't ya, something like rules about it.

SS: How many months were you laid off?

FB: Well we'd probably begin about time school started and then probably end up 6 months or 7 months. So all summer was off. Well then the unemployment lasted most of the summer. Like these fellas, a.lot of these fellas now around do that.

SS: It seems pretty good.

FB: Well its pretty good if the government just holds out, that's(laughs) some of these old ladies that we know get so stingy, I said, you better get a little money in circulation when bhe government gets to keepin! all of us, why got to get rid of a little money some way. But what I say don't amount to mu6h, but(laughs) that's one way of thinkin' about it.Don't want to put it all in the bank, you better keep a little in circulation.

SS: I think these days a lot of people feel that both partners have to work.

FB: Yes, I'm sure they do. Well it's got to costing so much to got to college and things. And to keep up with the 3oneses, why its a struggle. Well you better I usually have the floor She talks pretty good when I ain*t around.

SS: I want to talkt to you about your experience in nursing.

FB: Did she ever talk to Laura much about that?(Laura is Sam's wife).

SS: No, when we were here last time we talked a bit about WWI. But I thought you could tell me what that was like. Had you been a nurse for long before you went over seas?

FB: Oh, 3 years. I nursed in yf hospital where I graduated from, just taking special cases. And then I worked in a shipyard for about a year, emergency work'fore I went over.

SS: Which hospital was it that you started?

FB: St. Vincent's in Portland.

FB: That wasn't where you started.

FB: I started down in Coos Bay. never worked down there, I just training and I didn't like it very well, so I quit.

SS: Is that where you went, to Coos Bay for your training?

FB: I went there, my sister and her husband lived there and I just went there to stay with her awhile, fly first baby was born and then ,.she didn't need me anymore, why I thought I had to do something so I went out and got a job and went in trainigiand stayed there I gdess, six months probably. And I decided I didn't like it, so I quit and I just did practical nursing for a little while. And then I come up to Portland.

SS: What was it that you didn't like about it in Coos Bay? ,„ FB: Oh I don't know, I just didn't like a little special I didn't like about the nursing, but Ijust didn't like the place.

SS: Were you a trained nurse when you went to Coos Bay or... FB: Oh no.

SS: But you could learn it in a hospital then, hey?

FB: Well that's what I went in for. And quit.and got married and I wasn't §onna nurse anymore and then when I oh, they was talkin' about war and everything and I decided I'd go back in and finish it, so I did.

SS: I heard that nurses worked awfully hard.

FB: We did. We worked about 12 hours a day and every day. Sunday and everything. Nothing like they do now.

SS: That's an 84 hour work week. About twice as long as you would now.

FB: Course after a little while at St. Vincent's and I finished my training, why then I just worked. Then we got a case, we worked 8 hours a day.

SS: What do you mean, when you got a case? When they would call you in?

FB: Yeah, most of the time. Sometimes we'd get a few days off and we'd go out to the beach so we wouldn't get called again.

SS: Why were they doing it that way, special cases? Were you working temporary? FB: Only just as long as we needed it. Doctor would call for a special nurse and we'd go and...

FB: Yeah, but you worked all the time, you was in the hospital when you wasn't out on a special case, your time went on in the hospital, just didn't.

FB: After we got out. After we got out we was away from the hospital entirely. Sometimes we got called on a case in the hospital. Mostly

SS: What was the nurse's responsibility then?

FB: Oh, whatever was needed, whatever medication they had to have, whatever we had to do for 'em. Every case would be different. There was no special things we had to do, we just had to do what was necessary to do for sick person.

FB: I think maybe people didn't always go bo the hospital, now you can't hardly get a nurse, you know, private nurse...

FB: Hardly anybody that was gonna have a baby would go to a hospital. They'd call a doctor and a nurse to^nome.

FB: It was a lot different than now a days, that's why she was out, I suppose on the special cases.

FB: Once I went with a doctor who was called to go, this was in Coos Bay when Iy after I Quit nursing, after I quit the training, but was still nursing. And we decided, had to go on a boat and then up to one of the sloughs were she was gonna have a baby and got off the boat and it was about 11 o'clock at night and I got out, it was raining hard and I got off the boat and there was just alittle plank! I had to go up and I look back and here the doctor eas in the water, clear up to his neck.He had walked right off the boat into the water, he didn't get onto the plank at all.So we had quite an excitement that night. Gettin' him some dry clothes to wear.

FB: He was worse off then the woman havin' the baby probably.(laughs)

FB: It was more excitement, yes. The baby was born when we got there, but we had to dry him out and get him warmed up.

SS: The baby was already born? Who delivered the baby?

FB: Oh he did. After he got out he was?alright, we got him some clean clothes, got him some dry clothes and he shivered around jjftie fireplace for awhile and then he was pretty good.

SS: Do you think you ihad a lot more responsibility than a nurse would have today?

FB: Mo, I don't know of any more responsiblity, but I think it was hardwork, more. Longer hours and I did lots of things that the nurses don't do now like making the beds and things like that. They have aides to do, we did all o'f that then.

SS: Were you very close tfet the other nurses? Was there like a group of people that worked together that would associate a lot?

FB: Oh yes, that's all we did associate with while I was in training. We didn't hardly anybody else.

FB: Catholic hospital.

FB: After I got out I lived with 4 nurses in an apartment. We just take cases from there.

SS: I heard the pay wasn't too good for nurses.

FB: No, not near as good as'tis now. They get about as much for 8 hours as we did for the whole time.

FB: Oh, I think more, probably for your 8 hours.

FB: I think 12 dollars a day wasN~much as ws ever did get.

SS: Did you find the work exhaustin§? Or did you have energy left after your day?

FB: Yes, we went to the beach when we had aday off or two days off. We'd go down to the beach and swim and have agood time. Seaside was agreat place vtfa ue went. Swimming pool and...

SS: Do you think the doctors had alot of respect for the nurses then?

FB: Oh Ithink it was about the same as much difference. It didn't make any difference.

SS: Did it make alot of difference to the family income that you eworking?

OB: Oh, yes, of course. Better. Like it'tis now, it takes two to make aliving sometimes.

SS: What was your husband doing?

FB: Ireally didn't live with my husband for about 7years. Ue were separated. Never divorced, were just separated;, though. So while Iwas in the army I was separated from...

SS: Iheard that in those days there was alet more opposition to divorce than there is today.

FB: Yes there was. Some place they wouldn't take 'em in training if they were married. But they did me. I didn't have any trouble gettin' in the army.

SS: Had the war started when you got in the army?

FB: Yes, I wasn't in til 117. Last part of the war.

SS: How did you sign up.

FB: Well they just asked us all, come up to the hospital and asked us all to sign All that wanted to, and so Idid. There was lots of 'em that didn't There was only about ten from my bunch, ;Aones that graduated with me that went out of 35.

SS: What made you decide you wanted to?

FB: Oh, I don't know.

SS: Did you feel patriotic?

FB: just the excitement Iguess and wantin' to go. And after Isighed up then I got aork in the emergency hospital in the shipyard where they were making ships. Iwas there for ayear. Anybody'd get afinger hurt or needed alittle medicine or something, I'd, I was the only one there, just emergency nurse, each hospital, each shipyard had to have.

SS: Were there serious injuries that you saw in the shipyard?

FB: Serious accidents? Oh yeah, if they were terribly serious, why we just put 'em ftn the ambulance and send 'em into town. Those that were just a sprain or something like that, why we took care of*'em.

SS: Was there a doctor there too?

FB: No.

SS: 3ust you.

DB: 3ust me.

SS: Well that sounds like a lot of responsibility.

FB: It was a lot of responsibility.

SS: Did they have an infirmiry or just an office?

FB: 3ust an office. If they were bad enough to need a leg taken off or something like that well we sent 'em, just put a tournequet on or whatever was necessary and sent 'em into the hospital.

SS: There was a lot of activity there in those shipyards.

FB: Yes.

SS: How was it decided that you were going to go overseas?

FB: The hospital foreman, the base hospital 46 formed there, they were all Portland doctors and they just called the nurses hospital unit. There was 100 nurses and I don't remember, about 75 doctors. And a lot of . They just formed a hospital and went.

SS: Went where?

FB: We went right over to, oh well there was, see about 10 of us went to North Carolina first. And we were there in a hospital for three months and then we went to New York and we was there for quite a while and then and shipped us over whenever there was a boat. I don't know how many(Unintelligable for background conversation)

SS: What kind of setup did you have in Europe, what kind of a hospital did they put you in? harranks. We want to a little called(?) down in the southern part I think three different hospitals there, two big hospitals, ours was one of them and we all went there. And they had barracks. .barracks had about 10 or 12 patients and we were in a ward there, just like we would be in a hospital. Took care of the war. And then I was out with the field hospital, just an operating team. We went out right behind the lines and just did operating and sent 'em right back. We didn't have any beds or anything like that. Put 'em on operating table and operated and then send 'em on back to the hospital. That was called field hospital.

(end of side A)

FB: And send 'em back to the base hospital.

SS: So the emergency hospital was the one with the barracks? When you were at the field hospital, you stayed there and slept there? What kind of quarters was that, just tent?

FB: Well whatever they could give us. Sometimes it was in an old hospital or church or something. Sometimes, just right out in the open and just set up our tents. Sometimes they, well, always operated in tents. jUst put up the tent and...

SS: So...

FB: Fix an operating room.

SS: How big was the staff at the field hospital?

FB: Two doctors and two nurses^each operating team. And some boys to fix up the tents and do things like that. And take care of all those strecbters and all that.

SS: The men that came in there must have been pretty bad shape.

FB: They didn't leave any that wasn't. If they were able to go on back, why they just went right back to the base hospital. 3ust the ones that we took out shells and things like that, emergency work.(Noisy in background.) Sometimes an eye and sometimes a leg and sometimes whatever was needed.

SS: The kinds of injuries that men were getting therey was it mostly from bullets?

FB: Well whatever it was. Mostly bullets, yes. Mostly shrapnel. Taking out shrapnel all the time. Sometimes there was bleeding, we had to put a tournequet over an arm or a leg or take out shrapnel from, oh some of these you just can't imagine, sometimes the patient^just full of shrapnel where they'd been shot and we'd have to take that out. Everything that had to be done right away. Something out of their eye, maybe steel out of their eye. Then we'd just put on the stretcher and send 'em back to the hospital.

SS: What did you have to operate with under those circumstances?

FB: They had their kits just the same as they do in the hospital. They had their instruments and everything. We had to sterilize them and keep them clean. And we'd get just big packages of sterile guaze and things like that already prepared.

SS: Was there much anesthetic available?ether. Besides the two doctors.

SS: That sounds like it was rough.

FB: Oh, it was hard and long and sometimes you was up all night.

FB: Kinda interesting though, don't ya think?

SS: Oh yes.

FB: And then when I went back to the base and the last two months I was in the 'flu ward, what there was.'Flu is what they call swine flu now. We just called it 'flu. And the worse kinds were 'flu and pnemonia. I was in that ward when the armistice was signed.

SS: Was that the same 'flu that hit here?

FB: Yes, at that time, but I think its a little different than swine flu now.

FB: I don't know.

SS: Was that killing a lot of people over there?

FB: Oh yes. Sometimes four and five in one night.

FB: She said she thought the boys would all be dead before they got a chance to get home when the war was over. They was all sick.

SS: It was that bad?

FB: Yes,awful bad. It was bad everywhere, there because we didn't have facilities to stake out, it was worse over

FB: Too many people in one place, they always said, you know. Groups of people, you wasn't sposed ta

SS: Did that get half of the boys, did half of the boys come down with it?

FB: Oh I don't know if it would be half or not. But it was an awful lot of 'em. Every convoy that come in that just be full of 'flu patients. And some of 'em would just have 'flu and get over it and go back. Some of 'em'd get pnemonia ef and die.

SS: What was the treatment that they had you give?

FB: Well, that was the trouble, they didn't have much treatment. They just, we give ahypodermic of something to quiet them, something for the pain. Sometimes fear and five anight they'd take every four hours, we'd have to give hypodermic. But there just wasn't much to do .for them then.

FB: Homemade(cookies).

SS: In the field hospital, can you tell me kind of how you felt doing that work and seeing what you saw?

FB: In what way do you mean?

SS: Did you, emotionally how did you feel?

FB: Well,(of course, Iwas alot younger then than Iam now. Didn't worry as much Iguess but it was no pleasure to see people die and some of 'em begging you to do something for 'em, to let 'em go home and all that. It was bad. fart*

SS: I think I could have done that.

FB: You're learning all that when you'.fe training to be a nurse. Ithink you get immune to a lot of things.

FB: Oh the blood and all that didn't faze me at all. Icould watch any kind of an operation, it...

FB: I think you get that way when it's your work.

FB: And after Icome home, of course, Icouldn't nurse any more. Idon't know, Iwasn't nervous or wasn't shakey or anything like that, but Ijust all worked up inside. Ididn't like to take cases, Ididn't, well Ijust didn't like to nurse after.Idid it some, but it was different.

SS: Do you think that's because of what you'd experienced over there?

FB: Yeah, I think so. And then I got this back trouble, and that didn't help any.

FB: Did you tell him how you got your back?

FB: We were just packing up to come home, to start and I don't know just how i got it. I just sprained it some...

FB: You always told me you and ojnurse picked up a ...

FB: Trunk, or something.

FB: Trunk and.she slipped and that done her back up.

3B; I thought that's what did it.

SS: And it didn't get better.

FB: Get better?

SS: It didn't get better soon?

FB: Oh no. 3ust down, I couldn't move for awhile and they took care of me there and wanted me to stay on there 'cross at the other hospital but I thought I wanted to come home. They put me on a stretcher and I come 'bout half way on a stretcher.

FB: And then she suffered with it ever since. She's a disabled war veteran. She gets a pretty good pension out of that because she is a disabled, and she used to have to go to the hospital every so often to see how bad it was and then that determined what her next check would be, if it was worse or if it was better.

FB: It never got better, it got a little bit more each time I went.

FB: And now it's settled down to one, when she gets old, why then its, she don't goany more to have it. It's just an injury and that's all. Won't get any better or worse, probably.

SS: So you really couldn't work regularly after that I couldn't, there's a lot of things I couldn't do, I couldn't give hypodermics like I used, shots you know. And it just shake me up so I just don't know, I couldn't do it.

FB: That was from your back or not?

FB: I don't knou. Fact it was just nervousness or givin' so many over there. I used to give sometimes forty in a night. If there was 12 or 14 patients and they had to take ahypodermic every four houBs, why Iwas just kept me 'bout busy sterilizing my needle and going through the next one.

FB: I suppose that would be emotional strain, wouldn't it?

FB: Yeah. And sometimes in the middle of the night we had to have a flashlight, that's all the light we could have. Because of the...

SS: Did you and the doctors sometimes have to work 24 hours in arow with out stop?

FB: Well not 24 hours. If we worked all night why we got off at 9 or 10 o'clock, then the next, see there was two teams(at the same place. And then they'd come awful on, let us rest. And then we'd go on let them rest. So we didn't work awful many hours we worked long time. Sometimes I can remember standing up A halfway up to my knees all night. Operating. Mud and...

SS: Outside?

FB: Oh, well, there was no floors for the tents, you know.Oust go into it, if was raining hard and some of 'em was leaking, we put up little things. One time they fixed the emergency hospital in an old^French hospital. Where the sisters had been, they moved them out and then we come in and oh, the place was dirty and we cleaned it up just couple of rooms and used them for operating rooms

SS: How much sterilizing could you do under those conditions?

FB: the little burners and we'd boil our instruments.

SS: In the mud and the grass?

FB: No we'd just have to fix a table and put a sterilized cloth on it and put our instruments on .^ Rest of it was just like any tent.

SS: Were most of the injured men young?

FB: Oh yes. Nearly all of them. 'Cept the officers.

FB; And they didn't get hurt very bad, did they? Probably stayed out, maybe.

FB: Yes they were nearly all just young fellows.

SS: Could you tell how most of them took it, were they scared and frightened?

FB: Some of them. Not very many. I don't, they didn't show it anyway when they were hurt. They were just hurt like any other boy, just waited to be fixed up.

FB: Tell him about when you went over. How they didn't, some of them boys never been away from home. What'd you say, they knocked 'em in the head or knocked 'em out, or what'd they do?

FB: They said they'd bad to knock some of 'em out to get 'em on the boat.

FB: To go, ou know, they just couldn't do it. I can imagine how it would be, hadn't been away from home and 'just scairt to death then. I've heard that before.

SS: What I've heard about the fighting just sounds awful.Like foxholes.

FB: Well of course they were, that's, fighting was. One night we had about 40 boys come in, they had, was in the forest somewhere and stopped for the night and a shell come down and hit 'em and they were just full of shrapnel and everything. They brought 'em all in there to be, some with their arms full of shrapnel and some of them with broken arms and just everything and...

FB: I expect it was kind of unpredictable. You didn't know just what was... was going to happen. Oust everything. One night, I don't know if it was day or night, we took care of the Germans too sometimes, you know. If we got a prisoner then we took care of him. There was*prisoner, I don't suppose he was more than 18 years old and he was so scared he talked, and one of our German doctors talked German. And he was talking.to him and he was so scared he didn't know what, he said,"What's the matter.with you boy, don't you know I'm speaking your language?" And he was so scared he didn't know-what he was doing. To be with what was his enemies too, besides being hurt. In the barracks there was a German(Noisy)~- frOYs^f\ and the boys wouldn't take care of him 'cause he was the enemy, you know, they wanted to kill him. Threatened to all the time til we had to keep them out and we had to take care of him. Poor thing, I felt so sorry for him. He was no different than anybody else, but the just happened to be on the wrong side cff the fence. We kept him there for a long time til he got well enough to leave.

SS: Do you recall how the boys faced death and dying? As young people.

FB: How thev faced it?

SS: Yeah.

FB: Well I never was around the gassed ones very much. But I know there were an awful lot of 'em that got gassed.

FB: No, but he means just when they were gonna die. Them that died with the 'flu, how did they react?

SS: Well most of 'em were unconsious, quite a .bdfore they died. And some just wanted to die. Like everybody else.

FB: Do you think we'll have more wars here?

SS: I don't doubt it. Since WWI was the war to end all wars we've seemed to have had quite a few.

FB: But you know, well, connected with that, when my youngest boy started to school, there was about 8 little boys all had been born at the time, they were 6 years old when they started to school and I think there was just one girl in the bunch.And one old lady, a neighbor up the creek, she said, "You know when there are so many boy babies born, that means war." And sure enough, I bet every one of them, there's one now, my kid is here, and every one of that bunch of boys that started to school here at Viola that were 6 years old that certain time, they went ^that WWII. 3ust every one of 'em. Two Getz boys, and I can name everyone of *em, I dos .believe. Maybe one was a 4-F but, wasn't that funny she predicted that. She was an old lady and she said, "That means war."

FB: Well, I don't think that had anything to do with it, but...

FB: 3ust happened to hit that.

SS: Did you believe that at the time that was going to be the last war for us?

FB: Yes, I suppose I did.

FB: I guess everybody thought it, but the Bible said there's waralways war and then there's a war so.

SS: I don't doubt that, but I don't see why they all have to involve us.

FB: I know, I don't either. I don't see what good it does fightin'. Why don't they quit makin' that stuff. They couldn't shoot thmselves if they didn't have guns. It makes me so mad that this, the United States has to furnish 'em all with the material to shoot back at them. I think I could be smarter than that and they're supposed to be smart men. They can see that if they don't have amunition you can't shoot.

FB: have one country would dominate...

FB: Yeah, but if they'd all just quit. What's the use of killin' each other off?

SS: Don't you think it has something to do with the money to be made selling that stuff?

FB: Money to be made and too many people, that's that,Q uhat it is, too many people.

SS: That sounds to me like being a nurse under the roughest conditions.

FB: Oh, I think WWI was rough.

SS: Did you feel great satisfaction out of the work you were doing there?

SS: Oh yes, we knew it was necessary, we knew it had to be done, so...

SS: Did the doctors, when they decided who they were going to Bperate on and how, did they just let a lot of people go who they thought would make it?

FB: Oh no, I don't think so. I think they operated whenever it was necessary. And sometimes when it wasn't, same as they do now. I think they do an awful lot of operations now that aren necessary.

SS: What would make them decide to amputate?

SS: Well of course they would have to decide it whether it could be, whether there was any chance of ot healing itself or being healed. They'd send him back, either to another hospital or back home. They had to do their own deciding, just like they do now. Doctor would tell you whether it has to come off or not. If its gangrenous or infected or anything like that they know it haajto come off.

SS: They didn't have much time to make a decision. 3B* No they didn't have as much time to think about it, they just had to make a quick decision. Probably made a lot of mistakes.

SS: Seems like it must have taken a lot of bravery.

FB: Oh, I don't know.

FB: I think yourunder kind of a nervous.strain, you just do(they both speathe same time.) Lots of people around here.you don't think.

FB: The shells were goingiover our heads and they come and told us to pack up and go out, well we knew we couldn't just pack up and leave all the patients there so we just stayed. And after, you know, we got our citation for stayin, it was...

FB: Contempt of court or something,

SS: You mean you got a bad.11.

FB: Yes, citation for bravery after it was over, but at the time it was disobeying orders. They told us to move back so many miles behind the lines, we were supposed to and there wasnJttany of us do it and...

SS: The people you were working with, did you become very closef

FB: Oh yes. I guess we...

FB: I think,the same as it is now: in the hospitals they say a man gets sick and has a good nurse, he always proposes before he goes oome, I think it's the same way then.(laughs)

SS: Did you get a lot of proposals?

FB: One-offered me a fortune, he said his people were real rich. He said if I could just get him out and get him home, he said I could just have all kinds of...

FB: I think its the same today as always.

FB: He died just the same as the others.

FB: I thihk so.

SS: I think that the boys over there, not only being homesick, but they wouldn't have the chance to see women either.

FB: I think they were pretty loneiy, I'm sure. And any woman looked good to 'em, I think. That was about the way it was. SSs How old were you when you were over there?

FB: 'Bout 30. So I wasn't awfully young, but still...

FB: But they would'.have been lots younger.25.. FB: ..younger and quite a few older.

FB: Yeah, I think them old ones went too.

SS: As far as living conditions, could you keep clean to your satisfaction?

FB: Yes, we managed to do pretty good. Sometimes kind of crude way, but we managed to get our washing done most of the time and things like that.

SS: You did your own?

FB: Yeah, most of the time. Lots of times. But they had pretty good facilities too in, considering everything. Ahad a laundry and things like that to do sheets for the boys, you know and our, we sent our uniforms too.

FB: It just sometimes got misplaced is all I think...

FB: Out in the field hospital, why we didn't, I remember that long cape with a red lining, blue cape with a red lining that the nurses all wore, we was all kind of proud of'em when I, I had it when I was in the hospital down in North Carolina. And they shipped them over you know, and so I was supposed to get it when I got over there, but we never did get «em, those that were in the field hospital never^get 'em til they got back to base and I was always kinda mad 'cause I didn't get my cape. But so many things we didn't get. We didn't have a change of clothes and all that til we sent back two or theee times to get 'em.

SS: So you really only had the uniform you were wearing?

FB: No, I think we had a few extrys, but we just, we packed enough up when we went.

FB: But it's like it is now they get on the wrong plane or wrong something and it got a little worse in war time.

SS: Did you have any time off over there?

SS: Yes, night that, we got word that the armistice was gonna be signed about 3 days before the rest of ya all got it here, before the real armistice, and the night the armistice was signed,2 or 3 other nurses and I put in our, well, we all put in our names for, they said we could go on vacation, take turns, you know. I was one of the first ones of them that got to go, there were 3 other nurses. And we went to the east and Monte Carlo and down on the Rivera for a week and we had a good time. One day we went up in the, remember what they call the Maritime Alps, big mountains there and watched them make beer and make wine from the grapes. And we ate in the little resturant they had up there. They just, kind of a, oh, like it is in San Francisco where they go up the hill with those...

SS: Trolleys.

SS: Trolley cars. And we took the day off and went up there. And there was two southern lietenants going the same way, so we matched up with them and we had dinner and we had an awful.good time that day. And then another day we went to the casino at the Monte Carlo where they play cards one evening. I have a dollar just to show for it, I guess I have it yet.

SS: You made money.

FB: No I didn't play, they wouldn't let us play. In fact they wouldn't let us in girls had to be escorted in. So there happened to be a captain there when we were trying to get in, he said,take you in." So he grabbed two of us, dean and . We went in and through and watched them playing and saw all that.

SS: Could women play?

SS: Oh yes, they- were playing.

F"B: yhy couldn't you women get in?

FB: I don't know.

FB: Had to have an escort maybe.

FB: Couldn't anybody play with uniforms, either men or women.

FB: Oh I guess that was...

FB: They wouldn't let the girls in, unless they were escorted by some man. So we got in.

SS: Was that the first time you had off since you were over?

FB: That was the first time. That was the first and only time we had off.

SS: How long were you there?

SS: Year.

FB: Oh you'd have rest periods, wouldn't ya?

SS: 3ust in the...

FB: Yeah

SS: Barracks in camp, I never was away from the...

FB: No.

SS: Was there any social life for you in the camp?

FB: Yes, I remember we made a Christmas tree and fixed up for the orphans home there.

FB: Oh I think you had dances and everything around base, didn't ya?

FB: Oh not around the base. We did..

FB: I think they got to go.

FB: Some of the, oh, where they took care of 'em and sent for...

FB: Yeah, what do they, what'd they call that where they serve coffee and you, where the boys all went? S 0, what do they call 'em? You see 'em advertised, yeah.

FB: We sometimes get an invitation to go there to dance.

FB: Yes. Well now what, UFO camps, isn't it? Yes, I think they had them everyplace, maybe a little far away, some of 'em, but. Well now, UFO, that's flying sauceers. I forgot the name.

SS: I don't know. I know what you're trying to think of, sure.

EB: I think we got the wrong initials on it.

FB: I don't know what they did call most of 'em.

SS: USO.

FB: Well, I don't know, but they have them adaertised, you see 'em advertised yet.

SS: Did your nursing at the time seem to bd demanding a lot of you?

SS: No. Everybody worked , long hours those days, even when I was in training, you know. We didn't have a whole day off, we had a half a day once a week.

FB: I don't think it was any more confining than it is to be a nuree in a hospital right now. You got, I think they...

SS: But the 12 hour day, 7 days a week that she talks about.

FB: Yes.

(End of side B)

FB: We never heard of an 8 hour day.

FB: Never heard of a coffee break.

FB: Grown up on a half a day coffee break.

SS: You say you got up at 4 and you'd go to bed at 9?

FB: Why, probably you was lucky if you got to bed at 9 when you was cooking for 24 men, out in the cookhouse.

SS: How old were you when you started doing that?

FB: I expect I helped when I was about 16. And then, and a few times later I had a helper and I went ahead. So I done, I cooked in the cookhouse quite a few years.

SS: How was that work?

FB: That was somethin'.

FB: That was real work.

FB: You had aflunky who had arig with ahorses and he brought theyjater and brought the groceries in. FB: And 'bout the time you think you WUverything done the/id come and tell you y

FB: We's gonna move. They was done with that field.

FB: Pack up everything and move.

FB: Get your dishes packed up and move. Maybe had bread bakin' in the oven. Baked all our own bread then,.for the men.

SS: That was real, but it didn't last very long.

FB: No. You were lucky if you got in 30 days or 25,30 or maybe 35.

SS: But you didn't know in advance when you would be moving?

FB: Oh the Ilunky would tell us,"Oh we'll move probably this afternoon." But maybe on short orders he didn't know even. He'd be in town to get meat and stuff and when he^ back they'd run it through alittle faster than he thought and that's the way it was.

SS: How set down down could you get your routine. Was it a struggle to get it all done in time?

FB: Oh yes, but then, they was all good. But they, just so long as you had some thing to eat. Like you had to figure, you always had pie for dinner and cake or cookies for supoer and we send out; Some of 'em had lunch in the morning. Some of 'em lunch in the afternoon,and some of I guess had lunches too. I don't think we ever had lunch only once a day and make sandwiches and coffee.

SS: So you only served three meals.

FB: Three meals and one lunch. So that's quite a bit of work too.

SS: Three meals.

FB: Three meals and one lunch# Urn hm. But now you know, you have somebody come to fix your house or do something, they bring their lunch. You're not supposed to cook for anybody, ain't that funny? And it used to be, cook for everybody.

FB: Yes, even a traveling man going through, our mother seen coming, she'd start getting meal ready.

FB: Well we had, you know, we had McNess man and Raleighs, them traveling men that peddled your pepper and cinnamon and vanilla. Well that was quite an event when they come to your house. You pretnear had to feed *em. And if, lots of times, it was night and you had barn room, they stayed all night. Course they paid for it but they liked to visit too and they were anxious to get acquainted with people and...

SS: You said Raliegh and what?

FB: Raliegh and McNess.

SS: Would they stay in the house?

FB: Oh usually. But sometimes they'd have their bed along and go to the barn and sleep, but I think then sometimes it was neighbors doing that, why/they'd sleep in the house. Yeah, times . Nf changed. You see that on television now, them traveling men going. One old program, what was that? Where he peddled all the lace and stuff, you...

SS: It was an event?

FB: Yes, them days it was, when there wasn't, you had to go to town with a team, you know and so it was quite an event when they come.

FB: It was an all day's trip when I was a little girl.

FB: Right, didn't go in 20 minutes like we do now.

SS: I bet that the food that you served to the thrashing crews was pretty satisfactory.

FB: Oh it was. Everybody had big gardens, spuds and potatoes and vegetables and the meat man if they didn't go to town to buy it, the meat man would butcher and travel around to get rid of their beef, you know, to the different, oh well, in this section of the country probably be a half a dozen thrashing machines, you know. And pretty good money to peddle your meat.

SS: Did everybody come inside the cookhouse to eat? What was it like on the inside?

FB: Well, probably not quite as wide as this and some of'em had long tables on either side. And some of 'em had little square tables that let four sit around. We had both kinds. I been in both kinds.

SS: How many men could you sit in one, usually the whole crew?

FB: Yeah, usually the whole crew, maybe the roustabout or some of the bosses or somebody, oilers out at the machine wouldn't come in right when, but bundle haulers and all that was usually, you're supposed to serve 'em all at the same time. I don't know, you just got in and done it. I couldn't do it now, couldn't think of it.

SS: I would think that cooking for all those people after just cooking for your family would be quite a change.

FB: Well it was, but then, you adjusted to it.

SS: Bid you learn from helping some one else?

FB: I suppose I learned, but you kind of grew up with it. You knew about cookhouses and tickled to death to got to work.(laughs)

SS: Was the pay pretty good?

FB: Yes.

FB: It was good wages for...

FB: Yes. Five dollars a day for, them days was really good. Now, well they don't have 'em any more. You've probably seen an old cookhouse, have ya?

SS: I've never seen one, but I've seen pictures.

FB: Yes, they had screen windowa and with a flap down probably when it was cold for mornings.

SS: I bet it got pretty hot in there.

FB: Get pretty hot, and pretty many flies. You know, it have,,stickery things to flies, but of course we moved, I guess when you move and didn't set too long in one place, the flies couldn't catch up with you too good. But when it'd be a rainy spell, but of course, most of the men would be neighbors, they'd go home in a rainy spell so then you wouldn't have so many so then you could kind of relax and rest.

FB: Worse rain I think I ever had was over in France one time, we were moving, I don't know how we happened to be going, but we stopped at a little place where they said we could eat. We stopped and sat down at the table and the yellowjackets were so slick we couldn't hardly see our plates. Oh that was terrible.

FB: That was in France.

FB: Yes. In France. We didn't have very much to eat for a day or two. Sometimes we wouldn't get up in time, be delayed or something, we'd be pretty hungry. And they told us a place to eat, we'd be pretty happy.

FB: can remember when Wade was in the army. He said he felt bad sometimes they'd be packed up to move and sit and wait, and he said^the waiting game always, you know, and get orders to move and he said all that good food would be just left. He said it was such a waste.

SS: Which war was he in,II?

FB: Yes, II. But he was one of those that too old, they didn't keep him very lono. But he was in Austrial La, do you remember where they was workin', I dontt know if they was diggin' ditches or wha£, but he said he got so mad. He was arourid 30 some when they, they sent some of 'em from here everyplace and then when the/: got enough younger boys, they.

SS: They let those guys out.

FB: Come, he was there quite a while they said, them ^young smart alecks come and and tell him how to groom his horses, he said,"I've curried a horse all my life," from the farm, you know. He didn't like it a bit, tell him how to take care of his horses.

FB: One time we went back to Paris, we had orders, a through the one fight where we'd go back and stay in Paris for maybe a day or two. One of the doctorsa real dinner he said, and got it all ordered and just able to sit down and the orders come that we were supposed to go. We oacked up and made a few sandwiches and took what we could and went. We didn't get to eat.

SS: I imagine in a field hospital you weren*.t in a good spot to get good food.

FB: I think you had lots...

SS: We had penty but sometimes it didn't get cooked very good.

SS: Did you find the thrashing an exciting time?

FB: Yes.(laughs).

SS: What Vnade it that way?

FB: Oh, you was young and moving around. I don't know what made it exciting. Every thing was exciting, wasn't it, when you was young? Get pretty tired. For sure.

SS: Maybe it was that the community was getting together on it.

FB: Well a lot of it, lots of times you knew most of the men who were workin'. And you felt kind of good to see 'em eat. And, oh I don't know as it was any, just hard work and I suppose, wanted the money mostly.

SS: I know a number of people that met their wives or husbands there. probably

FB: I expect that's.one of things that was attractive too.

SS: The boys were usually pretty nice?

FB: Yeah, I think that's something about it too.

SS: Offering to do the dishes.

FB: Help alittle. Well, Idon't know, Inever had because they were usually working most of the time that we were, and pretty tired when come, but probably a little of that on rainy days-Hanging around, probably.

SS: Did you have a chance to visit during that time with the men?

FB: Oh not much, we was usually sittin' out in the field, but sometimes we'd have company, sometimes. Other kids would come on horseback, some of the girlfriends. Everybody rode horses them days you know.

SS: Would you have breaks during the dtti when you were caught up?

FB: Well, sometimes, but if you had a move or two, you was pretty busy most all

SS: Would you stay in the cookhouse when it moved?

FB: Yeah, sometimes, and sometimes we'd ride with the roustabout. But I guess we had to ride in the cookhouse most of the time, see that the water barrel didn't tip over and a few things like that.

SS: What about everything else

FB: Well, we had places to put 'em, the benches, if we had a long table, why where they sat was benches and you piled everything in the benches. I can remember that. And then you had to dig 'em out a nd set the table.

SS: Right inside the benches.

FB: Urn hm. Lid on and we just set 'em in the benches.

SS: Was there enough room in the cookhouse to cook?

FB: I didn't see much.

SS: You didn't feel that...

FB: No, we had a good table, I mean a good stove and a work table, you had all the room you needed, I guess. I think so. Course, you didn't know any different. You had to do it and you^done it.(laughs) I think that was the way of it.

SS: When you went to school, did you have to work in Viola to stay?

FB: Moscow.

SS: To high school?

FB: Although, my mother{when I was a first grader, she lived up here at the hotel. We had a three story hotel here In Viola, and we lived three miles up the creek.

FB: We'd go down and stay all week and go home...

FB: Friday night. That's how bad the roads was to get three miles, you know...

SS: Your mother would stay at the hotel? And the kids would stay with her?

FB: Um hum.

SS: How many of you kids?

FB: Well usually three of us, wasn't there? I don't think Mattie ever stayed with us.

SS: No.

SS: Going to school?

FB: Yes.

SS: This would be for the whole winter?

FB: Yeah, all winter, til spring. Then probably she'd move home lohen work started. But during the bad weather we had a room, two rooms I can remember.

SS: Did you do this for a number of years?

FB: Two or three years, didn't we?

FB: I think so.Through the bad weather. We used to get deep snow, not like it is now, I don't know why, but..

SS: So your father was batching.

FB: He was batching and as a rule that's how they made their living. M dad would make wood all winter and sell it inctbe summer before he got enough land broke to raise hay and things. And ha would make wood and he usually had a couple of friends there that worked for him and they batched and made wood. I remeber them, fellas from way down at Guy, they used to come and stay up there and make wood. Yeah, that was how people made a livin'. They sold wood to the farmers.

SS: That was here.

FB: Three miles east of here is where I was born.

SS: Where is the line between the timber and the prarie here, isn't it pretty close?

FB: 3ust about, right along here. Up above, course, it's broke out more land is broke out now, but all up our road from Viola east, there was trees. There's been lots of land broke out and on our place up there, that was all timbfer. And there's been sawmills, I can remember the sawdust when we, I never saa the mill, but before we lived there, there was a sawmill and then the Mansons had a sasmill in several different hollows up the creek. They logged all the mountain off up there.

SS: Did he homestead the place?

FB: My dad? Didn't homestead. FB: Somebody else did.

FB: He bought a premtion right. Somebody had homesteaded and let it go back. And that's where my dad got that. But he said when they came out here, it's funny, this gal lives next door, her dad and my dad come on the train. What kind of a train did they call'em? It was..

FB: It was steam engine.

FB: I know, but they called 'em, when they brought people west, there's a name for 'em.

SS: A car that would bring...

FB: I think so, take a lot of people.

SS: And their belongings.

FB: Yeah, well they come and worked a year, my dad did and I suppose Rothwell did too. They worked a year to see how they was gonna like it at the mill someplace a way up here. And then he went back and brought the folks out. But she said she come alone with five kids, my mother, didn't she? I was born after they come out here.

FB: I think he came back, but he had to come back to work and then she come.

FB: Yeah. She sold off what they had and come. She always said it wasn't such a good place, she said, they'd probably left if they ever had money to leave, but they couldn't get money to go anyplace else, but she said that but I've heard her say this is nearest heaven too because there wasn't the bugs and I don't know, and the storms, that's why they left back there. The hail storms. They come, Iowa and Kansas. They lived in both places. But that was awful hard winters in Iowa. And Kansas, I guess that was the storms, or vice versa. Yeah, hail, terrible storms.

SS: They, did they homestead there.

FB: No, but they owned some land. My father's folks farmed*Iowa. I believe was the way, wasn't it? Yeah. But it wasn't bad. They had a pretty good life. But what I starfoH ftno t4.elili^ my dad said all the railroad land that they could have filed on, you know, big strips along that they could have had, he could have had a good farm from here to Walla Walla, but instead of that he come to the mountains because he said he'd been on the prairie arid knew about the storms and was afraid. He always wondered if he made a mistake, but...

FB: He said it reminded him of Scotland.

FB: In the woods, but he made a good enough living. We didn't have much but every body else worked hard for it but raised everything we ate and we never was so hard up. My dad had cattle then when he got a little land broke. Made wood. I guess we never had much money but I guess we lived about as good as other people. I think probably.

FB: And a little later we had to pick strawberries.

FB: Yes, then that got to be strawberry country up in the hills here.

SS: Started growing 'em?

FB: Yes. And we raised strawberries.

SS: Was thelfc a market?

FB: Oh yes. Yes.

FB: ...remember four dollars a crate was an awful price.

FB: Got to be more than that, got to be four dollars a half a crate a flat.

SS: Did he put much of his land into it?

FB: Yes. We had a whole hillside. And you'd rotate *em, you know. And you had to keep puttin' in, but there were two or three that had big patches up in our hills, but now nobody has even enough for, but my daughter here, we pick stfcawberries the other day. We've had strawberries since Decoration Day. She's got everbearings and I never seen the like. But she sets out a new row or two and that's where you get your berries for the next year.

SS: When did they start canning?

FB: Canning. I don't know. I can remember drying everything when my mother, drying... Corn...

SS: Is that the way you preserved?

FB: We used to can too, I think.

FB: Yes.

FB: Summer fallow and canned and dried and ...

FB: I think so.

SS: So they were canning when you were a kid?

FB: Oh yes.When I was young, yeah, they canned.

SS: But did they do it in jars?

FB: Yes.

SS: Did they use parafin then for seal?

FB: I think we had fruit jars just the same all during mys lifetime. And then there was a little time a few years ago when they got, everybody got freezers and they done a lot of it in that, but now they're getting to can again. I'm sure. Course, everybody has a freezer yet. For meat and things.

SS: You went into Moscow to go to high school?

FB: Urn hm.

SS: Did you work when you went in there? Did you work for your board?

FB: Well I did one year too, and that, all you girls had

FB: Two or three years.

FB: You did, all my sisters had worked for their board. You see, I was, she went to high school about my second year, so it was quite a stretch. I was still out here going to school. But then whe I graduated from the eighth grade, then I went in too. And she was going to the university then.

SS: Where were you boarded.

FB: Well we had a rented rooms and batched three, four girls. jQ OS*

SS: Rented in someone's...

FB: Home. Yeah, just like apartments now. We didn't have apartments but people rented out rooms and put a stove up and kitchen and ,bed and it wasn't like the apartments now, but they were liveable.

SS: Did you go to work for your room and board?

FB: I didn't. I was only 9 years old the first time I went to school in Moscow.

SS: That young?

FB: Yeah, 'cause the girls were going to school and, but then I went to school that year and then I went to school out here again. I suppose I just wanted to go because the big girls were goin' to school in there. I suppose that was the reason they took me.

FB: You couldn't go alone.

FB: Yes, that was the idea.

SS: From...

FB: From up home here, I couldn't get down to Viola alone.

SS: Weren't there -other kids going?

FB: .0h yeah, but nobody from our house and the other girls was all in town so they let me...

SS: You lived in town? With

FB: Urn hm.

SS: You all lived together?

FB: Urn hm. Upstairs, two rooms we had.

FB: Three of us went to school...

FB: Batched.

FB: And the oldest sister worked.

FB: She was takin' dress makin'.

SS: How did that work. Did you take care of her?

FB: I guess. I was in the eighth grade the year we moved.

FB: I probably(laughs) pretty sharp.

FB: We sent her after bread and all she could carry, she got a quarter's worth bread and she aould hardly carry it home.

FB: Yeah, you got six loaves for a quarter and that used to make me so mad when they'd send me after bread and I had to carry all that, six loaves. Now I'd be happy to get six loaves for a quarter.

SS: Living with your sisters, did you have to be told what to do, or did you have freedom to do what you wanted?

FB: Don't you think?

FB: Huh?

FB: He wants to know if I minded pretty good?(laughs)

SS: I think our oldest sister...

FB: Kep' us pretty much in line.

SS: She was five years older than me and I know I had to mind her.

FB: Yeah, I think probably I did too. But this sister, we got a sister up in Spokane in a home now, you know, she's older than 3ennie. Pretty spry. I mean, her mind is pretty alert and she still tells yet when they used to be playing games or cards at the table at home in the winter, you know. Said I kicked up such a ruckas and she said she could still see my dad lookin' over his paper and aayin',"Let that kid beat once." You know if they beat me everytime, ltd kick up an awful stink, you know, I'd be mad about it. And she said,"I can still see our dad sayin' let that kid beat."

SS: Let that kid...

FB: Beat. In a game, you know. If they beat me I would he mad about it and be pretty noisy. That's what she said. She could still see him lookin' over his paper*

SS: Do you think it was rough to be separated from the family to go to school?

FB: Oh I don't think we ever thought about Somethin' new to qet to live in town. I don't think so, Nol Our mother used to come often. Drove a team.

FB: Used to bring us fried chicken, I can remember. Early they raised Belgium hares, rabbits. She'd fry one of those and bring it to us.

FB: Yeah, I think we was always glad to see her come. And I guess she probably was glad to get rid of us for a little while, maybe. We used to come home, not every week, but I can remember gettin' up early at home and our dad would get us to town at 9 o'clock with a team, you know. So that meant startin' up there pretty early. On Monday mornings. Sometimes we would gome home, you know, and stay the weekend. And he'd get us to school.

SS: But there was no high school in Viola?

FB: Then there wasn't, but my dauaVter went to high school, afterwards we good school, and I don't know if we ever had four years, but ue had two.

FB: They built up the new school after it burned down. Must have been...

FB: I think, no, didn't have only eighth grade when you was, but when Shirley did...

SS: You girls were going to high school at the time except for the oldest one.

FB: The oldest one was a dress maker.

SS: You must have all been pretty independent then.

FB: Oh I guess. Twasn't hard to cook a litte and get up and go to school. I guess that was the main thing.

SS: Did you have much social life?

FB: Oh, I'm sure they didi

SS: What...

FB: Yes, I know I had the measles that year too.

FB: Yeah, but he said social life.

SS: What did you do for your recreation in M0scow?

FB: Oh yes.

SS: Did you go to dances?

FB: We had parties. They were going to have a party the night I graduated from the eighth grade and I couldn't go because I had the measles and I had the girls, some of the other girls brought my diploma to me.

FB: That eighth grade?..

SS: That was the eighth grade.

FB: Didn't you have measles when you went to university?

FB: What?

FB: Measles?

FB: NO. I was in the eighth grade.

FB: You did. Well, you can't remember everything.

FB: Doctor said I had to stay in a dark room, so I had to stay in bed and I didn't get to go to graduation.

SS: Must have been a disappointment.

FB: I expect it was. Now was that Moscow or here?

FB: Moscow. You must have been there too. Did wo live there more than one year?

FB: I think a couple or three years we lived there, that place.

SS: Did you later go to Moscow yourself for highrschool?

FB: Yes, these girls was all gone and some of 'em married and another girl and I batched and I went to high school.

SS: The two of you lived in Moscow.

FB: Urn hm.

SS: What was that like.

FB: Oh that was, we thought we was pretty.young ladies. We used to come out here on Friday night and go to a party or a dance or something. Oh just like they do now, I guess. Only we all didn't have cars and things like they do now, to run.

SS: Did you have horses?

FB: Oh, we didn't have horses in town. Although I had a horse to ride when I stayed at Cannels. So just pretty much like it is now, I guess.

SS: Did you ever go to any rivivals they had in Moscow?

FB: Oh we had camp meetin' every summer here in Viola.(laughs)

FB: That's when I, we would, what was Poor Tom's brother's name?

FB: We had a tent camp meetin' up the creek:.here two or three summers. And then when the faith people, what we call Linusites, and they had camp meetin' over here. So we had lots, and we had travelling ministers, we had Sunday School and church up here at this church all my life until just recent. When they consolidated the schools, then that kind a took away the Sunday School and things from out here. People who were church people, they went to town to church. And they tried, every summer we'd have Sunday School up here. And we had oh, preachers that belonged to the Ministerial Association. We'd have a preacher for a week or a month or so. So we've had lots of...

SS: What denomination were the camp meetifea^

FB: Well that's what I said, the Advents. We had an awful flock of Adventists when they first becgun up the creek, then they'd have camp meeting every summer. But these others, now there's quite a few faith people, you're not familiar with them?

SS: 3ust heard of 'em.

FB: Well, we don't know what they call themselves. We call 'em the faith people. But we always, when I was youngs we called 'em Linusites because he was the first minister, old Linus was.

SS: Was he around here?

FB: Oh yeah, around here and they preached, they lots of people. And they kind of died out awhile and nou there's a lot of 'em again.

SS: Why faith?

FB: Well, why? They're good people.

FB: They're kind of very good to each other.

FB: They're awful good to each other.

FB: Belonged to their church.

FB: But I think they think/ they're the only ones, well, a lot of churches do that. They're the only ones that are saved, I would say, because it doesn't matter what you do, it's alright you ain't goin' where they are anyway. They kind of give yoy that impression, although .there's lots of nice, we got friends that are in the faith people. And if we go to church with 'em they stop and take us every time we'd go, but I didn't see the use. But they're good people and they're good to each other. If their own members

SS: If they're sick or something.

SS: Did you go to the Adventist meetings?

FB: Oh yes, when I was a kid we went. Yes.

SS: Were they pretty emotional?

FB: Yes. What they used to have meetings around up at the schoolhouse, you know. Us kids used to go. But I can remember one old lady done guite a lot of preachin'. One of the first ones here and they didn't have an established minister. And she always expected, I can remember that since I was a kid, she expected the end of the world was comin' when they moved here, you know.

(End of side C)

FB: My mother settin' in a wheel chair and i said Mrs. Shields passed away and my mother said,"Now she got out of the world just the same as the rest of us will." After she had preached, that was 60 years later, I imagine.

SS: That we were all going to be gathered up in the clouds was just the idea of the world ending.

FB: Yes. They preached it all the time that the last days are here. I don't know what they preach now, because there's not many Advents left. They've all passed away or moved away. There's only a family or two and they've got pretty worldly. They're not so narrow minded as they used to be.

SS: When they were against...

FB: Oh, they thought that they was the end of the world, that we were gonna be gathered up in the clouds. That woman thought it and preached it.

SS: Did they ever set a time?

FB: Oh, there's been lots of times set. My mother said one time back before they moved out here they sold their things and sat and waited for the end of the world to come. And that was an Advent settlement. S0 she was familiar with this end of the world here when this old lady preached it. Yes, she thought that. That the end of the world was comin'.

SS: Do they not eat meat?

FB: Oh yeah, they don't each much meat. Piga they don't eat pork. These don't eat much, these were mostly vegetarians that lived around here, although they did eat beef and chicken. But pork, you can't eat pork, nor clams or what with a shell on 'em. For some. I've read what that reason was, but I forgotten.

SS: Did they work on their farms much.

FB: Good workers, but not on Saturday. If they wanted to borrow something, they come Sunday morning, you know. That always made me mad. If they wanted to borrow somethin' they come Sunday morning. But if you^ePt them entirely alone on Saturday, that was their worshipping day.

SS: You were worshipping on Sunday.

FB: But we worshipped Sunday, we kiept Sunday, but we were keepin' the wrong day, it didn't amount. That's one thing theywas pretty snotty about.Is, you didn't keep your day, why, I can remember one time we was pickin' peas when t his Byron Sheflin's wife was pickin' peas and the boss come and said,"We got a rush order for Sunday if some of you want to work, you can work Saturday and Sunday. I don't remember or not, but I can remember Verna to a bunch of us that rode in- the same car with her, said,"Well, you just as well work, you're keepin' the wrong day anyway." So we'll wait and see. She's still livin' up the creek and I'm livin' here. We'll see someday who's kept the wrong day. Or if we both kept the right one. Yeah,she said,"You just as well work, you're keepin' the wrong day anyway."

FB: Catholics are kinda like that too.

FB: If you don't do what they believe, you know.

DB: When I was in training we used to get orders to work on Sunday so the Catholic girls could go to Mass. And so, they got to callin' us the 'heathens' that had to work on Sunday.

SS: Was that in Portland?

FB: In training school. They would go to Mass, so they Could get off. We didn't have any excuse, so ue had to go to work.

SS: Did the, what was the denomination of the local church?

FB: It was just the community church. And the end of it, there was two men. One was a Nazerene. And one went to the Christian church and they got to quarrelin' so they each wanted to fix up the church and put their money in. And so they just kinda broke up altogether. I don't know how it did come out. That was Willis and Ed Gray. Eddie Gray. No, Art Ross used to say,"I'm a Moscow Nazarene, Ed'a a Palouse Nazarene."

SS: What's the difference?

FB: Well, shouldn't have been any. Shouldn't have been any, but he used to say it that way. Because Ed Gray kind of bossed the Nazaren put his money in the Nazarene church in Palouse, but he's finally moved close to Moscow too. He felt out over there.

SS: When you were going to the community church,did it lean towards one denomination?

FB: Well, I think Christian church. This has always been a Christian church, I think. Course, when my folks come, they come from Scotland. They're all Presbyterians, pure and simple. And I don't know what they, I can remember our dad bringing us to church every Sunday, do you, and Sunday School? But I never knew just sort of religious people, that's all, but I'mssure this is always Christian church. It's kind a like, I always say Billy Graham's a good talkee and he alaays can't wait to get to heaven, but when he gets sick he gets the very best physcian around. He ain't so anxious when it comes right down.He's just like the rest of us. He's going to live as long as he can.

SS: Do you think the Adventists in their revivals were emotional?

FB: Oh, almost. Almost.

SS: They're pretty set in their ways. Got some good speakers too.

SS: Did they get a lot of converts here?

FB: When they come up our way, our home is three miles up the creek and between here and Viola there was a settlement, the Advents bought all the land and they had a school, Advent school up there fcn the hill at one time. Boarding school even and school and so the converts and some come from far away. But there were lots of families who were Advents, moved in here. And they were supposed to have, they were going to make breakfast food. But that never materialized. So they moved away, one by one.

SS: That's why they moved away.

FB: No work heee.

SS: You said that they wanted to buy you place. Did a lot of people sell their places to them?

FB: Oh yes.

SS: And moved away?

FB: Uh huh.

SS: So it really changed the composition of the neighborhood.

FB: Oh yes. When the Advents were here, why, there was an awful lot of Advents around. That was sort of a settlement, but as time went on, they went away and other people come, well there's lots more people here than there was in them days, you know. I could walk to Viola and only pass three or four houses. And now there's a trailer house or a house every little bit.

SS: You say settlement; were they more clustered together?

FB: Well they're around in the hills I'd say, all...

SS: They didn't have 160 acres?

FB: No. Some of the bigger that had money.buy, bought, and then they'd sell a little place and build a house.

SS: Do you know what part of the country they came from?

FB: I really don't. I think down at College Place, maybe Walla Walla a lot of em Dome from. You know, College Place is an Advent town. But there's only the Sheflin family about all I can think of that's Advents now. I said we was here before 'em and we outlived most of 'em.

SS: Did they mix very much...

FB: Oh, it seemed like at first they didn't much. But as time went on I guess they found out we wasn't any worse than they was.

SS: Must have changed the family if quite a few sold out and left.

FB: Quite a few it did. And the Advent school, you know, there's one old lady, Mrs. Baden always come around before school starts."And if any of your children will go to school,I'11 pay tuition." She would give that order, I can remember She's come to my house.

SS: She' pay their tuition...

FB: If they would go to the Advent school to make it a few more. When they begin to get a little scarce. She was an old lady and she is a good Advent and she owned land and had a little money and she'd always say,"If anybody wants to come to our school, I'll pay their tuition." And I don't know if she got very many victims or not. But I suppose she got a few.

SS: Do you know what the instruction was like at the school?

FB: No, they're just good, only they taught Bible at school. They were alright and I guess had good, I think their credentials probably were alright because, there's some of 'em been pretty smart kids, all them Sheflin kids have. You know 3im Sheflin that'sead of Music down at WSU, do you know him? He was raised here.

SS: I know who he is.

FB: And his dad went to school with my daughter at Viola, later. See the school kind of faded away up there after they didn't have, well a lot of, like a lot of other private..schools, I guess the money, too few people to make enough money to hire the teachers and things. Because Howard went to Viola a year or two, but they also went up to Spangle a lot. And that's an Advent school up there. And I don't know how Howard, but I think it was because his dad wasn't very well and he had to help with the chores and do that. I think that's why. Because him and Shirley always were tight together. They always nip and tuck, they...

SS: Did many of the people leave the community church to go to the Adventist?

FB: No. It seems that the Advents, everybody knew about 'em before they come. They used to go to meetings, to, us kids did, and I suppose some of the older, but not many...

SS: Everybody knew they were coming?

FB: Well, knew what their religion was, that the end of the world was here.

SS: I imagine a lot of people ccu.ldn't accept that.

FB: They couldn't hardly accept that. But that's like the Nazarenes, no, what was that man always used to visit us?

SS: Was that jehovah's?

FB: Yeah We used to be pestered with them when we lived up the creek. Travelling around every summer, this old fellow. They. the end of the world was coming.

SS: There was quite a few.

SS: Was that many years ago?

FB: No» That's not been 10, 15 years ago. He said,"You want to be prepared, because it's gonna be right away',' and I said we, the second coming of Christ, that's what they always preached, the 3ehovah Witness. And I said, we been looking for 2000 years and I don't think you or I either one will*see Him. I don't know what he thought of that,, but he didn't think I was very smart sayin' it. But i didn't care.

SS: Would the Adventists talk to the people?

FB: Oh yes.

SS: Persuade?

FB: Right. When they first come here, but nobody listened to em, so they kinda quit. But they have a good school over at Moscow. They still have Advent school. You know, towards Troy, don't ya, you probably know where it is. And as and out about where you live, there's quiee a few Advents. That LeRoy Carlson and all his relatives, that's...

SS: Where they here when you were young?

FB: No. I was probably about 14 or 15 when they begin to come in here. And I don't know if they'd been over at Troy before or if that's just a branch of the ones that come here. I really don't know. But they seem to, quite a lot of 'em had quite a little money. The Abaden's and the Sheflin's and the Schultz'a. And they bought the land and then as more came in, they'd sell off a little bit. My dad sold 10 acres to them people and they built a house and they let it go back, finally. There was a few mills and things that they worked at when they first come here and then as the mills... SSJ That they owned?

FB: No, but they could find work and harvest in the summer. I mean, harvest in the fall. 3ut as time went on, then they found something better, I guess.

SS: Most of 'em were pretty poor.

FB: Well, just ordinary. Few of 'em had a little money, but not a lot.

SS: But most of the people around here had farms.

FB: Yes, own land, but I cbn't know, everything was so cheap. You just barely made a livin'. You had to have a cow and pigs and chickens in order to live, and that's about the way everybody done. Some were a little bigger farmers, little more land.

SS: Did your family, when you and your sisters were wording, was it your money, or did it go to help your family?

FB: I think it was all ours, wasn't it?

FB: I think so. We used it to buy booWs.

FB: I can remember the girls going, if they went with the cookhouse that fall, I can remember them splurging to go to school, get new coats and clothes. I wasn't quite big enough to have any money then, so I can remember that.

SS: Was it important in your family to go to school?

FB: Oh yes, I think our father wanted us to go.

FB: Yes. I think so.

FB: We could. Our oldest sister got married when she was 17. He always felt bad about that. She hadn't got as much schooling as she should have.

SS: Are there any boys in your family?

FB: Our only brother was killed right up there were we lived when he was 17.

SS: Logging accident?

FB: No. My dad and he fell a tree on him. A big limb just come and... I was 3 months old. And Oennie can remember, can't ya? A little. Yeah, that was a terrible time. Only boy they had. I guess they had a baby boy back east that didn't live, but that was the only, and my dad always needed a boy so bad with all the girls, but, that's what happened. But he had been someplace to school the winter...

FB: Spokane to a trade school.

FB: Some friends took him and he went to school. Yeah, that was a ...

SS: Did you hear how it happened?

FB: Oh no, we didn't know just how it happened, only what our dad told us.

FB: They were up on the hill, the girls...

FB: Tried to get out of the way and a big limb hit him.

SS: Did any of the girls help in the field?

FB: Oh, I rode horseback all my life and herded cows, yeah.

SS: Did you do farmuork for him too?

FB: No. I don't think I ever...

FB: Well, we didn't have too much farmwork.

FB: But the neighbors done. We didn't run plow and do things like that that some of the girls did, you know. Work in the field and in the hay, but I don't think we ever did.

SS: Is that 'cause he didn't want you to?

FB: Oh, I think my dad didn't believe in the girls, he thought that was men's work, I believe.

SS: Mother helped him work.

FB: Yeah.

SS: She helped in the fields?

FB: Oh, when they burned brush. He'd clean off some land every year and they'd burn brush and I think that's about all she done. And then ue got to having strawberries and everybody worka in the strawberries. We...

SS: Was there a lot of tending to do?

FB: Oh yes, you, I don't remember hoeing, but ue picked strawberries. That was about a month. But I don't know. We helped set out the strawberry plants, but I don't remember hoein' much. Us girls didn't.

FB: We picked

FB: Yeah, ue picked lots of strawberries.

SS: When you grew up, what kind of ambition did you have about what you wanted to do?

FB: Oh I doh't know, hard to tell.

FB: I always thought I was gonna be a school teacher first. I never got there.

SS: Isn't being a nurse as good?

FB: Oh yeah, that's good as a schoolteacher.

SS: Maybe harder work.

3BSt Yes.

SS: What were the ideals that girls had then?

FB: I don't know. 3ust 'bout like they do now. Grow up, I guess and get married, or I don*t know any different than any other. They, I guess they go to school and go to beauty shop a little better than they did then. I think we all thought we'd get to be schoolteachers. I believe that's probably aboutAnougnt we'd do.

SS: I heard that schoolteachers couldn't teach onee they got married.

FB: I guess they did too, get married and quit about a half, all my friends did at least.

FB: All but Dode. She kept on.

FB: She kept teachin', didn't she? Uh huh.

SS: Did you want to be a farm wife?

FB: Well, I really don't kpow. I really can't remember that I, I suppose I wanted a little, you was always ambitious to have a litte more money and a little better than you was. I guess you just expected to get that some way or other. You didn't want to go to Hollywood and be a movie star? I don't think so.

No, I don't think that was much in the picture.

No, I Gfcn't anybody...

We didn't know enough about it to be interested in.

No, I don't think so.

Where did you meat your husband?

Oh probably went with his mother to the cookhouse, helped her at the cook house, after I got acquainted with him. That's probably the start of that. Oh his family just farmed around. And you get acquainted around at parties or dances or somethin'. And that's 'bout the way. Oust how kids get acquainted now.

SS: I don't know if its quite the same.

FB: This only grandson that I've got, he grew up in this house here, well, when the war was over, a boy across the street brought a woman and a little girl home with him, he'd found her someplace, that was his stepdaughter. Well Charles and her went to school all their life together, on the bus here in Viola. He never seen her atall, but after he come home from the war, why, couldn't see anybody but Marilyn, wasn't that funny? They lived across the street for 3,10 years. Oust that happened, just couldn't see anybody but Marilyn.£He had grown up and he had grown a little older. But it was kind of funny. I used to baby sit for him and her when Shirley and Vernon and Sonny and Clale would go someplace. Well they never paid, and he'd be settin' studyin' and sfcc'd be, she was just a little girl, you know.It's funny, we never thought about them. They've got a nice home and live up the creek and he's plant superintendent in Potlatch.

SS: How old were you whBn you got married?

FB: 19.

SS: Was that about the age that a lot of people were getting married?

FB: I think kinda. Idon't know. They're supposed to be married older now but I can see a lot of them just 18,19,20.

SS: Do you think that makeati any difference?

FB: No.

SS: Whether you waited a long time?

FB: No, Id?RiSk it does. And Ithink, Idon't know, they've all had so many divorces and things now, its just a trend. They'll get over that someday too.

SS: When you were growing up,,what was the attitude to divorce?

FB: They didn't have divorees sor.many.When you got married, you got ahad one, you stayed 'and worked it out. But then, later than now, like now, Ithink its about as bad as it'll get. It'll get the other way, go the other way. They're just everybody's, everybody's almost that you see. When we lived up home here in the last ten years I babysat around for, oh, I didn't have anything to do, I could go. Well, pretnear everyplace I babysat, well they either had a stepdad or a stepmother. And I said to them Hall kids, I said everybody you know has got a stepmother or a stepdad. Vpust no full families.

SS: Is that 10 years ago?

FB: Yeah, that's right now...

SS: Its got a lot worse than that.

FB: Well, it has got worse,that was the begining. Yes, just everybody now, pretnear. The younger ones.

SS: Looking back, do you think it was a good idea when the people had to stay together?

FB: Oh I don't know whether it was any worse, but it's now. I can see why they do now. The girls are just as independent as the men and get^work and if you got alittle money you don't have to stay with him. You can just get out and qq that's the, that's why it's happenin' so bad now, 'cause the girls are working. They get just as big money as the men. They don't have to be. I think they'll get over that, I believe. I don't know, but I think maybe they will.

SS: In those days did it seem to you like a lot of marriages were unhappy?

FB: I don't think so. They all worked hard and raised their kids and I guess thaUs...

SS: But if you had to stay together and you didn't want to, or did you want to stay together because you had to?

FB: Oh, I don't think everybody wanted a divorce like they do. That's the first thing they think about nowadays if they quarrel or something, why they just leave. That's all. They can seem to do that. Did you see the mail come? Leta'll be looking for me probably.(Pause on tape.)

SS: How close people would watch their money in those days. Do you think it was very close?

FB: Oh indeed. My sister, that one in Spokane said,"The dollars come so easy now adays," and said,"I just feel bad the dollars were so hard to make." Oh yes. But there was other things, they worked and raised garden and things. They didn't depend so much on the dollars. You couldn't live without money now. They lived. Maybe with very litte.money. Had plenty to eat, all you bought was coffee and sugar and some people didn't use that. The flour was cheap and raised 'most everything you ate. Never thought about needin' money every minute. Oh that was different, I know that. A little money went a long ways them days. Well you bought a lot more with your little bit of money that you had. Was another thing.

SS: Do you know of many families where the men had drinking problems in those days?

FB: Yes. I know a few.

SS: I had the idea that that was quite a problem back then.

FB: Well I don't think it was quite as bad as it is now. I don't believe it was quite as bad as it is now. But there were more men, more people, I don't know maybe it was just the same.

FB: I don't know whether it's worse now or...

FB: I don't either. I don't know whether you'd say its worse now or..

SS: It would usually be the man with the drinking problems, not the wife?

FB: Oh yes, yeah. Idon't know, in my lifetime, Idon't know any women Idon't think that had adrinking problem and they say they're so many now. ^don't know about 'om, but Iknow one or two that do have, but you'd never know it.

SS: What would she do when hefhusband started drinking up all the money?

FB: Oh well, lot's of times they went out and worked or something like that. Separated Probably. But Idon't know if they were any worse then or now. They say'there's awful lot of drinking now, but of oourse, I'm not around to know about it. I don't know about it. So.

SS: When you got married, could make do on very little? Did you have much when you got married?

FB: Oh, Idon't know. Iguess_ue had ateam and aeow and afew chickens, Iguess, probably started out^Uko'everybody else then. Around here Iguess in town they done alittle differently, Idon't know. But about everybody Iknew was about in the same boat, I d say.

SS: Did you have your own farm at the time?

FB: No, we rented afarm at first and then he rented my dad's plaoe in later years, and that's the way it was. And we had alittle plaoe of our own later^.

SS: when the depression hit here, was the 30's worse than the 20's?

FB: Nan, we didn't...

BB: Ican't remember the depression at all, seems-like we had just as much...

FB: Ue had just as much as we ^ any other time, the way we lived. People who work and lost their jobs, that was different, we lived on aranch and raised things, Ididn't think it was any different than any other time. Ican remember when they say in '93, that's the year Iwas born, that was the bad depression when alot of people lost their land and the land banks got everything, well my dad said that was about the best year he had because there was so much spoilec grain that they just bring it for alittle wood. And he could feed his cattle and he said that was about as good ayear asr.he'd had. 3o it worked both ways.

SS: Did he lose his grain that year?

FB: Well he didn't have much. He only made wood and had cattle to feed. And the farmers needed wood to, because they had wood burnin' stoves, and he said he could get alitte, he couid get lots of grain that was spoiled alittle but was good enough for cattle feed. And they had to have wood and they just traded for everything.Wood. So it wasn't any worse, that's the year Ithink he said he built the house. Or got the lumber to build it.

SS: That's pretty good.

FB: But alot of people went broke on their farms, had to begin all over again.

SS: Some people said to me that right after WWI, and the early 20's were roughv for them on the farms because the prices were low. Do you remember it as being hard?

FB: The big farmers, I think...

FB: Ithink probably the big farmers, but now they complain .they don't get enough and Ican remember the last oats that we sold, last few years, if we got $Z5 aton for oats and now its ^108 Isee the price on television, and still they complain. But, we farmed with horses, didn't take so much to farm, them days. So I don't know.

SS: Were you making enough money.

FB: To live?

SS: To save.

FB: No. We never saved. Then you done good to buy what you needed Ithink. Oh, ue bought acar, Tin Lou, when the new cars come out. Iguess by hook and crook it's just like it is now. They just, some people tiad alittle money and some people spent it all and some people was in debt. Idon't see much difference.

SS: Seems like there's a lot more money now.

FB: Ain't there? Why there is. They talk about the good old days, and I can see good, good things then. We didn't have so much money but we had other things. But...

SS: Like what other things?

FB: Well, we were more...

(End of side D)

FB: Alot of 'em don't, well country people sure don't and Idon't know what they do in town. Idon't think they do in town because they don't know their neighbcrs. Ican see that people that Iknow don't even know their, maybe I'll know 'ern^ut here from comin' to club or meetin' 'em someplace, they don't know uhAheir next door neighbors are. And it was more sociable, those days, about that way. But as for havin' money there's more money, these kids get money than the men did, used to. And are not happ, unless they do get it.

SS: when did you first start working out after yeu «M M»£d?

FB: Oh Inever help, maybe help aweman in the house^or somethin', Inever worked for a long time then, til my kids was bigger.

SS: Did you find it was full time work just to keep the home?

FB: Sure, well, my mother was old at that time and we lived next door so then as time went on, she got in awheelchair, ao Iwas pretty busy for quite a few years.

SS: You were caring for her?

FB: Well, helpin'. Dad was

FB: 'Bout 8 years.

FB: She was 8years in awheelchair. So Ibeen busy all my life, doing'aome. - thing, sometimes didn't amount to much.

SS: Did you live in the aame house?

FB: No. No.

SS: You took care of bath houses.

FB: Yes and I wasn't very good housekeeper to boot.

SS: You weren't?

FB: So Ieaid its kind of hard tc keep two houses when you ain't avery good house keeper in the first place. But oh yes, we washed for her and we done alot.

SS: Was there alot of work that you had to do in ahouse then that yeu don't have to do anymore?

FB: No, everything.

FB: It wasn't as easy...

FB: Well, we didn't have things as handy as Ihave in later years. But then, you always had to cook and wash and keep your kids clean and send 'em to school. Idon't see abit of difference what the women do now as what they did then. Only most of 'em have automatic washers and afew things. But there's probably other things they do that we didn't have to do then. Idon't [hnou.

SS: It seems like they've got a lot of free time...

FB: Now.

3S: Then they had.

FB: Oh indeed.

FB: Now you socmuch as put up already, almost to put on the table.

FB: But its just like one sister saidVyou can stay busy if you want to, doin' nothin'. And some people can get alot done in that same time. But they think they're just as buoy. It seems like it works out that way. Idon't know why.

SS: Why was your mother in the wheelchair?

FB: Oh she just got old and...

FB: She fell and hurt...

FB: She said,"I had one hip that never was any good and it just give out." Idon't think she h. dastroke or anything, and just sort of enjoyed bein' waited on. Isaid she had had ^mbition that my dad had, she wouldn't have stayed in the wheelchair, but she did. And he lived te be, lacked amonth ef being 99 years old and only abeut three months that he was just alittle bit over the hill. He was pretty smart. Ialways said when he was 85 and we were puttin' up hay or Iwas helpin' Isaid him and Imade as good aman as the other men who were workin'.(chuckles) Him and I together.

SS: But he uas still working at 85.

FB: Oh yes. He was apretty good man at 85. Had bees. Him and Iused to extract probably 400 lbs. of honey ayear. That was in, when they couldn't get sugar they'd just beat apath to our door. We didn't have abit of trouble selling our honey.(laughs)

SS: When was it they couldn't get it?

FB: Don't vou remember when sugar was rationed?

SS: WWII? or WWI?

FB: Well now, I just can't remember, but all of a sudden, then when it come on, why it wasn't so much sale for honey.But just the other day I paid a dollar and a half for . a little glass of honey probably wouldn't be a pint would it? Probably s'posed to be a pint. I said we sold buckets and buckets for a dollar and a quarter, half gallon. Tin buckets we put it up in. But that's the difference. There wasn't no money then, but things didn't cost so much. If you had a little money you'd get about as much as you would now with all the money that's in circulation. I can't hardly believe it but seems to be the way of the world.

SS: So they call the depression...

FB: That was before that. ..had to be before that.

SS: Probably WWI.

FB: Must of been the tail end of WWI.

SS: I think there was rationing then. When that depression came, you really didnt feel it?

FB: I don't think we did, I don't believe we did.

SS: Things were about the same.

FB: Yeah.

SS: But then the price of crops was down.

FB: Down, but we were getting more because I can remember my dad, when we'd sell a veal and got so much, I don't know, I suppose we used to sell *em for 315. Then when we sell a veal, get 35 or 340, he thought that was wonderful. But he didn't realize on the other tail end, we was paying quite a little more for Groceries that we'd. , but that was wonderful to get so much more for a veal. So, I don't know, it worked both ways.

SS: As renting land, were you interested in buying?

FB: Oh, that was just, we had a little place next to our dad's and he just farmed 'em all. That was after my dad got, oh, too old to, and we milk cows and we done lots of things.

SS: Was that uncommon...

FB: No.

SS: For someone to be 85 like your father...

FB: Oh, well, he sort of outlived a lot of the neighbors, but then we had lots of old neighbors too. We had lots of old neighbors.

SS: Seems like they didn't get cancer then like they do now.

FB: That was the first. The neighbor down the way, that's the first cancer I remembered and ther.men used to go set up with old Man Lynch, you remember? But now, just every other person got a cancer pretnear. Women and men both.

SS: You mentioned that one of the Cummerford boys shot and killed himself. Why? Do you remember?

F8: member? How'd I happen to tell that?

SS: You mentioned to Laura and I'd heard something about it before.

FB: Well that was in the Potlatch store. And he worked in the men's department. He married a Brown girl, do you remember?

FB: Who was that?

FB: jack Cummerford. And he shot himself in the shoe store. And I guess that was over his wife, but I can't remember. Yes, she fall in love with his brother;, wasn't that, married his brother after that, I do-'believe. I believe that's the way of it. Been' so long ago. But i can remember. When they went to work in the morning, there he had struggled around, there was blood all over that Potlatch shoe store. I can remember him telling that. Yeah, that was 3ack Cummerford. I don't think they any kids, I'm sure. But I believe it was the brother or brother-in-law that she...

SS: Did you ever hear of Psychianna Robinson?

FB: Oh indeed. I poked envelopes full of papers there two or three years.

53: You worked for him.

FB: Never saw him. He was quite a man, wasn't it? Doc Robinson.

SS: A noted figure.

FB: Indeed. Wheee have, oh you've just heard from different...

SS: I've heard from all over.

FB: Well, that was funny. We used to get somebody moved away from here and wrote back and said did we ever hear of Doc, papers, other places, you know, had big write-ups about him, but nothing ever here in the Moscow paper. Yeah...

SS: They wrote and asked if you ever heard of him?

FB: His fame had spread far away but not, course everybody right in Moscow .new who he was and all that, but didn't pay any attention to him. Like they did from, at other places.

SS: Do you know what the women who worked for him thought of him? F8S Oh, it was just a good job and the mail, that was puttin' up mail. Kept probably oh, ten of us. Stuffing papers. They must have bought...

FB: Was he a real doctor?

FB: Oh yeah, I don't know. He was sort of...

SS: He was a religious leader.

FB: Yeah. And he had a lot of pall, people, I can remember the bosses where we worked would say some people come in there and say they wanted to see him so bad. Course, he was never around where we were. But they said that if they could just touch, just look at him or touch him, they could be cured. He had that much power over some people.

SS: Was it hard for them to see him?

FB: I don't think he ever was around much in Moscow. I don't know if you could see him or not. I really don't. No.

SS: So that was another job the people around here could get.

FB: Well a lot of people worked there, different, oh yes, he had big crews sometimes, wasn't very much improved when I worked.He was fadin' out. But one summer, maybe two summers I worked there. And...

SS: That was when you were off pea picking?

FB: Yeah, that was later. But I think that was going on. Quite a lot got pretty much during pea picking time too, 'cause some cf the gals who had picked peas worked there. I don't, it didn't go on all the same time but I think kind of the stuffin' the envelopes come along just as the pea picking was sort of slackin' off. I believe that was the way of it.

SS: Was the socializing in those days more like just two families getting together, or more neighbors?

FB: Oh, neighbors. We ;:used to have parties and dances. Yes. Lots . more than now adays.

SS: Where would they be?

FB: Oh over this dance hall up here. I don't suppose they could head a dance in them days, but we all went.

SS: Dance hall?

FB: Yeah, right up there on the hill.

SS: Was it outside of town?

FB: Right here in the city of Uiola, but everybody come from miles around. Christmas and holidays and maybe once a monthethey'd have a dance up there.

SS: Private owned?

FB: Somebody owned a, but somebody would run the dance, have an orchestra. Hire the hall for all winter or somethin'. Yes, they don't have any dances like that around in the country anymore. I think they do at the pool halls, maybe, when they drink and dance. I don't know anything about that. And at the Moose and Elk's they still dance, but we don't have any country dances like ue used to. There's none around anyplace. I don't know just why. Kids nowadays don't kids, dances. But..

SS: Was there much visiting back and forth among families?

FB: Oh yes everybody knew everybody else and visited. A lot more than they do now. They would scare you if you see^a family coming to get dinner ^ Sunday. And always expected to do that. I think, wouldn't it? Scare everybody if they seen a family come to get Sunday dinner. You always went home with somebody or had company after church and Sunday School. But that's all the socializing and all week they worked. Now the kids go to, school kidsc.all of 'em got a car, they go to town every night. Something. Yeah. dance. I mean the high school kida, and I guess other people do, but no country

SS: Would people of all ages come to these dances?

FB: Yeah, big and little. They didn't have babysitters. Sometimes there'd be a whole lot of babies or tittle kids settin' around. Yeah, whole families come.

SS: Would there be food there?

FB: Oh yes, always dinner at midnight. Sandwiches and things. Coffee.

SS: People would bring them in?

FB: Oh no, usually the man that was runnin' the dance, you had to buy your supper. He'd have somebody preparing it. Yeah, that:'s really gone.

SS: When they danced, would you dance with a lot of different people?

FB: Sure. They finally got then, in later years you danced with just the two couples that you come with, or maybe your own. But we danced with everybody. Everybody knew everybody else. Yep. That sure got funny after while. They're gettin' back to ballroom dancing now. You see it on television. But the kids, they don't know nothin' about dancin', they hop around like...That's right.

SS: You have a club like the quilting club now. Was there anything like that in those days?

FB: Well now, during WWI, they met around at the houses here and they knit and they made stockin's for the men and went on. oretty soon they had...

SS: Was that Ladies Aid or was that local?

FB: That was, they always called it club here. I don't think church, although church women come too. In town it was always Ladies Aid? But out here they knit and did things for that and then it just went on and on. This is about the oldest club in the county I think.

SS: Its the same club?

FB: Oh yeah. Went on, I mean the old ones die off and the young ones come on. Same club. Used to be an extension club from the university or the county, you know. But we don't have her come out anymore, because nobody, there's gettin' a few young ones now, but it got to be mostly us old ones and we'd had all that dressmakin* and cookin' and what have ya and we didn't want that any more, so we just pay our dues anymore, so dropped

SS: The extension club, that began after WWI?

FB: Urn hm.

SS: Was the begining of the club WWI, or before?

FB: I would imagine even before first world war. And then got a little better durin' the war. And then its just always went on and on and met at the house; first and then up .j^the old schoolhouse when they didn't have school there. After the county was consolidated. And then it went on and on til they built the little house up there and now we're gonna wear it out, I guess, this JTie next bunch will, probably.Yeah. Always been somethin' doing there every Thursday for many many years.

SS: So you think it never stopped after WWI.

FB: No, it never stopped, but at one time it was, like they still have extension clubs around, you know, where this OoAnne Anderson, she was out here the other day demonstratin' the crockpots cookin' for the 4-H girls, but the 4-H girls had to go to school so the other old ladies had to come. She had a dozen old ladies. I didn't go, but a lot of 'em did. And she would come again, you know, she was always lookin' for somethin' to do, which is alright. She's doing her job, but we don't need her. We have had...

SS: Was it useful in its day, extension club?

FB: I don't think that it ever was, but that's one man's opinion. I think you talk to other women you would think it was alright. She gets good wages and she puts in her time, but I can tell you here just how it works out to me now. Maybe these young ones who want to learn things, but you know, they learn so much in the books they don't need her. She's, I think that's surplus money that's spent. But that's just my opinion. But ue went to a dinner at the Moose, you know, the Moose is now givin' free dinners to old people. Well I didn't go free, I pay for my dinner and I've only been twice. But one day that I was there, she talked. And she was doing, she was paid to do this speech after dinner and I'll bet she spent an hour and a half telling all old people like me, half of 'em was asleep before she got done and I just couldn't hardly set there, I wanted to get up and go, tellin' us how to buy and what to buy. Well we've done that 'fore she was born, til it's just boring. Now if you know what it was.

SS: I believe you.

FB: Well that's just exactly what it was. Wasn't nobody interested at all, with her.'speech, but she was doin' what she was supposed to do and doin' a good job tellin' us what kind of cheese to buy a little bit cheaper than the other. Well heck, us old ladies,if we want some cheese we know enough what kind of cheese to buy.

SS: What about when they had the club here, what was the purpose then, 40 or50 years ago?

FB: Well, she come and they used to have dress making and they had, oh we've taught a few ceramics up there. And just different things that the club tries to keep at the university to, there's been lots of different women that have been extension agents.

SS: Do you think it was good for the people back then?

FB: Oh maybe. I don't think it was, i think we knew just...

SS: You knew the skills.

FB: I think we Ijnew,somebody in our group was good seamstresses, better, probably than she ever was. She just doin' her job all them years.

SS: When did you first have anything to do with that club?

FB: Oh I use to go once in awhile when my kids little. That's 60 years ago when they met around the houses. And then...

SS: WWI.

FB: Urn hum. And then probably before WWI. And then I just went, Illl tell ya, I haven4.t been a steady member for, when I picked peas I used to go to the dinners and stop onco in awhile when I had a day that happened to meet. But here since Oennie moved up here, we went pretty regular in the last 20 years, ain't we?

FB: Yeah, I have.

FB: Twenty. Well and I went when I wasn't workin'.

SS: What did the club do besides making clothes during the war?

FB: Well, they sewed, they always had some kind of project. We've got a glass cutter up there and we've had, mostly its sociable. We quilt and but they used to sew, they got a sewin' machine, they must've sewed. Well, they done dress makin' awhile.

SS: How long has the quilting been going on?

SS: And they covered chairs awhile, haven't you?

FB: Upholstering. We've had a class in all different things that they do. now for these younger ones at the university. But we've outgroued it. Nobody, well if they learnt to do it, they don't need to be taught always, they can do it. But...

SS: You used to teach it at the club?

FB: That extension woman would come out when she had a class and so everybody knows how to do it. Or anybody that's interested.

SS: How long had there been quilting there, ever since you can remember?

FB: They've been quiltin' for, they quilted when you first started, didn't they, in '50; And more or less all this time. They done other few...

SS: Think they did it back in the thirties too?

FB: I don't know when they did start,

SS: I know you can't pin it down.

FB: I guess there were considerable clubs started...

FB: No, I don't think they,Hid maklyquilts too,but they didn't quilt at the club house, I don't believe. I don't know how long that's been. Probably 30 years though.

SS: Was that the only club around? Was there another?

FB: Oh Royal Neighbors in town. Oh that's just lodge. That's just a lodge. Royal Neighbors. And there was Royal Neighbors in Grange and Eastern Star, all them in town.

SS: Viola?

FB: No, Moscow. No, we don't have any grange out here, but a lot of people belong to the grange from out here. So. But...But the quiltin' seemed to settle down and everybody needed a quilt fixed, so that's been gain' pretty strong for, I guess pretnear ever since we built this. Woman wanted to know the other day how long this and I have to ask somebody else. I don't know how long we've had that clubhouse.I remember...

SS: It was before I came up.

FB: That was before, sometimes early 40's I guess. One woman, theykind of tried to collect a little money, we used to give dinners and things for the benefit of the club, you know. One woman wouldn't donate any money. She said the club house shouldn't have put it there, it was gonna slide off into the creek. Well she slid into the next world years ago and the clubhouse still settin'.

SS: So you only called it the club?

FB: Uiola Community Club. We got a, we can-.write checks with a viola Community Club and they accept them.

SS: It seems nice that you have something that's lasted so long.

FB: Well you be surprised how many women come out, somebody will invite somebody from the university, why they just rave about it. They think this is the most sociable place they ever, and the nicest people. Uiola didn't always have such a good name, but(laughs)it's living the bad name down. Some of these old people will always have to bring in how many saloons Uiola used to have, but they've all died, they've passed into the nejft world, too. All these people that used to...

SS: I've heard people talk about how tough Uiola was intthe early days. Is there truth to that?

FB: I don't know as if it was any tough, they drank. I suppose rode horses and done a feu things that people used to do in the early days. I don't think it was any worse than any other little town. I think it was all the same. I don't think it ever was any worse.

SS: I've heard that too.

FB: Sure you do. Anybody.

FB: Well it seems like when there was a'pool hall here, that's call you ever heard about. You didn't hear about...

FB: It got pretty bad here some years when certain people had the tavern up here. They get to, you know, it wasn't Uiola people, it was people from other places, but they'd come and they'd fight and give Uiola kind of a bad name. But then that ain't what you heard. I think what you've heard years ago when...

SS: Early days. That people around Uiola were mean and tough.

FB: I don't think we hung one man, did we?(laughs) One man from Uiola, but I don't think he was raised here. Was he?

FB: Who?

FB: Horse thief, don't you remember? Somebody got hung, down at Walla Walla, but he had lived at Uiola. But he wasn't hung. Are you talking about Hill at Colfax? Who's told you that tale? It's in history. Yeah, well that's who I'm thinkin' about. Hill? Uh huh. Was it Ed Hill? I think, I wouldn't know, but I believe so. I believe so. But you know. That would been Budls brother or uncle. Anyway, Hill has been head of this club for ages, wouldn't want her to even, she knoos it, of course, but wouldn't even want to breath it to any of the new people. But I think it would have beBn...(tape leaves off momentarily)

SS: Whether he was really guilty or not.

FB: Hill. I think stealing horses, I guess, he probably was.

SS: A bit extreme.

FB: Urn hm.

SS: To hang someone for doing that.

FB: Yeah, but I guess they ..did that years ago when they get, probably hung some innocentsones too, but, yes we know ell that Hill, both families and its funny now, Eunice's son farms on this side of the mountain, and the other Hill boy from the other family farms and they broke land clear up, we always laughed, the Hills had met up on top of that mountain. They've broke out the, but they're good friends, these grand, they'd be second, third generation, you know, but they're farmin' the land that the other Hills...

SS: I want to know about school consolidation. What affect that had here. I heard it wasn't too good for the town.

FB: Well it wasn't good for the community. It sure did break up the community if you didn't of course, and now it wouldn't make any difference although might hear news from my grandkids, but that sure broke up the community. We didn't have no card parties nor PTA meetings or anything where people got together. The kids went off to school and among strangers and it sure did break up the community. And you know they preached to us that that would be cheaper, to have buses than to keep up so many schools. But ue found out it wasn't.Got more expensive and more expensive. I think taxes around this town are half school taxes. Anybody will tell you that. And maybe more than half right now. Course, we got so old, we don't know too much about taxes.

SS: Did people here oppose it when it first came out?

FB: At first they did, but then we had good speakers come out and it kind of got so it carried, so they got 'em consolidated and everybody went to town. But I think I've heard since, oh, maybe they think they get better schoolin', I don't know. But we had smart enough kids when we had country schools.

SS: Do you think that the community revolved around schools?

FB: Well it did, sort of. The school and we always had church up here. Well, then when kids all went to school they .got to go to Sunday School in, got to go on to Sunday School in town and that's the way. We didn't have any school or church. So there was nothin' to keep the community together. And that's just the way we ended up now. We don't have.

SS: But the club.

FB: We've got the club and that's a good thing, because a lot of these women wouldn't see anybody from year to year. They just go to town and get their groceries and maybe certain people they would visit. But there would be no community to hear the town gossip or news. Wot all gossip. This ain't a very bad J^ to gossip. It's like that woman says,"We don't repeat gossip twice. If you want to listen first,jjclose the first time."(laughs) You hear that on television? She always says that. A bunch of women settin' around tellin' they don't gossip so you better, or we don't repeat gossip, so you better listen the first time, its around. And that*s the way it is up here. We don't. People don't talk bad about each other. I don't think. I don't know. I don't believe they do.

SS: In the early days was their much gossip?

FB: Oh I don't think so. They never had time to gossip. Never seen each other often enough. Did they? No, I don't think its as bad as it tis in town, or some other places. I don't believe it is. So.

SS: Does the club hove the some regulars...

(End of side E)

FB: And the next school district, or they've bought little pieces of land. There's a nice mobile home and some have got a little piece of land that hafebought houses. Well a lot of them women are startin* to come because they, well they feel like they're in the community, and I guess we've invited 'em and so there's quite a few, a lot of, several professors'wives that live up there and so one by one they come and maybe they won't come anymore and another one will get started. There's a few locals that just sort of, regular.

SS: So there's a group of regulars, about.dozen?

FB: Yeah, 'bout a dozen regulars. Yeah. I'd say, about that many. But its kind of good to have a few new ones, why some of us old ones will drop off some day and they'll be somebody to, I guess it will just go on and on til the clubhouse falls in, I don't know.

SS: I would hope so.

FB: Yeah. Yes, its kind of nice to have it. And anybody's welcome, they don't...

SS: Do they visit it much outside of the club, with the people in the club?

FB: Not a lot. We don't have any way to gefe out and visit, you know, anymore.

SS: They'd have to come visit you.

FB: Yeah. They come and visit us, bet I don't think we would anyway. We didn't when we bad, runnin1 a car to town onee in awhile. We was out Sunday for dinner, she come and got us. That's cor old neighbor up the creek. But I know people...

SS: You're not running around working?

FB: No, I don't work no more.

53: I wouldn't be surprised if you did.

FB: Weil this woman down here, I packed her papers. She fell and broke her ankle or sprained it. I've took her paper to her'W a month or two. But she ain't as old as I am. But she just takes her pills and wonders what, ailment she's gonna develop.

SS: Did you ever work in people's houses?

FB: Yes. Took care of a lot of people.

SS: Was this later years?

FB: Yes, later years, not too long ago I have. Oennie's been up here. She come up here in '47.From Walla Walla. And I've worked several places in that time when she was up home. She'd hold down the fort and I worked. Oh yeah, I could work yet if I would. I mean, I've good chances, I could take care of people. Probably younger than myself, but they need something done.

SS: It seems that the feeling people have about work has changed.

FB: People used to think it was kind of a disgrace to work, is that what you mean, and now they're tickled to death to have a job? Get so much money. Yeah.

SS: I don't know where that idea came from. Seems like for women mostly.

FB: I know it, but they got liberated. They don't want to set at home. They want to get out. That's what's the trouble now, these young ones that work...

OB: They want of this big money.

FB: They want the money and they get too independent, that's what oauses alot of the divorces. I can see that among the kids around.

SS: But it seems that people like work less than they used to. Seems like people don't like their work.

FB: Well they like the money. No, there's some darn pear workers, but they like the money. So...

SS: Do you think that in your day people liked...

FB: Enjoyed your work more I believe, oh some people do now. Some people enjoy workin'. But some don't, but I expect it was always that way, probably. Probably always that way.(pause in tape) I'm thinking of PT, what was the workin'? IWW's was a long time ago, I wasn't very big from that, but...I Won't Work.

SS: The strikers.

FB: Yes. And they went along the railroad tracks and bummed food. That's about all I can, I'm thinking of the PTA, no, what is it...

SS: Did the PTA start here in the 30s.

FB: No, that's teachers. No, what I'm thinking of...

SS: You're thinking about work?

FB: Work. About the time, the CC boys and the yeah, I can remember all that.

SS: Were they around here?

FB: Yes, I was married and had a family, but this gal of mine, she jusad to go to dances around and get acquainted with the boys come out. Yeah, at that time. But the others than... Were they thought much of? Oh some of'em was. Edna married one, that' s how he got out here. Who married one? Oh a Rothfort girl. He first come out here. Chuck. Mabel's daughter? I think so. Did people here gee on public works program? Yes a lot of 'em did. They had jobs. I didn't know anybody really that did. I don't, I think maybe we had a little road work. I think maybe my husband hauled grovel on the road. I believe that was, what you say, WPA?

SS: Yes.

FB: Yes, I can't Rink just what it means, but that's what it was...

SS: Works Progress.

FB: Yeah. Well anyway I remember, but I just remember the initials of the IW, we always said I Won't Work, but that wasn't.. No, I don't think, they were not...

SS: What about the government surplus food, did you get any of that here?

FB: Some people did. Surplus foods. Not much, but I believe some, a few families aid. Oh yeah, we had the co-op mill. Wasn't that surplus.

SS: Co-op what?

FB: Mill. Up in the woods. Somebody run it and they, yeah, 3ohn worked at that. And you got lumber. You had to take it out in script. You could get lumber at the mill or, that's how you got paid. You didn't get cash. But I don't think we had that too long around here, but I remember that.

SS: Was that nonprofit?

FB: I think so. And they had garden and canned stuff and sold it. I don't know how that got started. I don't seem to know too much about it. But that was during my time and we had it around here. And^the co-op mill. And I remember they made, yes they did, at Lula's house. We canned fruit, didn't we? Yep.

SS: Was that depression or before?

FB: I don't know anymore depression then I ever...(laughs)

SS: I heard around Qovill some people were almost starving to death.

FB: Well I think they did where they depended on a certain thing for jobs, you know, and it shut down and there was nothing else to live on. But it didn't make much difference to us when you lived on a farm, you just milked another cow and sold a little cream and things like that. That's why we didn't know about, but I know town people did. I've heard people talk about it. Well you know how it would be living in town now if you didn't have money to buy groceries, you'd go out, you wouldn't eat, because there's, there's no free stuff around.

SS: A place like Bovill...

FB: Well I suppose they wood-is or whatever it was. (pause in tape)

He said,"You want to get your parents long lived. Long livered, so you could toll who your parents were gonna be." He said,"That's the secret of your long life."

SS: Were your parents both long lived?

FB: Well, our mother died at 92.

SS: And your father at 99.

FB: livered Scotch, Iguess, (pause in tape) They were religious people, here and there. Idon't know what they preach anymore than about to the end of the world, don't they think that?

SS: Yes, they think they're gonna be gathered uP in the clouds too.

FB: Ikind of believe they do. They say they're Bible students.

SS: But they're against wearing slacks.

FB: They don't wear slacks or much jewelry and you get your hair done uP in alittle wai on top of your head. You can tell them amile away.

SS: Does Marilyn have her hair like that?

FB: Yes, urn hm. She does and don't wear slacks. She used to wear pretty slacks^ but she don't any more. Nobody sayr-i the reason. Idon't know. Iguess when you join the church you get into that. You learn alittle more of their methods. Of doing.

SS: Do you remember this Linus fellow?

FB: Oh 1oan't really.fhey always said he converted all the widows. Iean at least remember this. This is gossip. They said it wasn't the religion, it was the minister that converted so many, alot of thesg^idews joined and they were when he was here.

SS: Two by Twos.

FB: Yes. That's what Mrs.Boyles always called 'em. She didn't call 'em Linusites or faith people even. She called 'em Two by Twos.

(End of tape)

0:00 - Picking peas in Moscow; women work at the universities

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Segment Synopsis: "Picking peas" in Moscow. Today women work at the universities. Packing fruit at packing plants. Five minutes off every hour for picking peas. The work at home on weekends was harder than the peas, but had the advantage of being different. For many the work was extra; now women have to work because they need more. Women could draw unemployment in the summer.

17:00 - Worked as a nurse at Coos Bay; trained in Portland; worked as a nurse in the army

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Segment Synopsis: Starting to nurse at Coos Bay after helping sister with baby. Training at St. Vincent's in Portland. Days off on the coast; working special cases at people's homes. Enlisting in the army in 1917 - working as the shipyard nurse. Forming a hospital unit. Barracks hospitals and field hospitals.

30:00 - Hospitals in France; flu epidemic; disability from back injury; injured German prisoners

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Segment Synopsis: Operations in the field hospitals in France. Deadly flu epidemic. Reaction to death. She no longer enjoyed nursing when she returned to America. Permanent disability from back injjury - veteran's pension. Giving hypodermics in the field. Field conditions. Boys' fear of going overseas. Injured German prisoners.

48:00 - War; World War I; building weapons

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Segment Synopsis: A neighbor who said that a lot of boy babies means war. General belief that WWI would be the last. Foolishness of building weapons and fighting war.

51:00 - Amputation; orders to retreat ignored; sick men dying; Armistice at Monte Carlo and the Alps

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Segment Synopsis: Decisions to amputate. Orders to retreat were ignored because of injjured. A sick man who offered her money to save him died anyway. Any woman looked good to the boys. Problems with clothes. A vacation when Armistice was declared at Monte Carlo and the Alps. Limited social life. Everyone worked hard.

60:00 - Cookhouse work

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Segment Synopsis: Cookhouse work for threshing crew. Feeding travelling men. Food for the threshing crews. Good pay. The cookhouse. Flies. Relaxation in rainy spells.

67:00 - No eating in France; sons angry

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Segment Synopsis: Lack of opportunity to eat at times in France. Sons anger at being told how to care for his horses in war.

69:00 - Threshing; meeting opposite sex; new cookhouse

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Segment Synopsis: Excitement of threshing; it was tiring. Chance to meet opposite sex and have company during threshing. Moving the cookhouse. Ample room for cooking - no one knew any different.

73:00 - Mother moved to Viola; father cut timber

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Segment Synopsis: Mother moved to Viola with girls during winter for school, living in the hotel. Father cut timber in winter on their place three miles east of Viola - line between timber and prairie.

76:00 - Moved to Viola from Iowa and Kansas; preferred timber; strawberries growing

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Segment Synopsis: Parents ' coming to Viola after living in Iowa and Kansas. Mother's mixed feelings about their place. Father wondered if he made mistake by not farming near Walla Walla; but he preferred timber after living on prairie. Strawberry growing in hills.

81:00 - Sisters go to school in Moscow; playing cards; mother visits Moscow

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Segment Synopsis: Sisters lived in Moscow together to attend school. Father told sisters to let young Fanny win at cards because she complained. Visits from mother in Moscow; weekends back home.

88:00 - Camp meetings near Viola; adventists; end of the world

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Segment Synopsis: Camp meetings in summer near Viola. "Faith" people were called Linusites. Adventists and the end of the world, (continued)

90:00 - Adventist beliefs

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Segment Synopsis: Adventist beliefs - borrowing from cithers on Sunday, since they were keeping the wrong Sabbath, Fight between a Christian and a Nazarene caused end of community church at Viola. Getting to heaven. Adventist community moved in and some sold out to them; after a time they mixed with local people. Decline of Adventist school as people moved out; a woman offered to pay tuitionof local children who would keep up enrollment. Adventist didn't make many local converts. Adventists came about 1905. A few Adventists who had money bought land and sold parcels to those who came; many worked in sawmills.

105:00 - Brother dies; sisters' work

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Segment Synopsis: Sisters kept money they made for clothes and school. Only brother died while felling tree with father; he needed a son to help with farm. The girls didn't do field work; Fannie rode horseback tending cattle, and harvested strawberries.

108:00 - Grandson gets married; increase in divorce

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Segment Synopsis: Girls had ambition to make a little money. Grandson married a girl he'd hardly noticed although he'd known her. Trend toward divorce in recent years may have peaked; working girls have freedom to leave.

115:00 - Money troubles; drinking problems; 1930 depression; 1893 depression

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Segment Synopsis: People watched money carefully, and needed to use little. Drinking a problem then. Husband rented land; they farmed father's place. Depression of thirties made no difference in their well-being. 1893 depression didn't hurt bigger farmers. They couldn't save money; small difference between saving and being in debt. No money but much sociability, (continued)

120:00 - Housework; selling honey; World War I; increase of cancer; Jack Cummerford shot in Potlatch store; Psychianna

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Segment Synopsis: Fannie seldom worked out as children were growing. Fannie cared for mother and her house for eight years. Housework - some get a lot done, others little. She and father (at 85) made " a good man" at work. Selling honey during rationing of World War I. Increase of cancer. Jack Cummerford shot himself in Potlatch store. She worked for Psychiana for several years; he was famous outiside of the area. People came into the office begging to see him, believing that his touch would cure.

132:00 - Monthly dances in Viola; Sunday church

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Segment Synopsis: Dances monthly and on holidays at the hall in Viola brought people from miles around. People always had company after Sunday church. People danced with everyone, not just one couple.

135:00 - Viola Community Club; club activities

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Segment Synopsis: Viola Community Club, the oldest in the county. It started before the First World War, knitted for the boys during war. It met in homes, then school, then clubhouse. It was an extension club for a time. No use for extension agent - senior citizens were recently forced to sit through a boring lecture on buying cheap food. Club activities through the years. Famed sociability of the club.

145:00 - Viola's bad name; fight at tavern; local boy hung

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Segment Synopsis: Viola's bad name from the early days, rekindled by outriders fighting at tavern. A local boy hung.

148:00 - Consolidation broke up community; Sunday school in Moscow; town gossip

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Segment Synopsis: Consolidation broke up the community - no more PTA or card parties. They preached it would be cheaper but it wasn't. Kids started to go to Sunday school in Moscow too. Importance of club to local people - little gossiping. In town gossip is worse.

150:00 - Membership at the club; work for women

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Segment Synopsis: Membership at club. She worked to take care of others in recent years. Work for women was viewed as a disgrace; now they're anxious to work. CCC's and public work. Co-op mill during depression.

159:00 - Faith people; town gossip

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Segment Synopsis: Faith people. Gossip had it that the reverend converted many widows.

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