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Latah County Oral History Collection

Remembering Latah County and Idaho Life at the turn of the 20th century

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Date: November 26, 1974 Interviewer: Sam Schrager

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ABE GOFF: I think we of the most imporart cases historically that's been decided in the courts here in Moscow was the case of Day versus Stenger. Now this is acase that most people have forgotten about. It involved the property lines on the properties on the east side of Main Street. Now Day then lived in his big house- big, wooden house-up in the east part of Moscow on the hill. And his neighbor was fine enough man by the name of Stanger. Now the, got into adispute about the boundary line. An in order to settle it Day brought an action against Sfnger to establish hi. boundary line. Now it developed in the trial of the case that when Moscow was first surveyed the main township line down Main Street, supposedly north and south. But it developed later that it wasn't on atrue north and south; it was alittle bit off. And of course all the property lines and for the additions for the east side of Moscow were drawn at right angle, to the center line down in Street.

Well, of course if it was alittle bit off it would gradually, the further you got east the rate of the divergence would be from the true ninety degree angle from what was north and south. Well, the between Da, and Stonger was the result of that. And the case was tried out in the district court before Judge Steele without jury because there was little diput the facts. Now Mr. Orin was the attourne, for Stager and Iwas then practicing with him although had not yet become partners. I worked hard on the case with him and he tried the case. I helped collect some of the evidence and as it resolved down from many old settlers' testimony the location of the old fences, the property lines, there were still some of the old wooden fences between property out here on the east side of Moscow. And of course there was adivergent from the tme line, what would be the true right angles from the north and south line. Well, the case was tried out and Judge Steele decided that the accurate survey must govern, that the lines when properly dram-the true north and south line-that that was the true line that had bemn established, all the desc iptions were based on that. And that that would have to govern what the true line would be. But of course naturally it would make aconsiderable confusion out with these people that for fifty years had built their, oh fenees and sidewalks and everything based upon the original line as then laid out on the original survey. Well Mr. Oin took the case or we took the case though It was his case but Ihad worked on it. He took it to the supreme court but the supreme court held that when these old lines had been established by the earliest pioneers, when they built their houses, built their fences, built their sidewalks on what was the recognized line, that these lines had been recognized for more than fifty And years, that the court would not disturb them.^that the lines that had been accepted by everybody from the very beginning would have to govern. And so that's the reason that there's some confusion about the lines here. But there's no question where the old lines were that surveyors folded those out. It does make some difference the further you east but it would have made tremendous confusion if they'd followed the technically accurate line. And the court said," No, when you build awhole side of town and people have recognized it all these years, that's the line that governs and that can be easily followed by an engineer. Now, the engineers didn't like it very well cases. But the fact remains that that's the reason that we've had some differences out in the east part of town.

SAM SCHRAGER: Which side of the case was the side that you were representing?

AC: Oh, I was representing Stanger. Stanger held to the old lines, the accepted lines. And Day sought to establish the technically afurate lines. And so of course there was no particular hard feeling about it. It was established and the case was returned and that's the way we stand.

SAM: Did you argue, incidentally.that the ramifications of changing. . .?

AG: Oh everything, we argued. Oh, everything was argued. That was a very carefully tried case. And there's a tremendous record up in the courthouse now, it'll be found op there of, oh anumber of witnesses from the earlier days. must remember that back in the twenties most of the early settlers or a large part of 'em were still alive and could come and testify about where they built their lines and fence, and so on. And it was avery interesting case. It's a long case but that why we have had this difference about property lines. Now, net you asked me to say something about prohibition Well, of course, Iwas concerned as prosecuting attourney only with the prosecutions under the state prohibition law. There was a federal prohibition act and astate prohibition act. The offenses under the state prohibition act were direct against the mnnufacture ,the sale, or the possession of intoxicating liquor. Now we quite a few moonshiner, out in the back woods in the area of Troy and Bovill and out there. Of course the Potlatch Lumber Company would not willingly permit anybody to establbh an, stills their forest lands, but there were lots of little property owners and of course the usual way that it was handled wasfrte moonshiner would bring hi, liquor to someone who would convey it to the town and the town, they'd convey it to to the bootlegger. And then the bootlegger would either bottle it or sell it b, the jug to the ultimate consumer. And of course we had quite afew cases. Most of the tills were located as I remember in Clearwater County and down along the Snake River up above Lewiston where there was wild country. We had a few cases for manufacture here. The usual defense was that though it was on the fellah's property that he didn't know it was there, that somebody else must have had the still.And when they found cracked corn up at his place he said that was for the purpose of ffeedin his chickens. And of course often though he'd forgot and added sugar. And he couldn't explain why there was sugar in it or why it was wet sometime.

The runner, ordinarily had nothing to do with the manufacture. They operated by automobile, they'd come into atown a-d deliver it to somebody who was the real bootlegger, that sold it to the often refected citizen who got it. We teted alot of cases around for sale, of liquor aSund the dances and.where the lumberjacks were. A lot of these cases were sale, to informers who went out and made the buy under the eyes of the sheriff who was watching. And we didn't have so many cases for the manufacture of liquor here, but there were quite alot of 'em for the sale of liquor. We had quite alot of wine made over in the Potlatch area. There was a group of Italians lived there, mostly pretty good people. But they had made wine. They used wine all their lives.They couldn't see anything wrong with makin. wine and making alittle money by selling it to Native American citizens.There was alaw in addition that provided that when aman was more than twice-if he'd been convicted twice-the third time he could be charged with being a persistent violator of the state prohibition act. And that was apenitentiary offcense. And we, as I remember there was only onetaan that we convicted of berg apersisted violator of all the time. Usually they got out of the business before they had achance of going to the penitentiary. But jail sentences were handed out pretty regularly for the bootlegging. And seldom was, anere purchaser was charged with possession, very seldom was he given a jail sentence. Given a substantial fine for having liquor in his possession. I can remember one of the interesting cases that arose about a man that had bought some liquor. He was charged with liquor in his posessiiH? before he was arrested for the possesion of the liquor and while they were busy with arresting the bootlegger he drank the liquor. And he was charged with the possession of liquor. But the court rightly held that when he swallowed the liquor it became part of his body and we didn't have any evidence. Now I think that's all I'll say about the prohibition cases. Of course it was repealed. The difficulty was that gradually drinking became the accepted thing in society. I know it reached the stage when I was prosecutimg attorney that when I'd be invited out to a dinner, I didn't drink and never took any illegal liquor. But I would simply notify the hostess that I would be half or three-quarters of an hour late. And it was well unde istood that no liquor could be served in my presence and I would just arrive after the other to , because it be a common thhg to serve liquor. But I can say that it was never in my presence because it was against the law and I couldn't understand prosecutin some poor lumberjack for taking a drink and then lettin people get away-substantial citizens-get away with it. So I just preferred to have nothing to do with it. Did you want to ask some questions about the prohibition?

SAM: Yes, there's one question that I was curious about and that you broached a little bit when we were first talking. And that was about the way that the prosecution handled the prohibition cases in general. You told me that you had the a lot of set argument that you gave to Jury.

AG: Oh, yes. I will say that. First, that in Latah County and I'm quite sure we had the best record for the enforcement of the prohibition laws of any UP county in the state. You can understand that around Wallace and Kellogg and down at Lewiston the ordinary citizen, a lot of em at least, regarded it as an infringement his rights and there was nothin morally wrong about it. But here in Latah County we were quite successful because of the locatiodof the university. And at that time was the only state institution. And in trying these cases, in to the jury, and in my questions to the jury. In my opening statement I always pointed out that here in Latah County we had aresponsibility to the citizens of Idaho, the fathers and mothers who sent their sons and daughters here to the university. We had a special responsibility that I hoped that they, not to convict an innocent man, but to keep that in mind, whatever Air views were about the prohibition law. Thr we owe to the fathers and mothers throughout the state to keep this county free of liquor and away from their sons and daughters? And it was vwry effective. They took it much more seriously than did the jurors in many other counties. In fact, I don't know whether I mentioned this but, up in Wallace and Kellogg speakeasies were in operation. In fact under the federal pmlibition law they inelctod the mayor of Wallace, the county commissioners, the sheriff and most of tb* county officials for aconspiracy to violate the national prohibition act because they condoned all this. Now is there anything further?

SAM: Was there a usual length of sentence, like for a first offense?

AG: Well, here in this county if the fellah was commercially engaged in selling or manufacturing nearly always got ajail sentence. Judge Deatrich, who was the federal district judge here, he always gave the commercial violator ajail sentence. In fact the congestion got so bad back in New York City that they transferred Judge Deatirch back there to help get rid of the backlog. And they said of of these violators were brought in to be sentenced hed faint away. They'd never had such a thing because in many of the cities they were just given a fine which would amount to a good sized license fee and went right on again. But here and particularly in this county, I don't know about Judge Deatrich in other comities, but if they were in the commercial business of selling or manufacturing liquor they got a jail sentence and a good jail sentence.

SAM: Was Pat Malone involved in many of these cases?

AG: No, not so many was up there with the lumberjacks. He had to get along with em. He was quite popular and well-liked, a lolly old Irishman. Oh, sure he had a lot of smaller cases but we were not so concerned about the individual lumberjacks, sure if he was picked up he'd get a fine if he had some liquor in his possession. We were concerned with the bootlegger that was disposing of it. And it was a pretty tough case'cause poor old Pat, every body knew him so well, if he was anywhere in the offing they never had any liquor around. But we had little trouble with any place where they had a speakeasy. There wasn't any such thing much in Bovill. Oh, once or twice there was some liquor disposed of around some restaurant or somethin in there, and as much as around, oh some fellah that operated a place for sigars and dance halls and things of that kind. But it wasn't a severe case up there, and old Pat was the trail but we didn't have any really big cases that he was involved in. Avery interesting old Irishman Who that I always look back with fondness as I do to Strom, was the marshall down at Troy. Now he had quit, a few offenses down at Troy.

There was always a Saturday night dance down there and there was always a little liguor disposed of. Strom was a fine, honorable, town marshall. Did a fine job, a lot of things besides just bein town marshall. He had to look after the water works and collecting the water bills. And Strom was afine man and I look back with pfeasure to him and also to the constable over at Potlatch. Now the constable was an Englishman by the name of Harry L. M. Sleve . Now he was appointed constable and townsite superintendent by the Potlatch Lumber Company because you see they had to have somebody in charge of the blldings in the town and the town buildings there because you see Potlatch was built entirely by the Potlatch Lumber Company to house their workers. Are various buildings. There was agymnasium and atheter and so on. They were all built, the Potlatch Lumber Company . The store at that time was run by asubsidiary of the Potlatch Lumber Company. And in that store, for instance, afellah could draw checks in advance, slips on his pay if he ran out of mwey before the end of the month and this script could be either cashed at the bank or given to the Potlatch Mercantile good for his family if he'd run out of money. Then it was chared agin him'when his paycheck came in at the end of the month. Well, now Cleave had charge of all these houses and seeing that they were kept repaired. He didn't do the carpenter work himself but he was the general superintendent of this whole establishment owned by the Potlatch. Now true, once in awhile he became involved in some case but he was too busyvith his other work. And I'll tell you Harry L.M. Gleave, now since deceased, was one of the finest citizens we had here in Latah County. He did an excellent and efficient job a. the townsite superintendent. But he was also aconstable besides being the townsite superintendent. And he was responsible for, as constable, for maintaining order in the community. But Potlatch itself was avery law abiding community. You see, the major mill was located there. The town was well run under constable and superintendent Oeave's direction and supervision. Now there was alittle town of Onawa, up next to it; but that wasn't owned by the Potlatch and there was considerably more difficulty and trouble about selling liquor an various crimes, not serious ones, out in Onaway whlwas!i't under the supervision of Cleave. He had nothing to do with that. That was up to the sheriff.

SAM: In other words, during the period of prohibition Ptolatch was really, for being a lumber town was really quite a clean and. . .

AG: Quite a clean town. They had a pool hall there. But it was very. . . Everything was clean. The company insisted on it. Now individual lumberjack out in the woods was a different situation because a 1arge part of them were single men. But in Potlatch most of the mill workes married men who rented homes there from the Potlatch. It was a very substantial community. There was a bank there that, stock was owned by the Potlatch Lumber Company. And we had little difficulty about Potlatch ftisslf.

SAM: There's one more question I think I have about prohibition, and that is the way the cases were broken and the offenders were brought in. Did you as prosecuting attourney have much involvement with that part of the business or were you invoked only after the caae was broken? And how were cases broken generally? Were they broken by informers or were they broken by the sheriff's office or that just general?

AG: Well, generally I'd say that I had little to do with the actual apprehension of bootleggers and so on. My job was prosecution and Iwent out, ray trips out through the county were usually involved more serious offenses because I had left word with the sheriff when there was any serious offense apparent to call me at once when he heard of it and take me along with him. So that if, you know, it was amanslaughter case, a bad assault case or a robbery, a burglary or anything of this kind, I was there with him on the ground where I could talk to the witnesses, where if he'd made an arrest I could talk to the accused. And it was a great help. If I do say, I had a very good record for convictions because I was there right on the scene, right afterwards with the sheriff and we quickly made up our mind whether the man was guilty and next whether we had acase against him. Now, to the apprehension of these fellahs that were bootleggers, yes, there were some informers hired occasionally. Somebody that' the stranger, maybe somebody from another part of the county wouldn't be well-known, would try to make "buys" as wedcall it. And they'd try to make the buy where the sheriff would be watching and then if, you know, in a small county like this if somebody was in the liquor business locally the word got around and it'd to the sheriff's office. And remember that there were plenty of good, 6 would sound citizens strongly in favor of the prohibition act who tip the sheriff off if there was word around that a fellah was manufacturing liquor. Andusually the sheriff, if there were reports of manufacture he'd quietly slip out in the area, perhaps locate the still back in the woods if nobody was there, conceal himself, and when the fellah'd to tend still he'd be picked up. But the runner, that cane in from outside, the, were aidom caught because they were strangeB who would run acar in here. They'd be in touch with somebody locally who wanted the liquor. They'd meet someplace outside of town and it'd always be at night. They'd meet at some corner at acertain time. Andfhe next time it'd be changed to some other time. And it was pretty difficult to locate and apprehend them. course when some lumberjack bought abottle and got drunk and was picked up and had an easy thing to charge him and convict him. And they'd usually plead guilty and usually not be given avery severe fine if we were onvinaed that he had nothing to do with the financial gain in the thing.

SAM: When this law was repealed were you as prosecuting attourney sort of glad to see it go and not have to deal with these kind, of cases.

AG: Well, yes, I would say I was. I can't remember when I went out a prosecuting attourney. I think I went out in 1934 and it was over with by then. But of course, oh I certainly was glad to get at some of these fellahs that were selling rotten liquor that would blind people and so on. Beside, it wa. the law and It was for aworthy purpose and it was on the books and it was my job to enforce it and I did. the very best I could.

SAM: Okay, I'd like to ask you about acase that you mentioned just when we stopped last time and that was involving the Galloway brothers.

AG: Well, that case, I wish I could look over the file and refresh my memory but the Galloway brother, ran cattle down on the other side of Kendrick. Some of their cattle were stolen. I can't even remember the name of the defendant. And there weee several circumstances that made them think that he was guilty of it. And I don't remember the details, but anyway the, filed acomplaint; we h*i this»n arrested. He was brought in here. He wa. charged with the offense, I don't remember whether he insisted on having apreliminary hearing before the probate judge who was then magistrate. I really don't Member 'cause he had aright to just waive that anl he was bound over to the district court. I filed information against for grand larcny for stealing the cattle. And I don't remember all the detail, in connection with the case or just how much evidence they had against him. But when the case came up for trial, that is the court term was coming up, I made up my mind that we didn't have asufficient case to convict him. And I thought it would be abad thing to bring him in here and if we once jury and he was acquitted he was gone for good. He couldn't be prosecuted again. Then I'm remembering now what evidence we had very strong, I presented amotion to district Judge Steele to dismiss the case. Now the dismissal had no affect on affther prosecution. And upon the ground that I didn't consider the evidence was sufficient to sustain a conviction.

Well, the judge on ray motion dismissed the case. And the Galloway boys were certainly pretty hot about it. I couldn't blame em. I was convinced of the fellah's guilt but I just thoJht we didn't have the case and we hadn't had enough tirae to run it I down as fully as I thought we should. So I dismissed the case andlthey were very much dissatisfied with it. And I had a lot of criticism from people down there for doing it. But I did what I thought was the best thing. Well, time went on and we worked on the case further, and the sheriff worked on the case. And I oppatuned, I said to the Galloway boys,"Now look, I think the fellah's guilty too. Now you try to get me some more evidence and the sheriff work on it. And let's get in touch with foe sheriff down at Clearwater County," because it was on the border of Clearwater County. Now I don't remember the details, it's been so long ago. But I do remember that we finally built up quite a case. The next tiling was that this fellah the we let go and the case had been dismissed, went up to Spokane. And lo and behold I read in the paper that he had been convicted of chicken stealing over there, someplace out of Spokane.

Well, now theft of chickens had been made a felony by the Washington statute. It was a felony, a penitentiary offense to steal chickens, they'd had so much troubled up there. So along before the next terra of court came up I had got Galloway doing, the original arrest but after the case had been dismissed in running it down we found that Carl JocKfeK had bought some cattle from the fellah that we accused and fortunately he had retained the hides. and told about aday or after the alleged that the defendant came to him and he bought the cattle and paid him for em, and one or two of the hides had the Galloways brand on it. And we had the hides her, we to identify identified the accused as being the man that he purchased the Galloway cattle from. In addition to that, and we had some other evidence, other original evidence theyd had about his being jf the presence and down in the area with his horses and so on, some of the original evidence we had of Galloway. The defendant took the stand in his own gefense. And that's just what I'd been waiting for. So when he took the stand and after he'd testified that he'd had nothing to do it and that Carl was mistaken, it wasn't him. And that he'd had nothing to do with it. It was amistaken identity. That he'd had nothing to do with the case. And that Carl was certainly mistaken and he had fitness or two to show that he was someplace else at the time, an alibi that he couldn't have possibly been there. And why, he then.after his examination, his witnesstover and he'd given his testimony, then it was time for cross-examination.And of course then I simply said to him, "Have you ever been convicted of a felony?" And he didn't want to answer. I insisted that he answer. And the judge ssid,"Yes, that's a proper question. It's ameans to test his credibility because under the law a conviction of a felony is an Impeachment of aman's integrity and it's a proper way to impeach his testimony." So the accused said,"Yes, I was." And I said,"Where was that/" And he said,"In Spokane, Washington." And I said, of course I could ask leading questions, I had the certified copy from Spokane of the judgement of conviction^ th. superior curt there and of the science given to him. And reading from that I asked him all these various questions which he admitted. And then following that I submitted the judgement of the Superior Court of Spokane Cunty of his conviction of grand larceny. That was the very thing ttet we'd charged him with here. We didn't know what it was, it was grand larceny, it was the conviction. Well, we had built up astrong case, particulary with Carl testimony. And then this was the clincher. And the judge, in compliance with my request instructed the jury that one of the way. to impeach the credibility of a witness either was by proof of contrary statements made at some other time or proof that he had been convicted of a felony. They had a right to consider that in going .ut to consider the story and the credibility of the defendant and the accused. The jury convicted him in a hurry and he was sentenced to the penitentiary. But always had a great respect for the Galloway boys and I don't blame em for being angry at me but just the same I think we would have lost that first case. And particularly that conviction of grand larceny later in Spokane was the clincher that did the business with the Jury.

SAM: It seems like very careful judgement on your part.

AG: Oh, I don't know about that.

SAM: Ondthhg I'd like to ask you about, and I was thinking about when you talked about the U. S. District Court meeting in Moscow. It occurred to me that that meant that the Indian cases»uld be tried in the district court there too. Is that correct?

AG: That's right. the Indian cases from the reservation were all tried here. And of course there was tried a lot of federal cases for selling liquor to Indians. And of course occasionally there was some serious crime committed or accused was an Indian, and against an Indian and it was an offense on the reservation so those cases were tried here. We always had a few Indian cases every term of court.

SAM: Were there any that were particularly outstanding?

AG: No, I'll tell you I don't really think there was oh, I'm sure there were some murders and so on like th.t-but I was busy with my county prosecute and of course I was practicing law this time also because you see my salary was only fifteen hundred dollars a year prosecuting attourney. But I carefully avoided toy cases in which there could possibly be any conflict of interest. And cases were all between individual citizens and no connection with the county, and I had nothing to do with a case where the county could possibly be involved.

SAM: Were you ever involved in a murder or manslaughter case?

AG: Oh, I was involved in several manslaughter case. I'm not sure about murder cases. I was involved in a number of manslaughter cases. I don't remember any nnirder cases. I defended manslaughter case, and assault with a deadly weapon cases them and defended them after I got out because I did do some criminal work. But I didn't get into much criminal work unless it was s«e very important case or I had some sympathy for the accused and I knew his fanily and I was personally convinced of his innocence. I tried some fairly important cases that way. And I did alot of work in trying automobile accident cases, bank cases, insurance cases, railroad cases. I was attourney here for the Union Pacific, for the Great Northern and I tried cases both or and against the Northern Pacific Railway. I wouldn't take an appointment, they wanted me to be their local attorney-the Northern Pacific-but I didn't want to do it. I tried one case against the Northern Pacific for the death of a twelve y.ar old boy out on the Northern Padfic Railway on the railway that goes out fward the cemetery out there. That case I tfeught in the federal district court because it involved the Northern Pacific Railway which was not an Idaho corporation, it was a diversity of citizenship. I won that case, and I won it in a peculiar way. It was admitted that the train was going about twenty-five miles an hour at the time it this youth, a very moderate But I dug up an old city ordinance passed in 1904 that provided that no train should go faster than twelve miles an hour within the city limits of Moscow. And the federal district judge, when we got all the facts in and in our case,and I had submitted my properly authenticated copy of the ordinance of the city of Moscow through the city clerk. And it was still full force ani effect and since I'd shown that was within the city limits, that the train admitted that was going twenty or twenty-five miles an hour—there was nobody lived out that way but it was still in the city limits. The court held that that negligence perse and it was up to the jury to determine what the amount, the verdict for the parents. And we got a handssne recovery. The Northern Pacific then appealed the case to the circuit court of appeals. But i went to argue that San Francisco, the railroad finally settled it in a satisfactory way and we cut down our verdict some. The case was orfeinally bcought to me by Bill Fowler who was also practicing here but he hadn't been trying many casesj a. fine fellow. And he broughAthe case to me but I tried the case. But Fowler was a very fine fellow who later gave up the practice of law and left. . . Well, he lived here for some time and then was a reserve officer, got in the. . .He was called to duty with the Civilian Conservation Corps, 0h a year ar so later and stayed in the service and served all through World War II and then later died before he was released from the army after World War II. But he did become a colonel in the amy.

SAM: Did you do work for Potlatch Lumber Company?

AG: Oh, I tried cases agaiift em and for em. I tried more than one very important case against thsrn. I examined a lot of abstracts for them. I had worked for the Potlatch when I was in college and Mr. Laird, who was in charge of the whole operation here tarly in my practice there, buy he brought alt of abstracts me to be examined. It was very helpful to me in my early days. They were very to me. After I left I was instrumental in a case brought against Charles. was then the constable there. Gleave had and for firing a gas pistol at a fellah what was being arrested for disorderly conduct and it damaged his eye. We won that case in a state court but it was turned appeal by the state supreme curt after I was in Africa, twelve thus and mile away.

SAM: When you worked on abstracts far them, were these the purchases of timbe.lond and...

AG: Lots of timber was land owned that had been homesteaded out here that they were buying this land. And in those days there were no title companies operating here and there was an individual abstract made up for each piece of land. And it was examined determine whether the title was clear before they purchased it. Now, y'see we have title insurance that the company checks the title, in the record, and then they in.ure the purchaser against any loss by reason of the title. But we didn't have those then. And that examination of abstracts is all a thing of the past; that's done by the abstract companies themselves.

SAM: What about the story that you mentioned about the way that the mill came to Potlatch instead of to Moscow. There was controversy about that?

AG: I'll tell you, it's too bad to go into to it. It was before my time. Very briefly and there are books that tell about this, and there are some interresting book, that tell about Very briefly, it was this: the Potlatch Company bought up the mill at Colfax. Earlier somebody bought up the mill down at Palouae. There was amill operating at Colfax because the south Palouse was heavy with timber in the early days, clear down to Colfax. They used to run logs down to Colfax. Then they ran down to Palouse. The Potlatch got those mills and then they wanted to build a mill for the great mass of timber between Palouse—and that was heavy timber—between that and the Montana line. BH1 Deary was sent out by the Potlatch Lumber Company, a main corporation that had been operating in Michigan and Wisconsin that cut that commercial timber off there then to move out feere, that it acquired large tracks of land here. They sent Deary out here to select a site for the mill. He came over to Moscow, Moscow Mountain was then heavily timbered; that was about 1909 or 1908. Moscow interests of course wanted the mill to be located here. They were going to build a logging railroad that Washington, Idaho, and Montana railroad. They from here. But Deary came out to Took things over. He looked over a possible site on Cumerine Gulch orsomeplace here. He looked into the matter of acquiring a right of way from here up to their timber^in the Deary-Bovill area up there. But some of the property owners here anxious to make a killing and they certainly held up the price. And so Deary looked around elsewhere. He finally made a report to his directors and as I understand the story, Bill Deary, a good Irish Catholic, who later became what they called the bull of the woods. He was the logging superintendent out here, wrote back to his directors something this: "I've looked over a possible site of our mill. I've looked carefully over Mscow, which is a prosperous town, it'd be a nice location for the community itself. But I've also looked up the location on the other side of the mountain and on the South Palouse River, I've come to the conclusion that you can't build a mill unless you've got plenty of water for mill and for your mill pond. And in my opinion there's not enough water in the Moscow area to baptise a Protestant bastard. So I strongly recommend you build the mill over at Potlatch." And that's what they did. And of course as it eventually developed he was right about it, and the Palouse River was ample water. He was right; there wasn't sufficient water here. And then he ran into this trouble about building the railroad and instead of hooking it on to the Northern Pacific or the Union Pacific here they hooked it onto the Northern Pacific over at Palouse and they ran it on their own land and mostly on their on land from there clear up to the Milwaukee Road up at Bovill.

SAM: Okay, what about the Depression?

AG: Well, now I think that's important before we i get through. Now, there was a world wide depression that started in the late twenties. There had been a depression after the end of World War I. Along in the early twenties there had been quite a depression, but not of real seriousness depression. You see the adjusting of industry after World War I, there had been such a dislocation. The livestock men and the sheep men got into a real depression. There was a lot of changes in manufacturing, from manufacturing war machines and war supplies and ammunition to go back to peacetime and so on. There was quite a depression in the early twenties. By the later twenties and starting in about 1928 and particularly in 1929 when the big stock market crash came, the whole world was more in a state of disorder and depression. Hoover was blamed for it, but he did every means in his power. And, that was used in the campaign against him. Why that President Hoover who had one of the most wonderful records as an administrator acl as a public servant was blamed for it. And of course he was voted out in the greatest landslide that we've ever had in a national election, almost, maybe there's been some since but certainly when Johnson was elected over Goldwater, and of course, Nixon had quite a landslide. But after Franklin Roosevelt was elected.then the real Bepression started and all over our country there war widespead unemployment. Here, some of the concerns begin to suffer, the stores, some of the stores, a few of em had to quit business, though our main stores stayed through it,because people couldn't pay their bills. There was widespead unemployment. Fortunately the Potlatch kept up much of its employment so we weren't hit as bad there as we might have been. But the big thing that hit us here locally was the price of wheat. The price of wheat went down from twenty-five to twenty-one cents a bushel. And the farmers had had unrivaled prosperity during World War I and greatly expanded thir efforts, bought lots of machinery, built and re-made their barns and everything borrowed money at the bank to do this. And they weren't able to pay their bills. Wheat went down so cheaply it wouldn to pay the cost of producing it. Well, the banks had heavy loans out all over the county to these farmers, these heretofore prosperous farmers. The price of livestock went down. The wheat price just hit rock bottom. Farmers couldn't pay their bills; they couldn't pay their notes at the bank. The banks were no longer in aliquid condition.

And Roosevelt was elected in '32, by 1933, when he took office there had been the crash. The banks all over the country were with their loans to industry and sd o n, when various industry went out of business and so on, had to close down. And so the situation here was so bad that everybody was uncertain, were uneasy. And I was then a director,Mr. Orin and I were attourneys for the First National Bank In Moscow, a local bank. There was A First Trust and Savings Bank, a local bank, and there was Moscow Bank, a local bank. John Hess Heckathorn was cashier of the First National was president, and William Cahill was the cashier at the First Trust and Savings Bank, Robert Whittier was president of the Moscow State Bank, Harry Whittfer was cashier. Now all of these were fine men—active, public citizens. had been pr was later mayor of Moscow. Harry Whittier and Robert Whittier were active in the community, Heckathorn was much respected and later ran for Congress, ten or fifteen years after the Depression. But there was uncertainty everywhere and we were all worried about the banks. We knew that the banks in these small towns were having trouble. were banks at Bovill and at Deary, at Juliaetta, at Genesee besides the$e banks here in Moscow. Well, one night along about midnight I got a call from Heckathorn, the cashier of our bank, aaang me to come down to the bank at once. They were going to have a meeting of the directors. Well, I didn't know what was up, but I was worried, and I went down. We found the directors were there. Mainly the directors I remember were Tim Sullivan, he ran the agency, there was Max Griffith who ran the credit bureau and was an attourney, there Of Art was was a dicctor but he wasn't able to be at the meeting, he was an old pioneer, J. S. Heckathorn, myself and C. J. Orin. And when we got down there J. S. Heckathorn that he just had a]pall from Spokane that the Old National Bank of Spokane was not going to be open the next morning. Well, that was catastrophe for us because, like most banks we kept a liquid sum of money to take care of the regular business, cash on hand to take regular business,depositors there, we could handle any ordinary business,and we had quite a cushion besides that. But we had been very careful in our loans and had quite a substantial, on deposit at the Old National Baik. The (Id National Bank had an interest in stock in our bank and we had it up there, extra money for emergency. And it was quite a custom for banks to let this money, if it was surplus, wasn't being used to get interest on that. But we ha8umoney up there and he said that when this gets in the paper tomorrow morning, when it comes o^fc, we're going ha'e a run on the bank. We're going to have a run on all the banks here in town because people'11 be worried. Here's the big bank in SfHcane closed down, everybody's going to run into town here and to all the banks here and demand their money.

And of course no bank can have all cash on hand to meet every depositor's account. We can meet the normal amount and have some extra to be sure if there's a partial run. But if everybody come in a demanded the money it's going to put every bank out of business here in town. So we talked it over and I sat down and drew a proclamation and took it and woke up Homer Estes who was the mayor of Moscow, woke him up and told him the predica ment and got him to sign the proclamation. It was a proclamation declaring a legal holiday in Moscow for the next off home and finally got to bed, got down the bank the next day and here the banks in town had a proclamation up in the window: 'Legal holiday today. Declared by order of the mayor." And these people are millin around. Of course they read about this and were all excited and to in and get their money. And of course did a fine job. He was well respected by all the Scandinavian population. He was out in front of his bank, Heckathorn was down there. The people came up and milled around and they explained that the bank was in good shape and if everybody in a demanded their money of course they were going to have trouble. And you know Moscow's a pretty good place. They were finally convinced that if they rushed in and demanded their money that everybody was goin to lose out. But unfortunately the Moscow Sate Bank was in such bad state and they had so much invested in farm loans that couldn't be paid, and land had depreciated so much in value, that they had to close and close permanently. Now by two days later President Roosevelt declared a national bank holiday. So that staved off that. And then there was various acts passed that enabled the banks to establish different kinds of accounts and so on. And as a result of the substantial citizens in Moscow, the First Trust Bank and the First National Bank weathered the storm, and we had some difficulty about the money

But that was in the old National Bank. we eventually got that,though we were about the last to open. We opened shortly before we got it after careful examination of the books we were permitted to open kind of a special account. wouldn't have drawn for a while and only a part of it. But we were open but the Moscow State Bank was unable to weather it and was cfsed, and all the other banks in the county closed, all of em were liquidated. And the real difficulty was the low price of wheat and the way farmland went down. And we eventually came out of it. One of the interesting developments was the passage by the Congress of the National Recovery Act and the establishment of what was called the N. R. A.

(End of Side B)

AG: The National Recovery Act was passed by the Congress in 1933. It was designed to encourage national industrial recovery. And under this, why the National Recovery Administration was created to combat the widespread unemployment. The act was designed to protect the consumer, competitors. employers and employees. A cede for each industry was by this National Recovery Administration. Prices were fixed, hours of labor were fixed, pay, and where there was any disposition on the part of an industry not to comply, why they had to get a license from the National Recovery Administration to operate. And the employees were given the right to bargain collectively and the free right to join unions which hadn't existed before that time. And that they couldn't be discharged if they failed to do it. And the country all over was appealed on a patriotic basis to support the National Recovery Administration and these National Recovery Codes for employing employee and price fixing for commodities in the interest of bring us out of the Depression. And we had a local committee organized right here in Latah County. And Burto n L. French, who had been congressman here and had been defeated the last time in 1932 was the county chairman and I wm selected as— I was not in politics or anything of that kind—I was selected as secretary o f the N. R. A. board for Latah Coifty. And it was purely a viuntary o rganizatio n, we drew no pay. We used to meet down in the courtroom, the federal courtroom in the then post office building. And merchants and employers and businesses here in town were encouraged to take the pledge to follow the code for national recovery. And they were given what was called Blue Eagle. It was a placard that they put up in their windows that we support the National Recovery Program. And we will support the code. And it got widespread public support and we had these flue Sagles and far as I know right here locally everybody was willing to abide by the code. And there were codes for every kind of industry came out from Washington in the National Recovery Administration. This went on for a coupla years, but there was a poultry concern that too the case finally to the United States Supreme Court. And the United States Supreme Court after hearing argument in 1935 decided that the Congress had unie?iiat,ed legislative authority to the executive branch in setting up all these co des. And they held that the act was unconstitutional. And so that aoded the Blue days. But it was quite an exciting time and then later there are various acts passed by Congress, general acts. And the National Labor Relations Board was created to take care of this labor situation. As a matter of fact all these efforts and the W.P.A.—the Wo rks Progress Administration— and all these different devices that were brought for by Congress and by the national administration to pull us up by our bootstraps were almost as bad a Depression by the late 1930's as we were when we started it.

And there was a lot of peo ple that became educated to live off the government. And I can remember o ut here in the woods the woo drats who lived o ut there that cut wood and they go t cash relief, and they go t co ramo dity relief and they had mo re money than they ever had before in their lives. And there was cash relief and surplus foo ds were given away freely. This W.P.A work , it was make work jo bs ifere they go t paid and where it was, everybody regarded it as almost a disgrace the way these men would be kept busy carrying things across one side off the street and then pick it up and carry it hick again.It was all a make work progress. And what really brought us out of that Depression was the commencement of World War II in Europe, which started I think in for 1939 and with a tremendous demand for food,equipment, for all kinds of munitions and everything else in Europe. It brought us out of the Depression. Of course the price of wheat came up and there was huge employment and of course the United States became the arsenal of the powers which were fighting against the Germans. And then we got into the war ourselves.

SAM: How much belt tightening was there during the Depression in, let's say, Moscow? Did people have to cut back a let on what they had been able to spend previously? Did people have to eat differently o r were peo ple pretty much able to continue the way they had been in the twenties?

AG: Well, I'll tell you, when our banks closed I had seven dollars and fifty cents in my pocket, in cash. And that was more or less general—the banks were closed and then there was the holiday afterwards. And of co urse there was pretty despread unemployment. your man that ran the store couldn't collect the bills; there were lots of bills that were unpaid. And of course there was a cutting down of things that weren't necessities. But of course in those days there wasn't asraany automobiles. There were There were, as I remmber very few radios. People lived a very much simpler life bu they did have to cut down. And you see to compare the way people live vhy now, when they think they're hard up now,to an old timer they live in unpalleled munificence, the way people live now. And when I hear some fellah kickin about how hard up he is and how terrible it is and how high priced food is. And this fellah has one or two color televisions and one or two cars and a radio and he had an electric washing machine and electric dryer and all this equipment, y'see, you just have to adjust yourself to what you can live on. And those people didn't enjoy all the cfnvenieife we think we have to have now. And of course there wasn't then to that extent some much dealing in credits and buying everything on credit and buyin all their furniture on credit. And in those days a man didn't get married unless he had a job that would support a wife. Now they get married whether they have a job or not and the women work. Few women were working ten. Sure they had to tighten there belt. Sure people cooked at home. The thing that then, all the groceries stores that was before the chain stores so-called supermarkets. Then you went to the grocery store and you bought flour by the sack but everything else—cheese was in a great big wheel and you cut off what you wanted. You went to the butcher and you wanted a roast and he hauled a quarter out and slammed it on the block and cut off what you wantd. And if you wanted a steak he cut it off and then wrapped it up in butcher paper there. There was none of this, all this individual packaging of every little thing. And things were so in bulk largely. And you see all that costs money labor to do all that. And of course, people insist, they kick about the high price of all this prepared and frozen food and anything. We didn't have that then. Food was cheaper because there was't all that labor involved. Now of course people demand "When this came on now, the old style grocery store's gone out of business. Everything has to be packed in cellophane, has to be cut and priced and weighed and labeled and has to be so that the ho usewife can take it ho rae and put it in the o ven and cook it, right as it is. People lived much simpler then. You had to be a good cook, yo u had to take and combine, and of course there were bakeries, but there was lots of baking do ne at ho me. But the main thing is aboct these supermarkets, people have to pay for all this labor that's expended. And if a supermarket doesn't have it they just go out of business. People won't put up with it. But if we got into ano ther depression they could learn that yo u co uld live a lot cheaper, you don't have to have all these things. And those people did do that. We didn't have any real want here. People were very good about helping each o ther. And they grew gardens and people got along and did it. And I just wonder these people have go t the mistake that they've got to have everything prepared, it's just so convenient. But they have to pay fo r it. And that's one of the difficulties. And now they just live so infinitely better and have so many more conveniences those people had then, back in the early thirties.

SAM: When you talk about the Depression that followed World War I, the minor Depression, the problems nationally there are two things that made me wonder: First, was that operating here? And secondly, they talk about prosperity in the twenties, ttfc there was a lot of prosperity, did we have that here too, was there a lot of prosperity followed.

AG: Oh, there was. Why, yes. I'd say so. Eventually there was a slight depression due to the dislocation of things. And abo ut two or three or four years after World War I; it ended it 1918. Then we developed an unparalled prosperity that lead to the stock market crash in 1929 when everybo dy was investing mo ney and manufacturing things, people were selling land at elevated prfces. They were buying land at high prices. There was tremendo us building going on and everything. They o verbuilt; they overextended in the construction of plants. Particularly in Florida, overbuilt in California. They overbuilt. Land was too high priced. Our farmland here was to o high priced. There was a period that the cash came in '29 and then gradually it deepened into a continuing depression kept gettin worse and worse until about 1933 it was the worst. And then it remained at kind of a bad level up till the European war started.

SAM: There's one po int o n the N.R.A. that I entirely clear on as far as the local group went. Were you saying that main goal of the local group was to encourage business.

AG: Voluntary compliance, it was based on voluntary compliance. We encouraged people for the general good to comply with these codes that had been promulgated. We didn't prosecute anybody here. We just relied on the pafiotic desre o f emplo yers and employees and consumers to live ue to the price scale and to live up to the hours of labor, and things of that kind. We didn't prosecute anybody. It was an entirely voluntary concern in which the community shared in generally.

SAM: When you 1alk about the Depression catching the farmers up short here as far as their expansion goes, that's just part of the general prosperity of the twenties that farmers and people in the county also believed that the maybe times were more prosperous than they were.

AG: Oh yes, they were. And prices were elevated and so on, they bought lots of machinery and they did lots of improving and went just a little too strong. And that's what brought on the 1929 Depression. it was the farm situation here that hit 4s the hardest, aod that's what broke the banks. Now look, I don't want to go on very much further, but I'll tell you, now you asked me about ray service in the stite senate. Well, in the late forties I was elected to the itate senate. I went down to Boise, my wife went with me. We had two small children. I went down there first, located an apartment, decided the best thing to do would be to bring the family down. And I fo und o ut I co uld enter my children in school So my wife packed o ur dishes and a Sir few o ther things that we'd need in this apartment and we rented an of for the session. I went down and we enteree the children in school. We had a very interesting time. At that time of course the big interest was the appropriation for the univeeity and that's always true with somebody here from Latah County. I had a very interesting time; there was lots of social functions. Chase Clark was the governor. He was a lawyer and an old friend o f mine. And in fact when my son had his birthday Governor Clark invited him into his o ffice and had his picture taken. It was in the Boise paper with my son, Tim, sittin in the governor's chair on his birthday.

Well, of course there were plenty of things that came up in the session. I think that probably the most worthwhile thing I did there during that ume, from my standpoint,was that I was able to introduce and get througpfegislature, the bill, sponsored by the bar association which recognized the right of the courts to fix their o wn proceedure. In o ther words- this was verified by statute that the courts would fix the proceedure..The legislature would fix all the criminal laws and the basic civil laws but the proceedure that was to be followedin the courts was recognized by statutes that the courts could make the rules for handling the proceedure and trying the cases in the courts. And that was passed; it's in our state statute now. And I think I can claim the major credit for getting it through the legislature. And it's basic right that we were one of the early states that go t such a law in effect. And it's continued to operate effectively and it's been followed by a number of o ther states in the union.

Now another bill that I was interested in was the bill to provide retirement for state judges at all levels. And this was worked out on the basis where the judges would contribute part of it and the state would contribute part of it. That finally passed the legislature and we do it now. There's been some additions and changes in the law but we did work out a retirement a district. statute for our supreme court and our court judges. Oh ,there a number of other matters affecting agriculture, forestry and so on that I had a part in. If I do say, I did play a prominent part in the state legislature. And Mrs. Goff proved very popular; we were active socially. She was an attractive blonde. She had been a teacher in the Boise school for three years sometime before we were married. She had wide acquaintance there. She'd been the acting head of the women's fhysical Education department here at the university. Although in those days there wasn't a competitive sports for women, and her principle job was teaching folk dancing and putting on the and thine of that kind. Because there wasn't the number of competitive sports and then of course there was simply physical education but there wasn't the competitive sports then. She was an accomplished dancer and knew all these dances and so on. She was very popular socially in Boise, and the Boise Statesman in its society page, at the end of the session, carrfed a large picture an article,"Our Favorite Legislative Wife." And they went all through our stay and the socialites of Boise at the time. And ennumerated why she was the favorite legislative wife o f the session. And she was extremely helpful to me and was so when later on I went to Congress. I came home from the legislature, later was called to active duty for a short period with the Third Division, a regular army division, headquarters at Fort Lewis to which I was assigned. And then came back, and then later in August of 1941 I was called to duty in the army and went to Washington, D.C. from "thence I was sent overseas a month after Pearl Harbor to army in the Middle East with headquarters at Cairo. I had some adventures gettin there. There was a small oup,the U. S. African Mission which British forces. I was there in the spring of 1942 when Rommel made his great drive Cairo. I was in Cairo when he was outside, was there when we heard over the radio t\h Mussolini was flying over from Iraly to take part in the triumphal entry tp Cairo but it didn't work out that way. I was with the British forces in some of the bombing and out in the western desert Rommel was finally turned back, I was there. And then down in Italian East Africa over in the Vest of the Middle East, over in Iran and Iraq,in the Holy Land, in that area though thepiddle East down on the Red Sea and came home after Rommel force had been surrendered in North Africa and it was all over. Of co urse, I served after that in the United States. I served over in Europe. Principly with the in the of the army where I was assistant chief of the Shtemaional taw division. Then I was sent over to Europe in matters over these punishment of war crimes. I later served in the Pacific and was on General McArthur's personal staff in the occupation of Japan. And I came bAck as deputy dtaeetai o f the War Crimes o ffice. I joined rmy Navy -Officers Befenee, went into the Under Secretary of War's office as a member of clemency board. And from that I had been nominated for Congress while I was still there. There was a provision that permitted that, and I'd been nominated while I was still in the army in the primary. Came home the first of Sptember 1945, go t into the campaign, was elected, went to Congress as a freshman congressman, defeate. White who had had thirteen terms as a Democrat. This was called a Democrat district.

I defeated him by only about two thousand votes. It was a close race and it was a great surprise when I was elected. Because first I hojd little chance to cempaign and next this was considered a settled Democratic district. I went to the Congress, took my wife and family with me. We left here before Christmas, in fact we took the train because the train was the way to travel then. It was in the wintertime, took fle kids with us, had our Christmas on thejtrain, went back to Washington. Ihad selected as my office secretary the secretary to the International Law Division , Department of the Army where I'd been the assistant chief, a very competent woman. I selected her as my congressional secretary in advance. And a woman by the name of Margaret Brown, a widow, and she had rented a house for us there in Washington, tut we stayed first with an old friend from Idaho who was a graduate of the university and^was then the commandant of the Army War College. We stayed there the first night end then we went on out to our home. If I do say it myself, I got along pretty well in the Congress. We formed an organization of all the first year Republican members of Congress. And I western from out here inN sparsely populated, far out state of Idaho was elected president of the organization. And Richard Nixon, by the way, from California was elected secretary. And we knew each other well, we were goo d friends. Florence was goo d friends with Mrs. Nixon. But that was an organization of the freshmen Republican members of the Congress. We had regular meetings every two weeks. We usually had somebody, an outstanding national figure as the speaker. I remember we had Allan Dulles as a speaker et one time; we had Herbert Hoover another time I met all these people personally. We met a number of o ther prominent people. I Was the presiding officer conducted the meetings. It was a very interesting organization. Thereafter in the session I was named to tie Committe Agriculture which was very important here because with our farming and of course the of agriculture also has forestry. Forestry all came under the Committee on Agriculture. And why was on this committee we had had a lot of trouble here about the infest ation of the tussock moth in our forests out here. And I introduced and pushed through—I can eay lots of help—but introduced the department bill on. . .And it was called the National Forest Pest Control Act, which provided for the Department of Agriculture to handle the spraying of infested land whether it was tussock moth or whatever it was. And thats the act that authorized that and I can claim that I was the one who got, startin in our committe on agriculture, we got that bill through, And another bill introduced was the, what I call the Mr Supremacy Act. I took the position that the most important thing for national defense , and Iwas very strong on it, was to build up o ur air fo rce. And the bill that I introduced, it had been proposed that we spend two billio n dollars to build up an air fleet, and my bill would appropriate three billion dolars more to make the United States Air Force to any in the world beca-se I took the position that no foreign enemy—we already had the strongest fleet in the world—but there's no foreign enemy could attack us at sea.. what we had to worry about was aforeign attack through the air, and I opposed the Universal Military Service Act because I said the emphasis was on the place. wasn't men we needed because our antagonist after World War II was the Communist State of Russia. And it was hopeless to match them in manpower, that we would never invade Russia. Napoleon and Hitler tried to do that and what we needed was air power, and that we would never be attacked except by air. And that if we had the strongest air force in the world that would insure that we'd never have to use it. Well, my bill didn't pass But as the result of that, the Committee in Congress (Break).

(End of side C)

AG: not to push through my bill called the Mr Supremacy Act as such, but they enormously increased the appropriation for the Air Force and the build-ng of planes. And as a combination of the Armed Services they did exactly Committee and the Appropriations Committee, what I'd recommended in this separate bill I'd introduced. So I can claim that I had somthing to do—I wasn't but I felt so strongly that we should build up o ur Air Force as the surest defense against any foreign attack. And that's what they did. And we did develop this tremendous bomber fleet as the result of the action of the Congress in 1946. Now in addition to this Organization of the Freshmen Young Republicans, the Speaker of the House, Joe Martin, decided that we should have a Republican steering committee. This would be composed of leading raerabers of the Republican party who'd assist the speaker in pushing important legislation in the Congress. And I had the good fortune to be named by thv Speaker as a member of the Republican steering committee. And I was the only freeman congressman named o n that committee. And I have a pictare with the Speaker, Joe Martin, in which he had when he made my appointment as a member of this steering committee which xes a kinr' of a super committee for the Republican leadership. It was a Republican congress and we had a Democratic president, President Truman, on legislation. I can say that I made, I think, quite a few friends on both sides of the aisle. And I served on the Committe on Agriculture. It was very interesting to me. There were a lot of other forestry and agriculture matters that came up on that committee. I went out with them in the summer of 1948 and we had hearings all o Yer ttie country in connection with some of the agricultural bl'l5 we went to the various agricultural stations and so on. the election came around that fall and it turned into an unexpeceted general/Democratic landslide. For Truman he'd been in, Merit by about the same vote as I came in. By th next time I determined that this business of being in Congress for two years, I'd either get into politics or get o ut of it. So two years later instead of ranting for my old place in theHouse I ran for the Senate in the Republican primary, didn't make it and thought I was out of politics. A Couple years later President Eisenhower, there's quite a story connected with that, appointed me as General Consul to the fast Office Department. I served there four years in the largest general civil government department, consul and attourney for a cabinet officer, then the lost Master general. Then in 1958 President Eisenhower named me as a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission and I was later elected chairman because we were the only regulatory agency that elected its own chairman, I became chairman, served in the Interstate Commerce Commission whic regulates ait surface transportation in the United States and coastwide shipping: barge lines, express lines, freight forwarders, pipelines and so on. I served as a member and chairman for nine years andlthen retired and came back to Moscow where I always wanted to make my home and where I have my friends—like the people, like the country.

Now all this time my wife has been very helpful to me and I have a couple of speeches here, copies of a couple of speeches that I made I was in Congress. One of em is on the Air Supremacy Act, it's a short one. Another is a speech that I made representing the state of Idaho. I made it at Valley Forge. In Valley Forge Chapel they had one service a year made for a state, and they get somebody that speaks for that state. At least they did that then, I don't know whether they do that now. I have here a copy of a speech, probably my best effort I think, that I at Valley Forge in 1947: "Keep Watch for Liberty," I have the speech I made on the Air Supremacy Act in the Congress in November 1947. And I also have here speech made by my dear wife, Florence, here in Moscow, telling of the social sidelights of Washington, D. C. I think these might be of inteAt and I'm happy to turn em over.

1:00 - Moscow trial case on road survey lines

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Segment Synopsis: Day vs. Stenger case. The survey line on Main Street was not drawn exactly north and south, and the variance increased as the addition went east. Steele ruled that the line had to be redrawn, but Orland (with Mr. Goff also working on the case) won an appeal from the state supreme court, which ruled that the lines recognized for more than fifty years would be law.

7:00 - Enforcing prohibition as prosecuting attorney; case stories including Pat Malone, Albert Strom and Harry Gleave

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Segment Synopsis: Enforcing the state prohibition act as prosecuting attorney. Process of marketing moonshine. Italians made wine in Potlatch. A man arrested for possession drank the liquor before it was confiscated and couldn't be convicted. He delayed arriving at dinner parties when violation of the law became socially acceptable. In instructions to the jury he stressed the responsibility of Moscow to the parents of university students throughout Idaho to keep liquor away from their sons and daughters. Those in possession got fined, while commercial producers got sentenced. He enjoyed working with Pat Malone, Albert Strom (Troy) and Harry Gleave (Potlatch).

19:00 - Potlatch and Onaway towns

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Segment Synopsis: Potlatch was a company town, substantial and well-behaved during prohibition, while Onaway was not as good.

23:00 - Abe accompanied police to crime scenes, helped with prosecution

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Segment Synopsis: He accompanied officers to the scene of serious crimes, which greatly assisted him in prosecuting the cases. Apprehending the prohibition violators; runners from out of the area were very difficult to catch.

27:00 - Court case of cattle rustler

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Segment Synopsis: After dropping charges against a suspected cattle rustler for lack of evidence, additional work clinches the case, (continued)

30:00 - Court case testimony of Elk River butcher

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Segment Synopsis: Evidence included testimony of Carl JochkecK Elk River butcher, and proof of felony.

35:00 - Native American cases tried in Moscow

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Segment Synopsis: Indian cases were tried at Moscow. Kinds of cases he tried. He sued the Northern Pacific for killing a young boy on the tracks, finding a 1906 Moscow ordinance that set the maximum speed at twelve miles per hour.

40:00 - Relationship with Potlatch Lumber Company

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Segment Synopsis: Working for and against Potlatch Lumber Company. Coming of Potlatch Lumber Company interests; Deary rejects Moscow for mill site.

47:00 - Post WWI Depression; Great Depression effects; declared bank holiday in Moscow to prevent panic

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Segment Synopsis: Post World War I depression. The 1930's depression was not Hoover's fault. Crush of wheat market hit this area hard. Bank troubles; when the Old National Bank in Spokane closed down, he drew up a document which the mayor signed, declaring a holiday in Moscow, preventing a panic.

60:00 - National Recovery Administration; Depression ended with WWII

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Segment Synopsis: National Recovery Administration developed codes for industry; locally, Mr. Goff was secretary and Burton French director of the voluntary organization which urged patriotic compliance. Depression ended with World War II. People didn't suffer much around here because life was far simpler than now. Prosperity of the twenties.

74:00 - Abe as state legislator from Latah County; life in Boise

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Segment Synopsis: State legislator from Latah County: his major achievement was a bill permitting courts to set their own procedures. Retirement for judges. Social life in Boise: Mrs. Goff's popularity,

80:00 - Army duty during WWII; elected to Congress in 1946; legislation he worked on

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Segment Synopsis: Army duty during World War II. Elected to Congress in 1946, defeating Comp White. He was elected president of the freshmen Republicans, Richard Nixon secretary. Introduced and passed Forest Pest Controls Act, largely to combat tussock moth. Introduction and defense of Air Supremacy Act. (continued)

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