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Latah County Oral History Collection

Remembering Latah County and Idaho Life at the turn of the 20th century

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Date: November 13, 1974 Interviewer: Laura Schrager

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CLARICE SAMPSON: My father was George H. Moody, was born in St. John, New Bruns wick. He was the thirteenth child and all the rest of the family had been born in Scotland. And his own mother died when he was eighteen months old, and his father remarried, because, I presume to take care of a big family. My father, although he was so young, he didn't accept it, and the stepmother allowed the older children to take advantage of the younger ones. So, when he was thirteen he ran away from home and was on his own from then on. He made his way to Boston and worked in a book bindery there as a young man. His brother, one of his brothers was a worker in marble in Vermont, and he finally moved to Missouri and there he opened a monument business. It was the day of big monu ments, and tombstones, they called them.

My father apprenticed him self to his brother and learned the trade, and when he was a young man he established his own monument works in Fort Scott, Kansas. But before he established his own business he was in St. Louis, and I imagine he was working in some such a concern. He boarded with a Mrs. Man- ning, who had been recently widowed. Her young daughter, Mary Ida, helped her mother and served the boarders at the table and she and my father fell in love and they were married in St. Louis, Missouri. He took her to Fort Scott, Kansas, where several of my brothers and sisters were born. There was.great desire in many young people or that time to go West, so he thought he would sell his business and go out to California, leaving his family there til he was settled. He met a man on the train who told him all about Ogden, Utah, and what a boom town it was, so he decided to get off of the train there at Ogden and see what it was like. Well, he opened up a small hardware store, and finally, in a few months sent for my mother with five child- ren, the youngest a three months old baby, and they all had their little piece of luggage to carry and somebody had to carry the bag for the baby, and somebody had to carry the bird in the bird cage. And they made their home in Ogden, Utah for several years. And, I think my father was not very happy being out of his own field, so my mother and the family went over to Salubria, Idaho where my moth er mother had come. She had remarried and had come there, and they were mining there. My father, evidently sold out his hardware bus iness and followed them. Early in 1892 he had heard about the town up in northern Idaho, Moscow, where a university had been recently established and he thought that would be a good place to move his fam ily so that they would have the advantage of a good education for each of them. So he came on alone to Moscow in, as I said, early in 1892 and opened a business; got in a stock of monuments in a little build ing that was then on Third Street, and my mother followed. My father found a house they could rent, and they settled themselves in Moscow, Idaho. They lived in a couple of houses, I think, and my mother told about taking care of an old blind lady, and I think the pay for her care was probably a pretty good part of their income at that time. Then my father had the chance to buy a house on Lynn Avenue, they called it then. I even remember the numbers, 722 Lynn Avenue. And he bought that place; it was a five room house with, I imagine it was about a half an acreogoining it that was the garden spot. It had fruit trees planted in it and a garden space. There in that house I was born in January of 1894.

But, the year before, 1893, had been the bad year in Latah County. It had rained and rained and the farmers were unable to harvest their grain, so the only monuments my father could sell,was he would get on horseback and take a kit of designs and go about the country and if he could sell a monument, he would come back home and engrave the monument in the kitchen, because he'd had to give up his building downtown, and he kept his store of his stock of marble in the barn. But he used to tell us about— they were just about down to the last bit of money they had and my mother needed a sack of flour so he went to town and purchased the flour and he had twenty-five cents, two bits, they called it left. So, he bought himself a twobit cigar and smoked it. But by and by things bettered themselves in Latah County and once more he opened his shop down on Main Street this time. I remember when I was a little girl he ordered the Ole Hagburg monu ment, which stands on the campus. There were two boys from the Univ ersity of Idaho who were killed in the Philippines in the Spanish—American War. I don't know how that monument was purchased, Ait was by public subscription, I presume it was, and the help of the University. When it came, of course, we all wanted to go down and see it. Well, it was so long, and such a long, heavy box, that it just about filled up his showroom. And, I thought that was just about the big gest monument that had ever been made. It stands on the University of Idaho campus now.

LAURA SCHRAGER: He had the marble shipped in?

CS: : Yeah— no,the form was made, he didn't chisel out the form, but he did all the lettering on it, and it stands there on the campus yet, facing the northeast, or the mountains. And, to me, it was the most wonderful thing.

Then, when I was still a little girl, quite young, the Administra tion Building of the University of Idaho burned. Everybody in town could see the blaze in the sky and everybody went to the fire, and I was a little girl and my mother held my hand and so I cried because she cried because the Administration Building was burning. The thing I hated to have burn up was -in the entry hall of the Administration Building, there were two glass cases, and in those cases were little artifacts that the boys who had been in the battalion over there had brought home with them. And I remember a little grass covered hut that I thought was so adorable, and I regreted, of course, the loss of those things. But the records, fortunately, were saved. The Dean of the University saved the records. I had a sister that year, my sister, Ethel, who was a senior in college. The women's gymnasium was built at that time and Ridenbaugh Hall, they were existing build ings, so the classes were held in those two buildings, but the sen iors had to go across town to the Methodist Church and the City Lib rary for classes. And, that was a great experience because, even though it was hardship for the students, they all rallied around and in a few years we had a new Administration building. But to make use of the bricks that were left from after the fire, the University hired small boys to clean the bricks. To clean the mortar from the bricks, and my husband, Harry Sampson was one of the small boys hired to help clean bricks, and a

LS: o my brother, Maurice Moody, five years older than worked on that, too, cleaning bricks at the University. Course that was quite a windfall for small boys. But the beautiful old steps the granite steps, they were in the front of the Administration, and then there was a wing on either side, then there were huge steps going up to each wing, so there were actually three main entrances to the Administration Building. Well, they thought they were of no value, so they were hauled away and they were buried where leveling was done on city lots. I can't remember the year, but the University garden was up behind where the old Administration Building had been, and some class reunion decided they'd restore the old steps. And so, they found enough of the old steps to build a flight of steps as they were originally up to the garden. And, of course, they're there now, the old steps.

Can I ask you about your father's business trip? Where did he get his rock from?

Oh, well, of course, around here there was no marble, and that was his* material he liked working in best, was marble. But, of course, marble isn t too good^outside, the elements are too hard on.. outside. So he had to go into selling granite monuments, too. And he got Rock of Ages marble and granite from Vermont, and that was shipped sometimes by boat and sometimes by train to San Francisco, and then put on trains and shipped to Moscow, Idaho. So the cost of transporting material to his business was very expensive. I often wonder how he did most of the lettering himself, until the business became so big that he had to employ men to come in to assist him. 4Then he had agents who went about, oh, all over Nez Perce prairie and all around Moscow, and as far as Yakima in Washington selling for him. And they would take the orders and they would carry the kits of designs, just about like those pictures, and people would choose what they wanted, or they could come in to Moscow and see the stock on the floor. But when my father showed stock it was always with such love, and when he was showing a special monument, without thinking, his white handkerchief would come out of his pocket and he would wipe it off a bit, and that showed the beauty that he could see in that particular piece of stone. As a young man he made, oh, things for our home— that oval picture frame, here hanging on the wall, with my mother's and father's picture in it, he made that out of marble. And how he ever could chisel that out and get it so perfect, I don't understand. And on the table there is a little marble book with my mother's initia

LS: engraved on and it was to represent a little white bible. He gave it to her as an engagement pre sent. So I treasure my things that I have that he has made, very much. As that old book over there on the table, he made.. But later, then, he got— he would ship in some marble for interior use, like in bank buildings and so on, from Italy. And then, he got beautiful green granite from Alaska, and then from Georgia, some very beautiful stone came. But monuments in those days were inclined to be big, if possible, if the family finances warranted that, and they would sit on base the same as the monument itself was made of, and that in turn would sit on a rough granite base. And those rough granite bases came from over here in Washington. I can't just remember where. But that was the style in those days of the monu ment business, and they would have individual stones that were large. And, then, always at the foot, would be a footstone; smaller with the initial of the person who was buried there on the footstone. Often friends would ask my father to put his name someplace down on one side showing that he had engraved that particular stone. I see many monu ments in the cemetery with either GHM or Moody down in one little cor ner at the back of the monument, showing that he had engraved that monu ment.

LS: Did he go through periods that were harder times?

CS: Well, after that year his business just gradually grew and grew, and he kept having more agents out and selling more monuments. And you'd be surprised to know that the Indians were some of the very best buyers of monuments. That just appealed to them. When they'd come into his shop, he had rather a quiet voice, and Indians liked that, they don't like to be spoken— often, we think we need to speak in louder tones to someone who is different than we are, you know, for fear they won't understand. But, they liked him. I know he had a namesake, an Indian baby named for him down on the prairie: George Moody. Afterwards I knew that baby, when he grew to be a man.

LS: Were there any epidemics?

CS: I remember when I was a little girl, there were time we had a smallpox epidemic and we all had to be vaccinated, of course. I was taken to Dr. Watkins' office and had my arm scraped with this— they used a quill, in those days, and would scrape the skin on your arm and put the vaccine on it. I remember, I cried and another little girl laughed at me, and I never liked that little girl because she laughed. . I thought it hurt.

LS: Was this Dr. Watkins?

CS: Uh-huh. That was Carol Brink's grandfather. And then, my brother who was five years older than I had diphtheria at one time. I was quite small at the time, and it seemed from what my mother told me, I played right around in the same room where he was and I didn't take it. So, I don t think there was an epidemic or anything. I think. just happened to be one case. And, then, of course, they quarantined the homes in those days when people had scarlet fever or diphtheria or smallpox. And there would be a sign put up by the front door—Quar antined— and the name of the disease. And us children, of course, if we'd ever see that on somebody's front door, we'd cover our mouths with our handkerchiefs and just run by as fast as we could, so we wouldn't get that germ.

LS: Could you describe some of the stores in Moscow?

CS: Well, Moscow was always quite a good trading center, even in the early days. Of course, the first store, I think, was the McConnell-McGuire Store, and that was where the— Mr. Brown's furniture store is now, the Building, now we call it. And, later Mr. F. A. David was associated with that firm, and then that store went broke and it was started again, and I don't know the year, but it was started again by Motter and Wheeler. This advertisement doesn't give— but I can remember this store— yes, Motter-Wheeler Company, The Hustlers, and they had a fall opening, and it doesn't say what year it was. But some of the prices are very interesting: ladies' wrappers, the seven ty five cent ones, went at fifty cents. And the mens' hat- a seventy five cent hat went at sixty cents. And there were - all during that opening they had specials of fruit jars and Golden Crown tomato catsup, regular fifty cent special at twenty cents or three for fifty cents.

LS: This happened before your time?

CS: I remember this store, because, you see the McConnel-McGuire store had gone broke, and I don't remember when that was there, but I re member this store, this particular store. But I don't remember of the Moody family trading there very much. We were customers of Creighton's store, in regard to dry goods and clothing, and then we bought out groceries from David's store. Mr. David had started up his store. They sent a man around each morning to your kitchen door to take orders for groceries that you might need, and then they del ivered them with a horse and cart later in the day, which was a great convenience in those days, because in the winter the snow was quite deep, and in the spring and fall the mud was deep and it was a great convenience to have things brought to your door. Creighton's store had a delivery boy, and my brother, Maurice, was their delivery boy at one time. That was after the bicycles came in- we had bicycles. There were several dressmakers in town and if they'd call and want a pattern, a certain pattern, or thread or something, their delivery boy would get on the bicycle and go and take it to the dressmaker. That was a great convenience, of course. I remember one time, being the youngest in the family, a great many of my clothes were made over but I never seemed to mind, because, they were of much nicer material than would hrfWtbeen purchased probably for a little girl. But, I re member one time I needed a new winter coat and we went to Creighton's, my mother and I, and looked for a coat for me. I think it was prob ably the first ready made coat I'd had, because it was red and it had a red velvet collar, and I thought it was sooo beautiful. But, my mother really it was more than she could afford to pay, but Mr. Creighton happened to come back to where the coat was being shown, I think he knocked off a dollar or so, and my mother pur chased the coat for me, 'cause Mr. Creighton could see how badly I wanted that pretty red coat.

LS: You wouldn't shop around in those days?

CS: Well, no, I tell you, we didn't shop around too much, they knew you and like at Creighton's store, I don't know, I think our bill was paid twice a year, that was the way they did business. They didn't bill you monthly, as I remember. During the sales my mother would go in and stock up on the number of sheets and tablecloths and so on, she needed. Mr. Creighton went to Ireland every year and bought linen, so even in the early days you could buy very beautiful linens, here in Moscow. Like many homes, I suppose, our home we ate on a white tablecloth three times a day, and my father wouldn't have it other wise, and we all had white napkins. We never ate in the kitchen dur ing my time. Sometimes for Sunday night supper, I just thought it was so much fun, when I was a child, if we would have our supper in the kitchen and open the oven door, and we were all sitting close to gether, and it was such fun.

LS: In the book -

CS: All

LS: She mentions about how there were grades of groceries, grocery stores-

CS: Well, there were, really. That's true. There was a store down on Main Street, near my father's place of business, and he would get in fruit and watermelons and thingsr-- they didn t come in trucks, they came in hay wagons from Julietta and Lewiston and so on, and when he'd get in a load, why, everybody in Moscow would go down and get their fruit to can— it would be stacked in boxes out on the sidewalk and his prices were always supposed to be a little cheaper, but his family lived above the grocery store and I think he did most of the work himself, so his overhead probably was lower, and he could sell cheaper. I don't like to say anything more about. But, then, there were other stores in town: Mr. Swan had a very nice store, grocery store, and I think it was considered very first class. Probably his line of canned goods, and so on, was a lit tle more, but of very fine quality. And, then, as the years would go by, someone would start a grocery store and it would go a few years and they'd decide to close out or somebody would buy them out. So, over the years, there^quite a few grocery stores, as I remember.

LS: Would many of them sell meat?

CS: Well, no, we had meat markets. I think we had at least— I remember three meat markets when I was a little girl. And, that was one thing my father always purchased. He always bought the meat. And it would be delivered to our home. He'd stop in as he went to work and choose the meat that my mother had wanted. And, quite often, I know, we had round steak, and all the family liked that. He'd send home a great big round steak, and I think, perhaps, it was only twenty-five or thirty five cents. When it was prepared they would pound it with a knife, you know, and then dip it in flour and fry it. It may not have been so good for us, but it tasted awfully good. And then the drip pings made delicious gravy, you know, over potatoes or biscuits, and so on.

At one time in Moscow, we were supposed to have had as many saloons as we did churches, that was one thing we talked about. And I think there were thirteen saloons and thirteen churches. And to go from our home, we always walked down Third Street, and either side of the street we went on, we had to pass a saloon, and, of course, the men were standing around outside and they would chew tobacco and spit on the sidewalk. I remember the ladies with their sweeping skirts, in those days, well, you held up your skirt when you passed those places, because— so it wouldn't touch the dirty sidewalk. And, of course, then we had no paving, and then every block was a crosswalk to get on the other side of the street. Well, those crosswalks were quite high, I'd judge eight or ten inches, because the mud would get so deep, you see, in the winter, fall and spring when it would rain. So they had to be high in order that you wouldn't sink clear in and lose your boots!!

LS: Those were all wooden planks.

CS: Wooden planks. And the sidewalks were of wood. But, I don't remem ber when the paving came, but, of course, the main streets were paved first and cement sidewalks were put down. 'Course in the residential neighborhoods we had board walks, sidewalks, we called 'em, long after the downtown streets had paving and cement sidewalks.

LS: Do you remember what the feeling was at the time about the saloons? About drinking?

CS: Well, I think it was just an accepted thing for a man to drink. My father was never a drinker, but I think, many, what we considered -Ive better class citizens, drank. But, my mother belonged to the WCTU, and she was a very ardent worker, and I can well remember when they would take petitions around to try to get.saloons out. At one time, the Prohibition Party always was on the county ticket, that I can remember. My father, we were, Republicans, always, but my mother, one time, they persuaded her to run on the Prohibition Party as state treasurer, but,of course, she didn't win. She took a great deal of teasing from my father over her experience in politi

LS: Did she actually run a campaign?

Oh, no. Her name was just on the ticket. But, then, of course, when prohibition became the law, why, the saloons went out.

What were some of the things you know that the WCTU did in the early days?

Well, I think that was just- the most of it was just carry petitions around. They had their meetings. I never belonged to this, but I know my sister, one of my sisters, would never, and she and I are the only ones left- she doesn't even like to take a drink of wine, be cause she signed the pledge when she was a little girl— they had an organization for the children. But during my time, that never seemed to be- they didnit have that organization. But she said"l signed that pledge, and Idon't feel right yet to even take aglass of wine. Iwasn tin it, so Idon'tAknow what it was. But, Iimagine they had children's meetings and talked to them about the evi alcohol. Course, in our ' there was always a chapter on drinking alcohol, and the harm it did to your body. I don't know that they have aphysiology- Idon't think they teach physiology that way today, out of a book for children. It's part of their science. But we had a book, physiology book, and there was always a chapter on the harms of alcohol to the human body. And, I think we had very good, conscientious teachers. Some of them would be quite young when they started to teach, but they were very anxious for Mos cow children to learn. In some ways, I believe our learning in grade was superior in some ways than what children get now. Although, children know more than we did, because of their advantages of seeing and hearing and reading other boks, and so on. They have more knowledge, but I don't think they actually learned the funda menta

LS: as well as we did, of education.

LS: Is there anything in particular that they've changed?

CS: Well, I don't know too much about the education now, but, I do know that my grandchildren, with the new math, it takes them a great deal longer to figure out something than either their grandfather or their grandmother if it's a matter of dollar and cents, or how many, or something. Their way of going about it takes so much longer. 'Course, we're mature and we can see in a flash what it is, you know.

LS: I want to ask you a couple of questions about stores, too.

CS: Yes.

LS: Now, wasn't there ice cream parlors?

CS: Yes, indeed there was. In fact, at one time, I think that there were more than two, but it was a great pleasure to go to the ice cream par lor— and one of them had a table especially for children— like a wrought iron, or an iron table, you know, like porch furniture today, with little chairs, and, of course, it was lovely to go in there and sit at that little table. And, we bought sundaes more than anything, you know. We'd have ice cream with pineapple or strawberry or some thing over it, and that was quite the thing.

LS: Did they make their own ice cream?

CS: Yes, I think they did and it was very good ice cream, too.

LS: Did they have a lot of flavors?

CS: Well, not too many flavors. It was mostly just vanilla and chocolate, I think, maybe strawberry some of the times. Then you could have it made into a sundae. But I remember the one time befote my husband and I were married, we went into one of the confectionery stores, and ice cream parlors, that's the way they usually called them, be cause they made their candy too, much like Mrs. Hunter makes today their candies, you know. And we used to, in the winter, we d go in there and get oyster cocktail , oh, we just thought that was wonder ful. It was cold, you know, and why we'd like it in the winter I don't know, but we did.

LS: What was it?

CS: Well, it was oysters, raw oysters, with a spicy sauce over it. I supposCketchup was the foundation of the sauce. But, we thought that was fun.

In our high school days we had lots of sleigh rides, because our snow seemed to stay so much longer than it does now. And, that was quite a popular form of entertainment in the winter to go on a sleigh ride party. hire either the livery stable or some farmer, and he'd put a hayrack on runners, and put straw in, and we'd all take our blankets, Sometimes we would go to Pullman and have oyster stew at some eating place over there. 'Course, that would take the whole evening to go over there and back, and that was quite an enter tainment, we thought that was a lot of fun. Or we'd go to somebody who lived in the country, and sometimes each of us took along some refreshments like a cake or something, and quite often they'd have hot cocoa for us. But, I remember one time, when I was in high school, Moscow was playing Genesee High School, and Mr. took a group of us over, we started out right after school. We drove over the mountain road because, he went over that wav, it was shorter I think in order to get us there in time for the game. And we all were supposed to take along a sandwich to eat, because we would 'just have to go to the game as we took our sand- wich in a bag and ate it on the way over.

And, the game was played and, I don't know whether it was in a warehouse, but they didn't have a gym or anything, you know, and while we were at the game a Chinook wind came up, o you know what they are? A warm wind,tfnd the snow all disappeared, and so we started home, and Mr. then came— the highway isn't as it is now, but there ' a more level road— and he came that way. from four or five miles out from Moscow we all had to get out and walk, because those horses couldn't pull — those runners wouldn't go with that many— twenty or twenty-five young people in the wagon. Of course, it took most of the night, walking so far because I know my mother wasn't concerned about me because I was going home to stay all night with one of my friends, io when I came ia walk ing in about seven o'clock in the morning, she wondered why I came home so early, and I told her we were just getting home from Genesee. But we had a bad misfortune out where the railroad tracks cross down South Main, you know, fhe runner on the sled got caught in the track and Mr. was driving the sled and we were all trailing behind, of course, but we were pretty weary by that time, and the sled being caught in the track, it threw him out and he hit his head and it knock ed him out. Well, we were all very frightened I don't think he was knocked out for long, but it was fortunate that he was so near his livery barn. And I don't even remember who won the game, (chuckles) after the experience of that.

LS: What kind of game was it?

CS: Basketball. They were playing basketball then. And we were in that old, old high school, you know, that I told you about on Third Street. And there was no place there, of course, so they rented a warehouse down on Main Street, where one of the grain companies is now, it was just a big wooden building, you know, and that's where they played basketball. I used to play girls basketball in that place.

LS: basketball very popular then?

CS: Well, it was then, and then it went out and now, of course, it's back again. They had us play six girls to a team then. The rules were a little different than boys, but we wanted to play boys rules, but we weren't permitted to.

LS: Would you play around with different school?

CS: i never was on the team, I wasn't good enough, but they did play the other teams around. Mrs. was the center because she was so tall, she was Mabel Drury. They did play different towns around. I don't think there were too many outside games played, and there weren't too many girls involved in the basketball program.

LS: Something you said?

Our parties— sometimes, I know when I was a senior in high school we used to have parties there in the old school house, but there was no recreation room or anything, we just had to play Skip-to-my-Lou, and so on in the halls. They were that sort of parties. But the school would let us use the building. Of course, we had to always ask some teacher to chap«rone us. But, the year I was a senior in high school, there wasn't room for us to have a study hall, so we just had to kind of stick around in the halls and keep our books on the window sills someplace, you know. It was great fun (chuckles) but we didn't get any studying done in school time, we had to do our studying at home, because we had no place to go, although we did hang out down in the school superintendent's office, and how he ever stood twenty— there were twenty in my class— all of us in there, I'll never know, but he was a very good natured man. The new building, which is the office building on Third Street now, was being built then, and he was so, Mr. Randall, was so wrapped up in that new building. I don't think that he actually knew that we were he was over to the new building so much— that he actually knew that we were just making use of his office like we did. So, we sort of had open campus then, (chuckles) the senior class.

LS: What were some of the social events? Do you remember?

CS: Well, Fourth of July, they made a great deal of Fourth of July here with a big parade, and the stores would have floats, you know, and the band would play, and then, usually, they would have several dance halls where the bands would play during the afternoon and evening. I remember one Fourth of July, they had draped all the store fronts with bunting, red, white and blue bunting, and it rained just terrifically. Well, the bunting would drip down on all the white dresses, you know? But the dance halls were very popular that year, because people, even if they weren't dancing ' crowd in, so the floor space was very sparce, because there were so many people standing around the edges to get out of the rain. We had our special friends that we had par ties in our homes. I remember, I belonged to a club— and I don't know, there must have been twenty or twenty-five of us boys and girls and we called it the QAE Club, and that meant quit at eleven!! We had to go home at eleven, that was the rule., And, we were always say ing, we wished our mothers would let us change it to the QAT Club, twelve or two, then we could stay 'til twelve, you see. We were grade schoolers, what would be junior high, and those parties were in our homes. I remember I had a Halloween party one time, and it made a house full, but, of course, everybody came^masquarade and we had great fun pretending we didn't know who people were, and so on, and ducking for apples, I guess you called it, and bittg ^a dough nut tied to a string, and all the Halloween stunts we used to do.

LS: Were there many tricks played on Halloween?

CS: Well, of course, there were privies in those days. And the bigger boys would tip over the privies, or steal the gates — the front gate off of the fence. There was always quite a bit of that, so it was pretty wise to put your gate away for the evening, but the privy— there wasn't much you could do about that!! (chuckles) But, our next door neighbor was always so concerned— my dad never seemed to be too concerned, but he sort of patrolled his property the whole night, I think. And, of course, the kids, knowing that, would always do something to him. I don't remember of being mixed up in anything very much. We didn't trick or treat, we just didn't know about that in Moscow then. But, we'd make tick-tacks. We'd notch a spool, and my brother usually made mine, and put it on a little stick or pencil then wrap a string around it and go up to someone's window and pull the string, and, of course, the spool would turn and make quite a racket. Or, we'd ring somebody's doorbell and run, that was the ex tent of our mischief, I think. But, we just didn't know about knock ing on a door and saying, "Trick or treat." I don't know why we went. If somebody didn't have a party, we'd go out with out jack-o-lanterns around our own neighborhoods, of course, but we didn't expect them to give us anything at all.

I think one of the nicest childhood parties I remember was the one that Carol Rttrie's mother gave her, and she shipped in the ice cream that came on the noon train from Spokane, as I told you, it had all been molded like little animals rabbits or chickens or so on, and we thought that was the most elegant party, because we had never seen ice cream molded like that before.

LS: Was that QAE Club, was that at all formal?

CS: Oh, no, no.

LS: Anyone could come?

CS: Oh, no, we had a membership. Yes, it was a membership club. And I think there were about twenty to twenty-five of us, and we never went home with a boy, or anything, we'd just all go in groups, you know. And, the fellow that lived the farth est, I suppose, he had to tackle the last part of the way by himself.

LS: Did you dance?

CS: Well, we did. We didn't go to dances like children do now, even in high school. But, if we had older brothers and sisters we'd just gradually learn how to dance at home, you know. I have a terrible story to tell, but I don't know whether you would want to tape it or not.

It was— I don't believe we were — well, we must have been in high school— but we had a Leap Year Sunday School party. The girls class in the Presbyterian Sunday School and a boys' class, they were about the same size, so each girl asked a boy to go to this Leap Year party. Well, there was a woman teacher for the boys' class and we had a man teacher, the girls class, and so we went to — this girl was a niece living with her aunt that year, going to school— it was the Day home, we went there to the party. That was the big home of the city. So, we had sort of made a plan that after the party was over and the refreshments were done, we'd all start home, and then we d go back and dance. always bothered me, and I don't believe our nice Sunday School teacher ever knew what we had done, because, this girl, her aunt was away, and she'd asked the next door — a young lady and her fiancee to come in and chaparone— but our dancing was very hoppity, I imagine, (chuckles) But that always bothered me, be cause this Sunday School teacher, he was such a peach, and we'd have Sunday School parties, and he played the piano, and that was such a great thing to do in those days, to stand around the piano and sing. Well, he'd play all these popular songs, sheet music, you know, and we'd sing, and he was so good to play for us to sing, and then we treated him that way. always kind of bothered me. (chuckles) He was always one of my good friends, but I had a guilty feeling.

Were there any circuses?

Oh, yes, that was a big day when the circus came to town. And, of course, they traveled by train. And we'd have our alarm clock waken us, and several friends, we'd get together and go down to watch the train come in, and it usually came in around four o'clock in the morning, and it'd be cold, you know, but it was They would take off the elephants first, becausi big poles and the tents, the canvasses, to wherever the circus was to be. And we had several big open spaces, qijite close downtown in those days where the circus could be. And, so, after we'd watch the circus wagons, all painted, you know, beautifully painted. And, of course, very interesting, e they had to pull the animals inside, we could hear tigers, and so on. They weren't open, because we weren't supposed to see them until- Would hurry and go out to the circus grounds, because if they carried water to the elephants by pails and that's the way they had to do it, from hydrants, you know, nearby hydrants, why, they'd get a ticket to the circus. And, Harry did that, and I know my brother used to do that. And he 'd get a ticket for admission to the circus..

But even, though we didn't have too much money, my father thought we should al ways go to the circus. He thought that was a very important thing for us to do. So there was always money for us to go to the circus. And we'd always go early, because, they had the animals: in one big tent the lions and the with the cages around the sides, and you could walk around and look at them before you went into the main tent to take your seat. And, of course, I don't remember of ever sitting in a reserved seat, which had a little back and was right at the center ring. These were usually three ring circuses. But, you'd try to get as near that as you could find a seat, you know, so you could see better. And then they opened the circus with a grand entry, you know, the parade. The bespangled girls riding on the elephants' heads, and the riders on the horses, and the cages coming around. But, in the morning, a thing which they never do any more, they'd have a parade on Main street, and that was one reason that. came to town so early, and of course, many children, that would be all they'd get to see ithe parade, because, the country people would drive in for the parade. I think it was usually scheduled for ten o'clock and it never came along til about eleven. And that was the one day of the year that didn't my father wouldn't.come home for the noon meal. So, my mother would, oh, I thought this was lovely, she'd buy buns and balogna when we'd go to town and we'd have cookies or something and we'd go to my fath er's place of business and eat. But every other working day of the year, he came home for his noon meal. But circus day, because of the parade, he didn't expect anyone to stay home to get him a meal. And, oh, that was very thrilling to have the parade go down Main Street.

LS: (very noisy) Was there only one circus?

CS: Yes,one. Oh, well,^sometimes we used to have-Ringling Circus first wasn't with Barnum and Bailey, you know. And we didn't get both big ones, every year, but then they— they were talking about it on "What's My Line?" the other night— I've forgotten the name of the smaller circus that used to come, and then we used to have dog and pony shows come. Well, they just had dog and pony performOnS.And they were delightful shows. They'd have a band, but oh, the ponies would perform, you know, and they had white ponies and little dark ponies and Shetland ponies. Horses. And, then, the little dogs, you know, would go through all their a , jumping through hoops. Course, we loved dog and pony shows. I think its too bad children don't get to see them now, because they really are a rather tranquil show for a child to see. They were delightful. One thing that the circuses used to have and it was quite the highlight for me— they would have the statues. Have you ever heard of that? Well, in one end of the tent they'd have this big thing all covered with white canvas or mus lin, or something, and then at this time of the show the big lights would focus on that, and they'd raise this and here would be about five performers in tights all perfectly white, their faces and all, and they'd pose as the Three Graces, or something, you know, and the band would play appropriate music, and then the cover would come down and they'd pose for another, and to me, that was just most exquisite.

LS: if.

CS: Well, I don't think they ever do that any more.

LS: Did they have acrobats?

CS: Oh, yes. And, of course, they always had nets below 'em. But then the crowd'd always go, ohhhhhh! you know, for fear they wouldn't catch the— some through the air, you know. I Never remember of seeing anyone hurt, at all, because they always used nets. r6ourse, I think some of the performers today, especially European circuses, don't use careful care— they're so sure of themselves, or they're so much better trained, perhaps.

LS: Did you ever see medicine shows?

CS: Yes, I remember one, that came to town, and it's right where Short's Chapel is. I don't know what the medicine was. But they had this, sort of like a minstrel show, you know, two or three actors would put it on, and then the salesman would go through the crowd the medicine. I don't remember that the Moddy family ever bought any, I can't remember that we did. And, I think that it was just mostly children ' went to the medicine show.

LS: They just put on a little skit?

CS: Yes, just a tiny little stage built And, then a hypnotist would come to town. And they'd always put somebody to sleep in their store window, I think at one time they got a big block of granite from my father to go on this hyptnotized person's stomach.^ And then, perhaps, at a certain time they'd have a show, the hypnotist would in the Opera House or the GAR Hall, or wherever it was, and wake them from the stage you see. He'd have an accomplise there with him, but he'd awaken them from the stage and then he'd do all of his disappearing tracks, you know— soom. Then, we used to have chautauquas here at one time.

CS: Well, we did in Moscow, too. And, I I was of high school age then, and it lasted a week, and it was morning and afternoon. And, oh, people would just flock to the chautauqua , you know. They'd put uf in our city park a tent, "There the chautauqua would be, and you bought your ticket for the whole week. I don't think they sold tickets for each event,

LS: Did you go?

CS: Oh, yes, oh, yes, we went. We thought we were very well educated. They'd have lectures, you know, and then maybe a musical group. It was all brought in talent.

LS: What would the lectures be on?

CS: Oh, I don?t even remember that.

LS: Were they religious?

CS: Well, no, I don't believe they were religious. Margaret J^iaoke gave a program the other night on revival here, and I'd forgotten all about it, but it seems all the Protestant churches had gone in on this. And right back of the old post office, where the old Christian Church used to be, it's a parking lot now, they built a wooden taber nacle, they called it, just of boards, you know. And, she said in her story the other night that she went every night after school, they had a childrens'— well, I think I was enough older that— I'm enough older than Margaret, because I never went there to any children^ meet ing. I don't even remember of going at all. But Margaret said she and Marguerite jlin went every night after school, and Lillian Ottness to this childrens' meeting. But I think that I was probably enough older that I would look down on that sort of thing, you know, I was too big.

LS: Do you remember the revival?

CS: Uh-huh. Well, I don4t think Presbyterians ever went in so much for that sort of thing, as some denominations. I don't believe we did. So, that's kind of a blank, but, I thought, maybe, when she gave this paper, she was talking about where she'd lived before she came to Moscow. But she said, "No, that was right here in Mos cow."

LS: Do you remember when Armistice Day was?

CS: Oh, yes, I was a young woman then. And the fa LS: e Armistice came first, And, we all went down town, and then learned that it wasn't true.

LS: How did you hear about it?

CS: Well, I don't know. We didn't have radios. I don't know how we knew.

LS: Just word of mouth.

CS: Probably, uh-huh, because everybody went down town. But it wasn t many days before- probably there were rumors^hat it was to be signed. And then, on the real Armistice Day, we all went down town, and I think my sister—my mother died in 1918, and my sister, my older sis ter and I were at home with my dad— and she'd been sick and I think probably she had what we call 'flu now— well they did have 'flu on the campus up here. And it was very cold on November 11th, and she was ill most of the winter from going to that. She had a relapse from But that's another interesting thing. The University was a barracks, you see, for training soldiers for several years here. And when that flu epidemic came, thgy just they asked me to do the calling for the Red Cross in our neighborhood, and I went from door to door and got blankets and pillows, and the people were all asked to mark them so they could get them back. Because they had boys in the gymnasium, even in one of the livery stables here and the Elks Temple— sick boys. And Harry was in David's store then and they had to buy their own uniforms I guess just the officers had to buy their own uniforms. He would go up to take the measurements, he was man, and he was supposed to wear a mask. Well, it was so much trouble that he'd take the mask off, and he never got it, but several he took measurements for.died before their uniforms even came. It was a ter- rible thing. And one of the big homes here in Moscow, the M. E. Lewis home, they used as a kitchen, and women went in to prepare the soup and so on. They transported it— 'course, we had cars by then— around to these places where the sick boys were. But many died. It was a terrible thing.

LS: Was it mainly just the army?

CS: Uh-huh, army R.O.T.C., the infantry was what was here.

LS: And they were the main ones that got the flu?

CS: Uh-huh, isn't that terrible? 'Course, we had R.O.T.C. here in World War II, but then we had all brances of the services and accommodations were much better and those things didn't happen then. But in that First World War, the women knitted, you know, and because I was young, and foot free, I would carry yarn around to the women who knitted. They knitted socks and gloves and mufflers.

CS: No,the Red Cross brought the yarn in and it was given out. And, I know I'd take it to— so many of the Scandivanian women knitted, you know, and I lived in that part of town, so I would carry them the directions. But those women were such good knitters. Conversation concerning cookies was left out, and when the tape resumed the sub ject matter had changed.

CS: I went to an outside water hydrant to carry water into the house to be heated in a coal range with a water front in it, to heat the water, and then put in the reservoir to keep it hot, to indoor— the water brought inside, and then a hotwater tank heated by the kitchen range, and with sewer, and from an outside toilet to an inside toilet, and a bathroom with a bathtub, before that it was— we never bathed in tubs, as I remember, we had a big bathpan that was brought in. And that bathpan always hung out in the buttry. Now, you don't know what a buttry is. Well, my mother's father was brought up in New England, and they all had buttries, and it was just a place to keep the supplies, that were kept like flour and sugar and that sort of supplies. The big sup ply, and then you'd carry it into the smaller containers in the kit chen. And then, I went from kerosene lamps to electricity. And our first lights were just a drop cord, you know, with a bulb on the end of it, before we had any fixtures. But, the lamps, the coal oil lamps that was a hard time. My father was great on having every room lighted, in the house. And, so, that meant maybe several lights, like in our, we called it the frontroom then, it was the livingroom, several lamps there and then in the room, the diningroom probably where the studying was done at night around the diningroom table, you know. And she had at least ten or twelve lamps every morning to fill and wash the chimneys, and trim the wicks. And it took one hour of her morning, every morning, to prepare the lamps for the evening's light ing session. The chimneys had to be cleaned, too, you know, no lint or anything on 'em, they had to be sparkling. And then we burned— in the frontroom, the livingroom, we had a great huge heater, and the wood had to be brought in every night after school. And under one kitchen table, it wasn't the work table, but another kitchen table, was filled with wood every night for the heater. But, then, finally we started burning coal so it just meant just getting in scuttles of coal. But, that job fell to me after my brother was— had gone from home. I was the youngest so I fell heir to the job of bringing in the wood and mowing the lawn in the summer.

LS: Was the wood split already?

CS: Well, regular cord wood, that's the way my father bought it, he bought nine or ten cords every fall, was stacked in our alley. I think it was about four foot lengths, and then the wood sawyer came in with a mechanical saw and sawed it, and then it was carried into the woodshed. We had a great big woodshed and it was stacked clear to the ceiling. That supplied us until wood had to be purchased the next summer. But, of course, kindling would have to be split for the kitchen stove to ignite the but, before we burned coal though, the wood had to be split for the kitchen stove'cause there was a woodbox we had to fill behind the stove.

LS: When you were talking about going around for the—

CS: Red Cross?

LS: Yes. Did most people here really support the war?

CS: Oh, yes. And as I say, those Scandivanian people, they didn't— I couldn't converse with 'em, but they knew what we needed, and, boy, did they turn out the socks and things.And a lot of women couldn't— they had in their toe and hee LS: , it was a special toe and a heel they — the heel was kind of like this— indicates with hands— shaped, not just— and a lot of people couldn't do those, and so, I know my mother used to — I'd bring them to my mother after the long leg was— and I think they made 'em pretty long— and she'd put in the in the toe and heel..

LS: Would she take out what had been done?

CS: No, no, she'd just go right on and finish the foot, you see, the heel and the foot. The knitting was just the same, but she did that for many.

LS: Were there other things ?

CS: About the Red Cross?

LS: Yeah.

CS: Well, Mrs. Laney was head of the Red Cross here, then, and she just turned her home over. They made hospital gowns out of muslin. I never got in on that part 'cause I was just a young woman and I didn't know about that, but I was a good errand girl. Bu then ftjr different churches they'd roll bandages. Instead of a Ladies Aid meeting tip something, the time was spent rolling bandages. Moscow responded very well. In later years I was secretary of the Red Cross here, and Moscow always responded well to the Red Cross.

Well, I believe maybe one reason— well, I don't know either— Dean Eldridge was in the YMCA— and that First World War, that was such a big thing, you know, the Young Mens Christian Association, and he was sent to France. But there were so many local people in it here that Moscow felt a great interest. I think the things that were accomplished, Moscow wasn't near as big then, were really quite remarkable for a town of this size. And this being the County Seat it went out to all the county from here. In every town there'd be a wo man wo'd set it up and tend to it. The response was splendid.

LS: Was there- the Ladies Aid? What was the Ladies Aid then?

CS: What was the Ladies Aid? Well, in our church there was— the Ladies Aid that really was just the organization in the church that kinda tended to the local wants of the church, you know. Gave icecream socials and so on, to raise money to augment the minister's salary or if they needed something in the Sunday School,why the money was used for that. And then, we had a minister's wife who felt that that wasn't sufficient, Mrs. Gormley, and so, she started a Women's Missionary Society. Well, the women began to think — a lot liked to go to the Ladies's Aid, that was more or less social, you see, and when they put on these special events, they all liked to work at them. But nobody wanted to belong to the Missionary Society, and so she got the bright idea of combining them, so it's been that way in our church to this day. It's all one organization. 'Course, it's that way nationally now, in my church, the Presbyterian Church. But, Mrs. Gormley had a very far vision by putting those into one organization, 'cause she made the Missionary Society as strong as the Ladie$ Aid, then, you see, because they all belonged to both.

LS: Well, did most of the women in the church belong?

CS: Uh-huh, because that was a big part of the social life of the town. Later on clubs started, various women's clubs, but in the early days that was the social light of the town.

LS: Would each church have something like that?

CS: Yes.

LS: It wasn't just the Presbyterian Church?

CS: No, no. They all had their women's organizations. And I think a good many ministers might have been hungry if those women hadn't of helpeed raise money on the side to help out the church budget.

LS: Were there other things about the church that you remember?

CS: Yes. 'Course, my mother was a great church woman and my father always went to church, too. He made a Presbyterian of her, she'd been brought up something else. But, we all— my mother had six children, I was the baby, and I know she used to say she started taking me to church when I was six months old to Sunday School. She believed in the parents going to Sunday School. I don't remember my father ever going, but she managed to get six children ready and to get to Sunday School herself. So, we were brought up to think that was the thing to do. And then, my father would come on to church service at eleven, you see. The Sunday School was and then he would come on and join my mother for church.

LS: She went— did she always do that?

CS: Always. Always.

LS: Would many of the other parents go?

CS: Quite a few. I think, like the Davids, they.all went to Sunday School, any many of the families in the church. Most of them. That was just a part of church life, too. And they're coming back to that now, which is very nice.

LS: Were there other activities for the young people?

CS: In the church? Well, yes, my oldest brother and my oldest sisters, they had a Christian Endeavor, which is a young people's organization that met in the evening. And then they had— that was their social life, to a great extent. 'Course, on Sunday night it was a religious service of sorts, you know. And, then, they'd have parties during the week. That was the social life of the town. You belonged to the Christian Endeavor— it was called other things in other churches, but in my church—

LS: Did you belong to that, too?

CS: I never did, uh-huh. That had stopped by the time I on. Well, you see, by that time we were having other interests. Being the tailend of the family, you know, it was developing into, like you know— I always went to Sunday School, but we didn't have any of this sort of thing or young people's meetings in my time. But later on, my sister, not the one who's living in Lewiston, but the next one who always made her home with us, Myra, went into religious education and she was the director in our church here. And, she started that again; the minister saw the need i the campus for that, and so it was started again. And she started a Westminster Guild for young college girls. But, really this is outside the scope of this— what you want. But that was con sidered an extra curricular activity on the campus, and it was accepted as that. And girls who participated in that got credit for their ex tra curricular activities, like in sororities and things.

LS: Did people from the University always come down to the churches?

CS: Yes, uh-huh, uh-huh.^ I think now— there isn't— although they're com ing real well at our church, but they do have— like the Catholics have their center on the campus, and they have the Christian Center on the campus, and I think the young people pretty much go to those. And then they have, during the week, these bullfests, or whatever they call 'em. That's out of the realm of what you want.

CS: quite small, because, we had gone on a camping trip up near Bovill and I remember, I was this small that in the morning I rode in the horse and buggy with my mother and father, and they carried me out in my nightgown, because it was early when we started, you see, so I must have been not too big. But we had our camping trip out there, and as we came home in two weeks, it was a Sunday, and there was a place half way out there, and a negro family lived there, it was kind of a half way house and the people used to stop on the way— the White Pines, we called it, around Bovill you know. People had timber claims up there. In fact, Carol writes about that in her book. And, so they told us, or I think somebody drove up while we were there with a team of horses, and told us what had happened in Moscow. So, of course, we were all very much excited about it. Well, by the time we got in there, the house where it happened was right down here where this service station catty-cornered— 'course, that was the only road into town and the highway wasn't here, so we had to go right by it, of course, all traces of the tragedy were gone by then. But, 'course, there were bullett holes in the house. I don't know that I actually saw 'em, but that was what they said. But, that happened very much as it was in the book. And this man who went berserk, had been told by Dr. Wat kins that he thought he should be committed to Orofino to the asylum, because he beat up and was so cruel to his mother. And this man's father, I think, had been a Mason along with Dr. Watkins.

And, so, Dr. Watkins was sort of taking him— I don't know how old he was— under his — you know, trying to do what was the right thing. So, he just went berserk that particular day, and Dr. Watkins went to his of fice every Sunday morning, and he shot him. Came ulfan his horse and shot him— Dr. Watkins. But the horse just kept going, and went down and stopped in front of the— his office as it was used to doing, you see. That was so matter of fact, the horse could — as it was it's habit to do. And, pretty soon somebody saw Dr. Watkins slumped, and then this fellow went on down the street on his horse, and Mr. Creigh ton, who owned the store where Creighton's is now, he always carried a cane, not for need, but for looks, and a hat, and so on. And he shot at Mr. Creighton, I don't know what his grudge was against Mr. Creigh ton, but he just hit him in the arm, and then he went on down and came up Eighth Street to where a deputy sheriff lived and he stopped there and asked for a drink of water. And he had intended to shoot the deputy sheriff, but he had his baby in his arms and I know those girls real well, they don't live here any more— and so he didn't shoot him. And then, he had, oh, there were several men on his list— as he came in towards the Presbyterian Church he came in Eighth Street, what Eighth street is now, and stopped at the Harold home, which I know, 'cause I was born in that neighborhood, and Mrs. Harold said that Mr. Harold was not at home, so he went on then, and got Dr. Watkins. And, so, by the time this had all happened, the posse had gotten together and they'd opened the hardware stores and got guns for all the men, and they came up by foot, If course, 'cause he'd come out to his home and barricaded himself in the upstairs. And so, they just poured the shot into that house and finally his old mother came out and said, "Don't shoot any more, he's dead." And one man in Moscow claimed that he'd fired the bullet that had killed him, you know, but nobody ever knew. And that's in, which one of Carol's books? Have you read any?

LS: Yeah.

CS: Yeah, that's what I thought.

LS: Is that mainly what you remember it from?

CS: No, I remembered it. Well, 'course, it's mainly from Carol's book and then our talk in the home when I was a child, you see. But, I remember of going on that camping trip, although I don't remember any of the

But I remember of coming back and going by that house.

Were there actually any other things like that that happened in town?

Well, of course, — was it in Buffalo Coal- where the minister's daugh ter went to Orofino— that was in the same story. That actually hap pened, too, you know. The minister's daughter went down to Orofino, with this doctor, and a murder-suicide, you know. No, I don't rememb er of anything real tragic like that ever happening.

Oh, there were farm accidents and things that were bad, sometimes you know, but nothing that was just actual planned out like this was. Were there many trials that were ?

Oh, yes, yes. Of course, in the old courthouse— what was that trial? But that was after this time you're wanting. But there were trials here. Then the Federal Court was here, you see, and the Indians were always brought here for their misdemeanors, because they had to appear in Federal Court, you see. And that was one of the talking points against has always been, our old post office, The Indians didn't like to climb those stairs up to the court. That always tickled me. (chuckles)

Did you go to a dentist?

Oh, yes. I think Harry had dentist on his list. But dentistry— the dentists we went to— I think he must have been a pretty crude dentist— but he was a big man and he had such huge hands. It was old-style den tistry, of course, but I remember once— I had to have one of my molars pulled, and I just fought that man terribly. And ffitnally, I just wig gled out of his chair and he pulled the tooth— I was on the floor when he pulled . But he gave me the tooth and I know I had it in alittle box for years. Well, we didnt know anything about the Tooth Fairy then either. (chuckles) But dentistry was so crude and it hurt so.

How would they do?

Well, I don't think they ever— 'course, I was so young then, I was just— I think they just pulled the teeth, but, later on, this would still be in the time you want, I guess, the dentist we came to, he was— by then they were putting cocaine- I don't think it was novacaine— but something in, you know, if they did work. But his procedure on dent istry was, if you got a cavity in a tooth, was to extract the nerve of the tooth and then fill it. And, I know he used that, he'd run this little wire in and twist it around the nerve some way and jerk it out. You felt one terrible excruciating pain, you know, and, of course, the tooth was dead then, because I know I had a dead the front be fore I got dentures that finally gave me trouble. But that was his method to extract the nerve from the tooth and then fill it. He ran a little wire, he'd drill and then put this in and pull the nerve out. doesn't that sound crude? Well, it was crude. But he was considered a very good dentist. I remember him so well because he hummed all the time he worked on you. His daughter was one of my best friends. He extracted my mother's teeth, and my father was going to be up there to be with her during the ordeal, and he was late, something happened, and he didn't get there in time. Just as he came in the waiting room doorthe dentist's waiting room door— he heard Dr. Watkins, his name was Watkins, too, but it was no relation— he said, "I'll never pull another tooth for Mrs. Moody." And it scared my father to death, he thought she'd died or something, and he just meant he'd finished the job. But she was very uncomfortable I remember after that. And.they waited sev eral months before they put the new teeth in, you know, 'cause I know when I had to have my upper teeth extracted, they put the teeth in im mediately because they'd taken a mold already and made them.

LS: Can you tell me about your grandmother who lived out on—

CS: Well, yes, that was the grandmother, that was my mother's mother who lived in Salubria, where I said my mother came to. And she married Mr. Smith, we always called him, we never called him grandpa or any thing but Mr. Smith. And they bought a place down on Fix Ridge, and Grandma was just sort of the do-gooder on that ridge. Anybody was sick they'd call Grandma, 'cause she had all these old time remedies, you know. And anybody died}Grandma had to go and help lay them out, as she called it. But, they did have phones, but they had a signal that if anything happened central rang this one ring and everybody took their phones down, so they would know whatever had happened, you know. And that always seemed like that was quite neat to me, when I was a child. Mama went down several times during the good part of the year, the weather, and Iwas alittle girl and Iwent with her. But, we had to ford a little stream out here someplace beyond Lgnnville, and we'd start out early in the morning 'cause it took us pretty near all day to get there, because the horse never went at avery good gait for my mother, kinda walked all the way. An my mother always hoped that I'd be having anap when we came to the stream, because, as Iremember you could- it was just like that- but it scared me, anyway, that bumping across the rocks. And, I've never found the place where that was, but of course, it's so different now. Then I'd get out at the top of the hill above Grandma's house, they lived kind of down in alittle valley and go down through the orchard and beat Mama there, of course, 'cause she'd have to go around and go through the lane to get to the house. But, Grandma had feather beds and we didn't have feather beds, we just had mattresses, and Ohhh, Ithought that was just heaven to sleep in a feather bed.

LS: You'd stay over night?

CS: Oh, yes, we'd stay several days when we'd go like that, 'cause it was an all-day trip almost for my mother to get there, and we stayed several days. Iknow we often went when the peaches were ripe down there. And, Grandma— they had quite a prune orchard. They had quite a business of drying prunes, that was quite the thing here in the early days. Peo ple would grow prunes and dry 'em. And, I think they must have sold them to the stores. But they had a house dryer, where they had some kind of fire, I don't know what it was, and the prunes would be put in on chicken wire racks and they'd dry them. I don't know why they didn't taste smokey, but they didn't, they were delicious. 'Cause we always had a sack hanging in the buttry, when I was a child, and we'd play sort of 'cops and robbers', you know, and the buttry was always the jail, but there was kind of an advantage to being in jail, because you could eat dried prunes and dried apples, (chuckles)

LS: Did your mother dry the apples, too?

CS: Yes. I remember she did. They'd put sheets up on the wood house roof and we'd spread just think of peeling all those apples— and then my brother, probably, was sent up to spread them out and then they put a net- what is this window netting, what did they call that?

LS: Mosquito?

CS: Mosquito net over them, to keep the bugs off. But they never thought about the dust, because our street wasn't paved and the dust would get about that in the summer. And a vehicle happened to go by the dust would roll in. But we always sprinkled down our road— the street in front of our house; ^several of the neighbors did, but on beyond us they never sprinkled, so we always managed to get quite a bit of dust. That was one job I had to do, was sweeping off the veranda every day, and it was quite a job, all that dust. But people then used to sit out on their porch in the evenings, you know, it was hot, but you sat out there and the neighbors would come over and visit. My father always sat out and read his paper in the evening until it got too dark to read. But, you used your porches a great deal in those days. And, so, that was one of my jobs, was to sweep off the veranda every morning.

LS: Did you have other jobs?

CS: Well, filling the woodbox, and then sprinkling the lawn.

LS: How would you do that?

CS: Well, we had a sprinkler, but, to get the edges I would hold the hose and sprinkle. And I know if I was anxious to go someplace, if I'd make it look awfully wet on the sidewalks and everything, my father'd think I'd done a pretty good job of sprinkling, so I could get going, but, actually it was just all surface. But, I was really supposed to start the hose late in the afternoon and give the lawn a good watering.

LS: Did you have much of a garden?

Oh, yes. We had these two lots, you see, south of our house, and there were trees, and then in the center was all open with a garden spot. We always had our own potatoes and peas and beans and things, and corn, and my father used to hire the next door neighbor to come over and spade it up for him and then he'd plant it. Every evening he'd go out and hoe and work In the garden. And it was always a delight to go down in fruit cellar in the fall after everything was harvested. There were sacks and sacks of potatoes and all the shelves full of can ned fruit, because the stores— you just could only buy oranges and ban anas in the winter, you know, that was all you could ever buy. We didn't even have head lettuce or anything like that in the winter, then. But we had our own beets and carrots and they were stored and parsnips and all the things that you could grow that would keep, you know. But, I don't remember, we never grew our own tomatoes in those days. We always had to buy them. But several gardeners around town would— out in the country grew tomatoes. But, I don't know why we never thought we could have tomatoes in our garden. We thought they wouldn't ripen, you know the frost came. But, I think the varieties are better now and are earlier and so on, and so we can ripen tomatoes easily in Moscow.

LS: Did you can any meat or anything like that?

CS: No. We never did. We never did that, I know lots of people did. What we did do: in the spring of the year, my grandmother would always give us two little pigs. Our lot was big so we had a pigpen, you know, and we had our own chickens. But then, in the early winter, later than this when it started to get real cold, my father'd have a man come and butcher, but they never smoked the meat. It was packed down in barrels with salt, and so that made it- always had to be parboiled, you know, it'd be salty. But it was good. But I don't know what about the hams and things, they made sausage, but I don't remember whether they to be used fresh, or how they used them, cause they weren't smoked. Unless this man took them and smoked them. He must have because we'd have bacon. So this man who did the butchering must haYe smoked the meat at his home.

LS: Was it unusual for a family in the city to have a big garden? You know, chickens—

CS: Well, not in our part of town, it wasn't unusual. But down near Main Street people didn't usually have that sort of thing. My friends, I don't think that lived near in— one's father was a doctor and the other^was a blacksmith, and they never did have at their homes, because the blacksmith because the girl who had the blacksmith as a father lived where Safeway is now, their home was there, and his shop was right where the theatre is, the movie theatre. And then Dr. had a later he had a hospital over where the apartments are on First Street, across from the United Church down there. But, their home was up on First Street and they had no garden. They had a barn, they had a horse, but they had no garden. So, I don't believe as a rule, people who lived closer in— we lived then what was considered quite far out, and then having that big a lot, why, we always had a garden. And it was probably a necessity with having six children. And, then, Mr. Ramstad, who lived near us, it's Allen Ramstfad, who's in Creightons, his grand father, they lived right across the alley back of us, and he had a great big orchard, and we bought cherries, I know. He'd bring over great milk pails of cherries and my mother would can those, 'cause we had cherry pie, and apple pie, and so on. Lots of cherry pie and mincemeat pie and so on, in the winter. But, I know, Mrs. wn0 was Aunt Elsie in Carol's book, Aunt Elsie who brought Carol up, used to say my oldest sister never could go anyplace on Saturday, because she had to make cherry pies. And she said she made seven. Well, I can't even imagine one family making seven cherry pies at a time, but Miss Elsie said that was the way it was at the Moody house, so I don't know. I don't remember that.

LS: Did you ever eat out?

CS: Well, no, no, we didn't. Actually the hotels were the only places who had diningrooms. I don't remember of being taken to the hotel to eat, ever, when I was a child. If you went to another town and stayed in the hotel, then you did. If you went to Spokane, or anything, you know. But, being in Moscow, I don't remember of ever eating out at the hotel, as a little child. 'Course, you went to church suppers, and as I told you before, the friends always took me to the bean bake and the GAR supper, and so on. So, those were the way you ate out.

LS: bean bake?

CS: Well, the GAR is the Grand Army of the Republic, the Civil War veterans used to have that, and these friends, the father belonged, so they al ways took me along with them.

LS: You said, when you were talking about that, that those were the old timers?

CS: Uh-huh, they were. We thought that they were, because the men all had great white beards, and so on, and we thought that they were— well, they were really the people who settled around here first, those people.

LS: Do you remember any of the older people that impressed you?

CS: Oh, -

LS: You know, the early settlers?

CS: Well, Mr. Neil^was one, and, of course, his daughter was my friend, but I thought he was pretty fine. And then, they had a friend, and I think he was an old bachelor, Mr. Mc Bane, who had this great, white beard, and I always was a little in awe of him, you know, with this great, white beard. 'Course now, Harvey Smith's father, Mr. H. R. Smith, was always superintendent of our Sunday School, and I think he had a smaller beard, and I think we all stood in a little awe of him. But, much after I was a little child, he was superintendent so many years— some little child went home and told their mother that they'd seen God that day at Sunday School. And they called Mr. H. R. Smith God, that's Harvey's father, whom you're going to talk to tomorrow. He was a law yer.

But in those days, the University wasn't so big and the town wasn't so big, and there was much sociability and good feeling between— we always went to things on the campus, even when I was a small child. 'Course, the things were recitals and declamatory contests and that sort of thing, debates, you know. But, the townspeople always went to those things. That was the thing that we all did. And, I think that was a good feeling. And the women of the town; the women who lived on that side, on University side, would have their afternoon at home one day a week and the women who lived on this side would stay at home for callers, you see, and they'd have their little teatables and serve tea.

LS: Who would come by?

CS: Well, the women from— who had friends on this side would come and call. They did a great deal of calling in those days. And the first time you went to call on anyone, you always left your card, you see. They always had a little tray or plate near the door you'd always leave your card. 'Course, even after I was married people called on me and left their cards.

LS: Women would have cards?

CS: Uh-huh, with their names on. Mrs. So-and-so. But that was rather a nice custom. We don't take time to call like that much anymore. And it was a nice custom. Of course, our groups of friends are so much larger that you just don't do that sort of thing. But it's too bad. Especially for newcomers who come to town. They have to sort of make their own means of getting acquainted, you know, it seems, by going to church or perhaps.asked to join some club or something. But, I think that was a very good idea. 'Course, when I was a little girl, we thought it was pretty nice when we were asked to serve punch at the University dances. They'd fix up a real— like the Junior Prom, or something beautiful table and ask several little town girls to come up to serve the punch. And we thought that was something, to be asked to come to the University to serve punch at a dance.

LS: What would the dance be like? Would they get real dressed up?

CS: Oh, yes!! They really dressed up, the girLls, had evening gowns. And I don't think they wore— the men wore Tuxedos or full dress or anything, but they had suits— the men wore suits. But they— we had cabs- horse cabs in those days, and so the young man, if he could afford it, he'd take his girl, especially if she lived across town, to the dance in a cab. But they always picked the little girls up, that was part of the expense of the class that was giving the dance. to get the little girls there that served, and we thought that. Only I was always the last one home, 'cause we lived the fartherest away, and my mother didn't approve or appreciate that very much. But it- I think those of us who had older brothers and sisters in college, we really had two educations, because we knew everything that was going on when we were children, you know, they'd come home and talk about, and then when we got older ourselves and did the same sort of thing, why, we sort of lived it before, don't you know.

One time, maybe I told you this before— We were over to a party, it was about this time of the year, to a little friend's house and it got dark early, and it was just pouring rain, and my two little friends and I were coming home,'cause we lived on this side, and this big, tall man came along and asked us to walk under his umbrella, he always carried a great, big umbrella, he was from Canada, rather Eng lish, and we didn't know who the man was, but, oh, he asked us so many questions, what our names were, and if we had brothers and sisters in college, and so on. Afterwards, we found out it was the new president of the University, Doctor Mc and there we d told the whole life history of our brothers and sisters who were in college, and they were pretty put out with us. Because the school wasn't so big then, and, of course, he knew who they were when he heard their names. I expect he wondered why three little girls were out around five o'clock on such a day. He ate his dinners down at the hotel, and he was going for his dinner.

1:00 - Father leaving home at 13; Father moving to Ogden, Utah; and then finally relocating to Moscow in 1892

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Segment Synopsis: Father left home at age 13. Learned monument business from a brother. Met her mother in St. Louis. Later Father moved to Ogden, Utah and he set up a small hardware store and sent for his wife and five children. Relocated in 1892 in Moscow, attracted by university, and set up a monument business.

8:00 - Father traveling to sell monuments; father lettered the Spanish American warm monument for the University of Idaho

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Segment Synopsis: In 1893 Father travelled all over trying to sell monuments and worked on them in the kitchen. With their last money he bought flour and a two-bit cigar. Lettered the Spanish American War monument for the U of I.

11:00 - Watching the Administration building burn; old steps being hauled away and then later placed near the garden

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Segment Synopsis: Went to see the Administration Building burn and Mother cried. U. hired small boys to clean the bricks after the fire. Huge old steps were hauled away and buried in city lots. Later a class found enough of the old steps and put them near the garden.

15:00 - What father preferred to work in and where he got his rock; making different size monuments

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Segment Synopsis: Father preferred to work in marble, but also sold granite. Got his rock from Vermont. Eventually had agents that sold for him from kits of designs. Made things out of marble for the home. Monuments were big if the family finances allowed. Father often asked to initial his stones.

22:00 - Recalling smallpox epidemic; brother had diphtheria

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Segment Synopsis: Recalls smallpox epidemic and being vaccinated by Dr. Watkins. Brother had diphtheria. Quarantined homes then.

24:00 - Recalling early stores in Moscow and the things they sold; being able to eat in the kitchen

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Segment Synopsis: Recalls early stores. Moody's shopped at Creighton's for dry goods. Bought groceries from David’s—a man picked up and delivered orders. Recalls buying her first ready-made coat. Ate on white tablecloths three times a day and a treat to eat in the kitchen.

31:00 - Different businesses that were in Moscow; women lifting their skirts in passing saloons; ten inch high crosswalks

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Segment Synopsis: Grocery stores, meat markets. Thirteen churches and 13 saloons. Women lifted their skirts when they passed because the sidewalk was dirty from tobacco spit. Ten inch high crosswalks.

36:00 - Mother working for the WCTU; sister pledging to not drink; kids learning fundamentals in school

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Segment Synopsis: Mother worked for WCTU and took petitions around. Sister pledged she wouldn't drink and still feels funny about drinking liquor. Kids used to learn the fundamentals better in school.

42:00 - Confectionery stores in Moscow; driving to Genesee and having to walk in the mud

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Segment Synopsis: Confectionery stores. One had a small table for children. Got oyster cocktails in winter as a treat. Sleigh rides. They drove over to Genesee for a basketball game in a sleigh and walked the last four miles home in the mud.

48:00 - Girls' basketball; parties at school; often having study hall in superintendent's office

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Segment Synopsis: Girls basketball. Parties in the halls at school. As a senior there was no room for study hall and they often went to superintendent's office.

52:00 - Discussion of variety social activities for children and tricks they played as children

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Segment Synopsis: Fourth of July—stores had floats, several dances. A children's social club, QAE (quit at eleven) Club. Halloween party masquerade. Common tricks were tipping over privy or stealing gates. Would go out with tic-tacs to scare people or ring doorbells. Carol Ryrie Brink's mother shipped in molded ice cream from Spokane for a birthday party. For a leap year Sunday School party they faked going home and then went back and danced.

61:00 - Discussion of the circus; would wake up early to watch circus train come in about 4 a.m.

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Segment Synopsis: Circus. Would wake up early to watch circus train come in about 4 a.m.

63:00 - Description of the circus and parade; Recalling medicine show; the Protestant churches building a tabernacle for revival

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Segment Synopsis: Boys got free ticket to circus if they carried water for the elephants. Description of circus and parade on Main Street. Dog and pony shows also came. Statues of acrobats a highlight of the circus. Recalls one medicine show. Hypnotist would come to town. Chautauqua shows lasted a week. Had lectures and musical shows. Protestant Churches built a wooden tabernacle for a revival.

73:00 - Recalling Armistice Day; helping get blankets and pillows of flu epidemic

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Segment Synopsis: Recalls false Armistice and then the real Day. University was barracks for infantry and many died from the flu. She went door-to-door for blankets and pillows. Many women knitted for the war effort and she carried wool to them; cookie recipe from Mrs. McConnell

78:00 - Recalling getting water in hydrant and indoor plumbing; mother caring for coal oil lamps; getting wood

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Segment Synopsis: Recalls progress from getting water in a hydrant to inside plumbing. Mother spent 1 hour every morning caring for coal oil lamps. Got 9 or 10 cords of wood a year.

83:00 - There was good support for the war; different groups did different tasks to help war effort

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Segment Synopsis: Good support for the war. Scandinavian women really turned out the socks. Red Cross made hospital gowns. Ladies Aids rolled bandages.

88:00 - Discussion of the Ladies Aid society; going to Sunday school with parents

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Segment Synopsis: The Ladies Aid was a social affair and tended to the local wants of the church. They were a large part of the social life of the town. Mother and other parents used to go to Sunday school with the children. Christian Endeavor for the children in the earlier years.

95:00 - Recalls Dr. Watkins being shot

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Segment Synopsis: Recalls coming back into town the day Dr. Watkins was shot. It happened much as it was in Carol Ryrie Brinks' book. Stephens had planned to shoot deputy sheriff but didn't because he held his baby.

101:00 - Having a molar pulled out; mother having her teeth pulled

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Segment Synopsis: Recalls having a molar pulled out by the dentist. A later dentist, Dr. Watkins, extracted the nerve from the tooth and then filled it. Mother had her teeth pulled, then then they put in dentures after a few months.

108:00 - Visiting Grandmother on Fix Ridge; drying apples; sprinkling the road to keep down the dust

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Segment Synopsis: Visiting Grandmother Smith on Fix Ridge. She knew many old-time remedies. Feather beds, prunes. They dried apples on wood house roof. Sprinkled the road to keep down dust. People sat on verandahs then.

109:00 - Having a large gardens; raising piglets and packing the meat in salt

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Segment Synopsis: Large garden. Father worked there in evening. Raised piglets in summer and packed the meat down in salt. Didn't eat out in Moscow. Church suppers, GAR bean bake.

120:00 - Social life of women in Moscow; meeting Dr. McLane

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Segment Synopsis: Women on University side of town stayed home one after noon a week to receive callers and the other side stayed home another day. Enjoyed serving punch at University dances. Were picked up in cabs, which was special. A tall man escorts her and two other little girls under his umbrella in the rain. He was Dr. McLane, the President of U of I.


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